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FOR 1859. 


"men consume too much pood and too little pure air; 
they take too much medicine and too litlle exercise." — ed. 

"I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except con- 
genital, or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or animalism, 
and will degrade the individual in the estimation of the good, as much as drunken- 
ness now does." — Ibid. 


W. W. HALL, M. D., 











Adulteration of Food 191 

A Little Kills 44 

Air Cure 198, 194 

Autumna* Diseases ... 212 

Amusements 232 

Agriculture 254 

Abuse of Medicine 274 

Amenities of the Dining-Roooi.. . . 258 

Analltchings.. . . . 289 

Animosities, Nursing. 289 

Buckwheat Cakes 7 

Brain. Softening of 126 

Broken Bones , 45 

Bread without Yeast 149, 25, 7 3 

Bull-Dogs 77 

Beautiful Old Age 83 

Business Reverses 101 

Baths and Bathing 11! 

Bottled Wrath 128 

Black Bean Story • 146 

Build, where to 175 

Bad Plans 219 

Birds of the Wood 266 

Bites and Stings 

Bad Breath 275 

Burying Alive 228 

Bostonian Complacency 290 

Corn Bread 25 

Consumption, 288, 290, 276, 158, 182, 29 

Cellars 31 

Careworn , 33 

Chair, Physiological 75 

Children 74, 81, 140, 288, 107 

Coolings 130 

Constitutions Created 146 

Clergymen, Death of. 215 

Corn Cobs Moral 223 

Cramps 225 

Cause of Disease 237 

Car, R. R., Observations 241 

Colds Cured., 283, 253 

Custom 261 

Chimney Smoking 277 


Contrast in Family Education 288 

Corns Cured 219 

Constipation 284 

Dieting for Health 27 

Disease and Crime 83 

Declining, Premature 46 

Depraviny, Human 61 

Daughters, about our 74 

Drinking and Death 117 

Difference, The 147 

Death and Crime 154 

Drowning 176 

Doctors' Habits 190 

Death Rate 191 

Deadly Emanations 195 

Disease and Suicide . 197 

Drinking Ice- Water 216 

Dysentery 217 

Dyspepsia, and Drunkenness 229 

Dining- Room Amenities , 258 

Encouragement 44 

Eating, Object of 85 

Emanations, Deadly 195 

Eyes, Care of. 228 

Eating and Drinking 280 

Experience, My own 279 

Flannel Wearing .• 10 

Fraternization Editorial 104, 48 

Fever and Ague Prevented ; . 72 

Frost- Work 90 

Fanaticism 132 

Filth and Health 181 

Food Adulteration 191 

Food, Preservation of 211 

Fuel 221 

" Friends," Society of 231 

Fun 238 

Feet 265 

Fire on the Hearth 287 

Finger Nails 291 

G-rowlers 17 

G-rave of Hope 101 

Hair, the Human 271, 11 


Index to Volume VI 


Health and Duty 64 

Hotels H 

Heart Disease 81 

Hope, the Grave of — 101 

Human Manufactory 170 

Habitations Unhealthful 173 

House Warming 19 

Human Mortality 183 

Howard the Philanthropist 216 

Instinct 49 

Insurance, Life 53 

Inconsiderations 134 

Impure Air i93 

Inadvertences 196 

Ice- Water Drinking. 138, 216 

Innocent Amusements 232 

Intemperance of Old 290, 234 

Insanity. 164, 197, 243 

India-Rubber Shoes 250 

Impracticable Persons 272 

Just About Right "... 216 

Living Long 24, 84, 135, 249 

Live Usefully 41 

Locating for Life 45 

Life Insurance 53 

Liquor Drinking 118 

Lunacy 164 

Loose Bowels 171 

Lightning Stroke 178 

Life, Occupations of. 180 

Life, its Philosophy 185 

Medicating One's Self 18 

Medicine and Science 58, 274 

Moral Nutriment 69 

Milk 92 

Music Healthful 123, 141 

Mortalities 183, 189, 215 

Marriage Contract 216 

Medication, the Best 241 

Measles 251 

Morals of Sickness 255 

Nature and Revelation 47 

Nutriment Moral 69 

Nose-hairs, etc 209 

Nine Nevers 237 

Object of Eating 85 

Occupations of Great Men 143 

Old People, Young 144 

Occupations of Life 180 

Pork as Pood 8 

Poverty, Disease, and Crime 35 

Premature Decline 46 

Physical Education 68 

Poverty, Sympathize with 80 

Pure Pood 120 

Papered Rooms 175 

Populatory Calculations 189 

Preservation of Food 211 

Poisonous Bites and Stings 233 

Pouting 272 


Quackery Unmasked . . . . v 56 

Quintuple Alliance 144 

Quenching Thirst 117 

Reason and Instinct 49 

Religious Daily Newspaper. 88 

Rat Riddance •. 187 

Returning to Town 263 

Rules for Winter. 282 

Self- Medication 18 

Softening of the Brain 26 

Suicidal Women 40 

Science of Medicine 58 

Student, Health 73 

Sorrowing Poverty 80 

Sores 86 

Sleeping Together. 97 

Surfeits Cured 99 

Spring Diseases 106, 119 

Sabbath, Keeping the 112, 207, 235 

Sudden Death ■ 113 

Stupidity , 122 

Summer Excursions 125, 263 

Seasonable Hints. 144 

Summer Sours . . 1^7 

Summer Resorts 163 

Sleeping in Church 171, 181 

Sydenham's Habits 190 

Suicide 197, 327 

Scrofula 245 

Shoes, India-Rubber 250 

Sickness and its Morals 255 

Sunday Dinners 259 

Sunshine, Its Healthfulness 64 

Smoky Chimney 277 

True Temperance 50 

Thankful Be 67 

Temperament Differences 109 

Thirst Quenched 117 

Town and Country. . # 139 

Tomatoes 218 

Take Life Easy 257 

Teachers of our Children 269 

Taking Cold 283 

Uses of Ice 138 

Unhealthful Habitations 173 

Use of Sunshine 175 

Wearing Flannel 10 

Warming Houses and Churches. .19, 42 

Warts 71 

Well and Spring Cleaning 72 

Weakly Youths 81 

Walk Softly 82 

Well Done Ill 

Why Children Die 140 

Where to Build. 175 

Wearing Rubber Shoes 250 

World's Workers 278 

Winter Rules 282 

Young Old People 144 

Youths, Sickly. 81 





We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] JANUARY, 1859. [No. 1. 


The commencement of another year and a new volume, of- 
fers a fit occasion for the expression of our thanks for the 
kindly partiality with which our journal has been received ,by 
an indulgent press and .public, in that our enterprise has been 
a success from the beginning, having been encouragingly pro- 
fitable directly and indirectly, still more highly so ;. hence 
we feel ourself under obligation to endeavor to make it 
more worthy of the universal appreciation in which it has been 
held. To this end, we have arranged to turn over every living 
connected with the publishing department to II. B. Pexce, 
a native of our city, known to every publishing house of any 
age in l\ew .York, as a gentleman of enterprise, energy and 
business promptitude, with an integrity which must command 
respect and ensure success. All letters therefore which per- 
tain to dollars and cents, yearly subscriptions, or separate num- 
bers, should be addressed to " Hall's Journal of Health, JNew 
York." All letters pertaining to the editorial department, or 
for professional advice, should be directed to Dr. W. W. Hall, 
Kew York. And while our indefatigable publisher gathers 
himself up to the work of doubling our circulation for eighteen 
hundred and fifty-nine, as good old fifty-eight did on fifty- 
seven, the editor, with a right good will and a merry heart, 
lays off his coat and takes up his pen for the labors of another 
year, trusting that as to his patrons, it will add no gray hair, 
deepen no furrow, and bring no tear, unless they be such as 

6 HalVs Journal of Health. 

will in their influences on the character and heart, the better 
prepare them for that more blessed world, w T here tears fall not 
and sickness never comes; where we shall be always well, al- 
ways young, always good. 


Nations are prolific according to their degradation ; as wit- 
ness the teeming population of China, of India, and of interior 
Africa. When the Israelites had to work hard, and make 
brick, getting straw where they could, their numbers increased 
with great rapidity. The slaves of our own country have more 
children than their masters. From these facts it is clear, that 
moral degradation and severe physical labor, each largely in- 
crease the number of births. 

But civilization presents a paradox. As social amelioration 
and domestic comforts have made large progress, the average 
term of human life has been strikingly increased^ in that one 
person died yearly 'out of every thirty in the last century ; while 
twenty-five years ago, it was found in the same great European 
States, England, France and Germany, that only one in thirty 
eight died annually. The present estimate is one out of forty. 

At the same time, as civilization advances, the births de- 
crease. Hence, as we progress in a rational civilization, hu- 
man life is less doubtful, and the chances of its extension stea- 
dily increases. Hence with fewer births now than a hundred 
years ago, among the same number of persons, population is 
increasing in the more civilized countries, because people live 
longer in consequence of the social ameliorations of those 
countries. In the same direction looks the official announce- 
ment of M. Villerme, secretary of the poor law commissioners 
for Havre, that the average age of the rich was twelve years 
greater than that of the poor. The practical inference is this, 
that living comfortably is a means of avoiding sickness and of 
living long. The sooner, therefore, that we attain this end, of 
living in comfort, the better; while the speediest method of 
accomplishing it, is for all newly married persons to begin life 
by the practice of rigid economies, by the exercise and indul- 
gence of plain tastes, and entertaining a manly contempt of the 

Buckwheat Cakes. 7 

opinion of others as to their style of living, as long as it does 
not degenerate into meanness — the expenditures being largely 
within the earnings — giving promise of an age of abundance, 
of ease and elevation. 


And molasses, make a favorite winter dish for multitudes in 
winter time. Why not in summer also ? We need in winter 
the food which contains most carbon ; that is, the heat produ- 
cing principle, something which will keep up the internal fires 
to compensate for the external cold. Meats, everything con- 
taining fat, are largely made of carbon, hence we instinctively 
eat heartily of meats iu winter, but have small appetite for 
them in summer. The same instinct receives greedily the 
buckwheat cakes in winter, and turns from them in summer, 
while other forms of bread materials, meal and flour, are de- 
sired all the year. It is because buckwheat cakes are superior 
to bread as to fatty matter, while the syrup and butter used 
with them are almost entirely of carbon. So that there is no- 
thing more suitable for a winter morning's breakfast than buck- 
wheat cakes and molasses. In New York, where almost every 
kitchen is under the same roof with the dining room and par- 
lors, the fumes arising from the baking of the cakes on the or- 
dinary iron instrument which requires greasing, are not very 
desirable ; this may be obviated by using a soap-stone griddle, 
which does not require to be greased to prevent the cakes from 
sticking. Children and delicate persons should use the finest 
white flour of buckwheat. The robust, who exercise or work 
a great deal in the open air, should use the buckwheat flour 
which contains all the bran, because the bran is the richest 
part, yielding more nutriment and strength. 

If any unfortunate dyspeptic cannot tolerate them, such an 
one has only to let them alone, and there will be more of this 
luxury left to those who can eat them with pleasure and impu- 
nity, having had the wit to avoid eating them like a glutton. 
The simple fact that any given item of food " is not good for" 
one man, does not " set w T ell" on the stomach, is no proof that 

8 HalVs Journal of JlecdtK. 

it is not positively benificial to others, it is simply a proof that 
it is not good for him. This is a practical thought of consider- 
able importance. 


" A fat hog is the very quintessence of scrofula and carbonic 
acid gas, and he who eats it must not expect "thereby to build 
up a sound physical organism. While it contributes heat, not 
the twentieth ^part of it is nitrogen, the base of muscle " One 
of our cotemporaries cordially endorses the above sentiment, as 
being sound practical truth, and says — (j Fat pork was never 
designed for human food. It is material for breath and no- 
thing more. See Liebig, and other organic chemists and phy- 
siologists. It makes no red meat or muscle. The prize 
lighter is not allowed to eat it. All that is not consumed by 
the lungs, remains to clog the body with fat." 

The above is an average specimen of the twaddle which 
finds its way into the newspapers, and when once there, like 
the man with a cork leg, it never stops. It sounds racy, and 
for the sound, lazy editors scissor it out, never taking the 
trouble to analyze a single statement, or to summons up one 
of the hundreds of facts which have come under their own ob- 
servation, and prove the absurdity of the quotation. 

Without any theorizing on the subject, let any man raised 
on a farm, go back to the home of his childhood, and deny, if 
he can, that any day ever passed in which some part of a pig 
was not placed on his father's table. 

Go to Yirginia, to Tennessee, to Kentucky, the very land of 
hog and hominy ; or let any one go with us to our own native 
county of Bourbon, and we will point him to the parents and 
to their children, who coming to town to school, were the 
associates of our childhood, and if promenaded along Broad- 
way, the point which would attract the chief attention would 
be their giant size. To be specific, we will mention names of 
families, almost all six footers and nearing two hundred pounds. 
Whoever saw a Bedford or a Clay, or a Breckenridge that 
was a runt? Henry and Cassius M., and the peerless " Bob," 
for example — men as large in heart as in person — men who 

Pork as Food. 9 

never knew fear, and who in mental power and in natural elo- 
quence rank among the foremost. There are also the Garrard s, 
the Williams, the Spears, theScotts, and going along the old 
" Lime Stone Boad," we come in among the settlement of the 
Howards, measuring seven feet or more in their stockings ; 
and not far from there were the Lyles, the " Infant John," 
measuring six and a half, perhaps, and perhaps more, with a 
" heft accordin." 

Look at the article again : " A fat hog is the very quint- 
essence of scrofula." "Where is the proof? That a fat hog is 
made up of carbonic acid gas, as such, is a " whopper !" The 
biggest pig in a poke hasn't enough of carbonic acid gas in 
him when dead, to kill a cat. " Not one twentieth part of a 
pig is nitrogen." And suppose it is'nt : not any part of pure 
milk, worth naming, is nitrogen, "the base of muscle," while 
in corn starch, tapioca, sago, arrow root, and sugar, there is 
not a particle, and yet they are by common consent allowed 
to be most excellent and healthful articles of food. It is ac- 
knowledged that fat pork " contributes heat, and is material 
for breath, nothing more." What of that? Every man and 
woman we ever saw, needs both " heat and breath." The 
sugar on our tables, the very best of Stewart's syrup, are as 
much the "quintessence" of "heat and breath" as "fat pork." 
" Fat pork is the material for breath and nothing more" — just 
as grass butter is ! " Fat pork makes no red meat or muscle." 
Where is the proof? Besides how much of the " base of mus- 
cle" is there in a cart load of butter. A ton of arrowroot and 
a barrel of sugar would'nt "make red meat" enough to make 
a dinner for a mouse. 

The fact is we don't care what Liebig, or any other Dutch- 
man " says." We would'nt give a button for -the mere ipse 
dixit of any man. We must open our eyes and use our brains, 
if we have any, and be willing learners of actual whole facts, 
and go where they carry us. We do not believe there is a man 
of mind enough to have obscured the lesser lights around him, 
in all this land, of whom it may not be said in literal truth, 
that on an average, a day never passed that he did not at some 
one of the three daily meals eat some portion of a pig. But 
responds the pork eater, " That may be so, but the ill effect of 
pork eating has not had time to make itself felt in them, but 

10 Hall's Journal of Health. 

that it is now manifesting itself in the decay of the present 
generation." But there is such an inconclusiveness in that 
kind of argument, that only a dolt would use it, especially 
when the assumption of the fact that the present generation is 
in a state of decay, is made in the face of a known truth, that 
the average length of human life is greater now than it has 
been in a thousand years. Hence we come back to the senti- 
ment often expressed in this journal, that all the good things 
of this life were given us by a Loving Father, richly to enjoy, 
in moderation and thankfulness ; the proof of the " goodness" 
ot any thing being in the fact that whole communities have 
used it daily for generations, leaving sons stalwart in body, 
peerless in mind, with daughters as pure as the dew drop, and 
beautiful as the morning. 


The very best thing that can be worn next the skin, in sum- 
mer as well as winter, is common woolen flannel. One color 
has no advantage over another, except that white is more 
agreeable to the sight, it is more likely to " full up" in wash- 
ing; but this may be almost entirely prevented, if done pro- 
perly. Pour boiling hot strong soapsuds on the garment in a 
tub, let it alone until the hand can bear the water, then pour 
off and add clean water, boiling hot, let this stand also as be- 
fore ; pour off and add more boiling clean water, and when 
cool enough, merely squeeze the garment with the hands — no 
wringing or rubbing. Stretch it immediately on a line in the 
hot sun, or before a hot fire, and as the water settles at the 
most dependant part of the garment, press it out with the 
hand, and be careful to stretch the fabric as soon as the water is 
squeezed out, aiming as much as possible to keep the flannel 
hot until it is dry. If woolen garments are treated literally as 
above, they will remain pliable and soft until worn out. 

Recent scientific experiments, carefully conducted, prove 
the truth of the popular sentiment, that woolen flannel is the 
best fabric to be worn next the skin, as it absorbs more mois- 
ture from the body than any other material, and by so doing, 
keeps the body more perfectly dry. Cotton absorbs the least, 

The Human Hair. 11 

hence the perspiration remains more on the skin, and being 
damp, the heat of the body is rapidly carried off by evapora- 
tion and suddenly cools when exercise ceases, the ill effects of 
which no intelligent mind need to be reminded of. Hence it 
is, that the common observation of all nations leads them to 
give their sailors woolen flannel shirts for all seasons and for 
all latitudes, as the best equalizers of the heat of the body. 


Baldness is considered a great calamity by many. It is 
brought on in many cases by wearing the hat too constantly. 
or by any other means which keeps the head too warm. Ano- 
ther cause of baldness is, the filthy practice of keeping the 
hair soaked in various kinds of grease, or allowing the scalp to 
^remain unwashed for weeks and months together. Instead of 
throwing money away for any of the thousand inert, if not 
hurtful " hair restoratives" which meet the eye in every paper, 
our readers would do well to at least try the following wash : 
Pour three pints of hot water on four handfuls of the stems and 
leaves of the garden " box," boil it for fifteen minutes in a 
closed vessel, then pour it in an earthen jar, and let it stand 
ten hours ; next strain the liquid and add three table spoons ot 
cologne water ; wash the head with this every morning, it is 
cleansing and tonic, and if the root bulbs of the hair are not 
destroyed (which is the case where the scalp looks smooth and 
shiny, and then there is no remedy,) the hair will begin to 
grow with vigor. If this wash fails after a few weeks perse- 
verance, the baldness may be considered incurable, because 
the structure of hair growth is destroyed, the cogs and wheels 
are gone, and no power can replace them, short of that which 
made them first. 

But a more certain and more easily understood method of 
restoring the hair, when such a thing is possible, is to strive to 
secure a larger share of general' health ; keeping the scalp 
clean in the meanwhile, by the judicious application of a mo- 
derately stiff brush; and a basin of plain old-fashioned soap- 
suds ; for, as a general rule, baldness arises from one of three 
things—inattention, which brought on a decline of health 

12 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

dirt, or stupidity. What for example could a woman expect 
better than an unsightly broad path of skull along the line 
where the hair is parted in front, when she has kept each par- 
ticular hair on a constant strain at the root, at the same iden- 
tical spot, from earliest " teens" to thirty, instead of changing 
the line slightly every month or two, or giving entire rest, by 
having no parting at all, but to carry the hair backward for a 
month or two at a time, or adjust it in any Avay which a cor- 
rect taste and sense of appropriateness will readily suggest to 
a quick witted woman. In this way the delicate line of part- 
ing may be made to look rich and young to the confines of 
old age. 

The judicious cultivation of the hair, that natural ornament, 
of which when possessed in its abundance, richness and beauty, 
all are pardonably proud, is most unaccountably neglected ; 
for we are all conscious of the tact, that if the hair is plentiful 
and is handled with a pure taste, it will add to the impressive- 
ness of any set of features. 

As it is, the hair begins to fall before our girls are out of 
their " teens." In a room full of them, not one in a half dozen 
can boast of anything on the u back head" but a knot about 
the size of a hickory nut. If appearances are to the contrary, 
it will be found that it is a borrowed ornament, whose original 
owner is in the grave, or has parted with it for a few pennies, 
or glazy ribbon or gaudy handkerchief, to "raise another 
crop" just as rich and beautiful. The girls of Brittany and 
the lower Pyrenees, repair to the annual Hair Fairs in droves, 
where each one waits her turn for shearing, with her rich long 
hair combed out and hanging down to the waist. The most 
valued head of hair brings five dollars, and down to twenty 
cents, according to quantity and quality. One dollar, in fiery 
ribbons, violent colored calicos, and the like, is the average, 
bringing double these prices when taken to the Paris and Lon- 
don wholesale dealers. The weight of a marketable head of 
hair when first taken from the head is from twelve to six- 
teen ounces, or from three-quarters of a pound to a pound, 
under twelve not being " accepted," and over a pound, or 
sixteen ounces, especially if silken and long, bringing 
fabulous prices. Rare qualities have been sold at double 
the price of silver, weight for weight. Two hundred thou- 

The Human Hair. 13 

sand pounds of hair are shorn from the heads of young girls 
every year, to supply the demands of the Paris and London 
markets, and from these we derive our supplies. 

The hair " growers" seem to be rather a degraded set of 
people, living in mud huts, in filthy community, garments so 
patched and worn as to scarcely hold together by their own 
weight. For once at least, fashion bows to profit, and the 
richest and most luxuriant head of black hair is accounted an 
incumbrance. Caps are worn by these people, so as to con- 
ceal the hair almost entirely. So, as far as personal appear- 
ance is concerned, it would seem of very little consequence 
whether they had any hair or not. But an important practi- 
cal hint may be taken from this historical fact. Caps being 
thus worn there is no need for combs and pins and plaits and 
ties, and as a consequence no hair is strained at its root, nor 
is it distorted by being pulled against the grain — against its 
natural direction. 

The Manillans have the longest, blackest and most glossy 
hair in the world. They do not wear caps at all, but allow 
the hair to fall back behind in its own natural looseness. 
Taking these two facts together, it would seem that one con- 
dition for having a fine head of hair is, that it should never be 
on a strain, and should hang pretty much in the direction of 
its growth, or if diverted at all, as from over the face, it should 
be in a gentle curve over and behind the ears, with a loose 
ribbon to keep it from spreading too much at the back of the 
neck, the hair hanging its length down the back. 

' ~ CD O 

The girls of Brittany wear their hair under their caps, so 
as to conceal it entirely, and those of Manilla having theirs 
still longer, more glossy and abundant, wear no caps at 
all but allow it to fall loose over the shoulders. One in- 
structive circumstance connected with this richness of female 
ornament is, that in both, one condition is present ; the hair is 
not strained against its natural direction, nor indeed is it 
strained at all. But there is one other condition in the case of 
the Manillans, which may aid in causing that superiority in 
length, glossiness, and abundance — it is not braided or tied, or 
knotted up in any way, but floating in perfect freedom — a tho- 
rough ventilation is allowed. It has been found by obser- 
vant ladies, that when nature is aided in respect to ventilation, 

14 HalVs Journal of Health. 

by redding the hair very gently and freely night and morn- 
ing with a fine tooth comb, its richness, glossiness, silkiness? 
and length, are all increased, as the following incident, related 
by a traveller strikingly illustrates. He stated that he fell 
in with a man, whose bearing indicated that he was a gentle- 
man, one of position, .and of unusual scholastic attainments; 
but without these, there was a singularity about him which 
would have forcibly arrested the attention of the most careless 
observer; his hair was the longest, most abundant, the most 
silkenly beautiful that he had ever observed in man or woman 
either, and more, he seemed to bestow a large share of his at- 
tention upon it, and he was evidently proud of it. He spent 
a great part of his time, when not necessarily engaged other- 
wise, in combing it, exhibiting in the operation a carefulness, 
a delicate and gentle tenderness, amounting almost to an af- 
fection. At night, he bound it up, so as not to be strained or 
tangled in any manner. Our traveller's curiosity was excited, 
and he rested not, until he learned that the gentleman in ques- 
tion was a minister of some religious sect, and that his order 
was debarred every personal adornment, except that of the 
hair, which was allowed to be cultivated and worn to any de- 
sired extent. The priest gave as his opinion that the success 
of his cultivation depended on gently combing it a good deal 
in the direction in which it grew, and preventing all strain be- 
yond that of its own weight. 

This mode of treating the hair is strikingly opposed to that 
prevalent among us, the practice being to begin, in almost in- 
fancy, to part the hair in front, and plait it, and knot it, and 
strain it, almost to pulling it out sideways, crossways and up- 
wards ; the ingenuity being taxed apparently to strain it in 
every direction, so it be contrary to that which it would natu- 
rally take ; not only so, but the meanwhile it is kept saturated 
with any and every kind of grease, tallow, hog's fat and rancid 
butter, disguised, intermixed, or partially purified, and then 
with a flourish of trumpets and certificates, written by knave- 
ry, signed by stupidity, and published abroad unblushingly to 
the end, that while the fabricators and falsifiers make money, 
our daughters' heads become mangy, the hair dropping out, the 
scalp becoming diseased, giving head aches, dullness, smarting 
eyes and a dozen other correlative symptoms. Then comes a 

The Human Hair. 15 

subterfuge and a degradation botli together, in order to make 
up for the deficiency, and some dead corpse is robbed, or some 
filthy Breton or Manillan is despoiled, the deception not being 
known until the marriage ceremony has made it too late to be 
remedied. Out upon it we say,' these shams of ivory, and cot- 
ton batting and hair of people dirty or dead. Why, most of 
us young men, if we marry at all, have to risk marrying parts 
of half-a-dozen people at once. 
The lessons learned by these statements are — . 

1. The hair of children should never be plaited, or braided, 
or twisted, or knotted. 

2. Nothing should ever be put on it except simple pure 
water, and even this not until the scalp is cleaned. 

3. The hair should be kept short. It would be a valuable 
accomplishment, if when a woman becomes a mother, a few 
lessons were taken from a good barber, so that the child's hair 
after the third year, might be trimmed by its mother once a 
week, only cutting off the longest hairs, by ever so little, so as 
to keep it of a uniform length. This practice is proper for 
male and female, old and young. 

4. The hair should be always combed leisurely and for some 
considerable time, at least every morning, and neither brush 
or comb ought to be allowed to pass against the direction of 
the hair growth. 

Pomatums and hair oils, and washes of every description are 
wholly pernicious and essentially disgusting, because they de- 
tain on the hair and scalp that dust and those animal excre- 
tions, which otherwise would fall off or be blown away. The 
most perfect cleanliness of the scalp, should be sedulously la- 
bored for, the first step being that of pure soft water (rained 
or distilled,) applied by rubbing it in upon the scalp, with the 
" balls" of the fingers, thus avoiding wetting the whole mass 
of hair when long ; after it is thoroughly dried, then it should 
be patiently followed by a brushing in its dry state, in the di* 
rection of its growth. This is most assuredly the best way to 
give the hair all that beauty and polish of which it is suscepti- 
ble. It is abundantly soon to allow the hair of girls to begin 
to grow long, on entering their fourteenth year, nor should it 
be allowed to b3 parted in front sooner than two or three years 
later, if there be any desire to have the " parting" delicate, 

16 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

beautiful and rich. But all this while, there should be se- 
cured the same perfect cleanliness of scalp ; the same daily ven- 
tilation at the roots ; the same daily redding and brushing in 
its dry state, it being done leisurely and long; while the clip- 
ping should be made every fortnight, but only of those hairs 
which have outgrown the others, or which may have " split" 
at their ends. Do not "thin" the hair, only cut off the small- 
est length of the straggling or most lengthy ; the object being 
a greater uniformity as to length, preventing thereby any undue 
or irregular straining in handling. 

As the hair of most persons tends to curl in some direction, 
that, direction should be noticed and cultivated, when a beau- 
tiful curling is desired. 

As a general rule we would discourage any application to 
the hair, but if on some rare occasion, we desire to give greater 
firmness or durability to any particular adjustment of it, in 
curling or otherwise, a very weak solution of isinglass is the 
best thing that can be employed. 

And if at times any " falling off" is observed, and it is de- 
sirable to arrest it sooner than mere cleanliness, and improved 
health would do it, one of the most accessible washes, is boil- 
ing water poured on tea leaves, which have already been used 
and allowed to stand twelve hours, then put in a bottle and 
used as a wash to the scalp, it should be of moderate strength- 
Another good wash is one grain of spirits of tannin, and six 
ounces of spirits of Castile soap, well rubbed in the head every 
morning, a table spoon or two at a time, until the hair ceases 
to fail off. 

Curling tongs and papers are destructive to the hair. If any 
thing is used on an uncommon occasion, it should be silk, or 
the very softest paper as near the color of the hair as possible. 
The hair should not be tied at any time with a string, but 
loosely with a thin soft ribbon, or carried in a loose twist on 
the part of the neck about the line of the hair, so as to avoid 
all straining, especially against the direction of the hair 
growth. The almost universal custom of our women of draw- 
ing it up from behind, for the purpose of wearing it at the back 
of the head, or at the top, is contrary to good taste and physi- 
ological wisdom, the great point being to wear the hair with- 
out any strain upon its roots beyond its own weight, and loosely, 

Growlers. . 17 

so as to afford a constant, free, and thorough ventilation. h is a 
great mistake that water " rots" the hair ; it is accumulated 
dust and dirt and grease which does that. Water lightly ap- 
plied to these accumulations, becomes hurtful by merely soft- 
ening them, but if pure soft water is cleansingly applied, it is 
in every way beneficial. 


Some people seem to be in their natural element when they 
are grumbling, snapping, and snarling at every body and 
every thing ; and, if the present does not afford them a text, 
they make drafts on future possibilities of ill. " Here, Brid- 
get, it is almost daylight, Monday morning ; to-morrow is 
Tuesday, and next day Wednesday, half the week gone, and 
no washing done yet." But every body does not feed on green 
persimmons. We could tell of a missionary who has been in 
the far West for twenty-one years. For a great part of that 
time he has lived among Indians, small pox, fevers, agues, and 
cholera, and, although not yet " fifty," looks prematurely old. 
For the last year or two his parishioners have paid him about 
a dollar a month. But does he rave and rail about the 
% ingratitude of republics ?" Yery far from it. He looks at 
the bright side of things, like a philosopher, or rather like a 
practical Christian. " I hardly know what it is to be under 
the weather, and think myself greatly blessed, even in earthly 
comforts. My appetite and digestion are good. I weigh 
about two hundred pounds. I have not had a chill in twenty 
years, until two months ago ; am never confined to bed, 
except while asleep. I have done a good deal of hard work, 
and can do a good deal yet, for a kind Providence has pros- 
pered me." 

One of the best pieces of philosophy we have heard for a 
long time, was uttered in a song at the rehearsal of Dr. Ward's 
beautiful opera last season. We do not recollect the words, 
but the sentiment was, that this w T orld was bright or dark, as 
we take it ourselves — a world of sunshine to the light-hearted 
and the truly good, but to lower natures it was drear enough 
Com© to think of it, the accomplished doctor and the sturdy 

18 HalVs Journal of Health. 

missionary have both good health to begin with, both rich 
too ! the latter enjoying his wealth, in anticipation of being an 
H heir" to " mansions in the skies ;" the former has a present 
" usufruct" could spare a million, and yet have a " plenty." 
With good health, a line appetite, and a long purse, we rather 
think that most people could make this world one of flowers 
and smiles and sunshine. But to be old and sick and poor, 
and yet look upward through blinding tears of filial resigna- 
tion, and say and feel " it is all right," that is only the Chris- 
tian's feat ; it is the miracle of religion. 


Of any four persons met successively on the street, three 
will strongly inveigh against taking medicine and against the 
doctors, and multitudes of publications are scattered through 
the land every day by a class of persons as reckless and im- 
pudent as they are ignorant, assuming to themselves the 
name of " reformers," their papers being the vehicles of their 
trumpery, making all sorts of imaginary and impossible state- 
ments as to the ravages of what they call " druggery," and 
fighting under the popular banner of " temperance," with 
maudlin professions about " progress," M human ameliora- 
tion," " elevation of the masses," " equality," " fraternity," 
and all that, and last, but not least, pandering to the passions 
of a depraved nature, they stab secretly, and behind, and 
under cover of false garbs, the fundamental principles of our 
holy religion, and indeed of all religion, and by these means 
have got up such a hue and cry against physic, that even me- 
dical men, despicably weak-minded of course, take up the re- 
frain, chime in with the prejudices of a gullible community, 
and are getting into the way of prescribing almost no medi- 
cine at all, in cases where it was urgently demanded, doing 
violence to their own better judgment, rather than incur the 
hazard of censure, in case the disease should take a fatal turn. 
On the other hand, as among the people themselves there is a 
most extraordinary paradox, in that they have fallen into the 
habit of swallowing medicine on their own responsibility, or 
by the advice of any ignoramus or knave who may happen to 

Self Medication. . 19 

fall in with them, and this to© for ailments so trifling some- 
times, that simple .rest and warmth for a few hours would 
restore them to usual health. 

Not long ago a lady near us gave a little girl a dose of castor 
oil for what appeared to her to be a little cold. This acted on the 
bowels freely, and, by weakening the system, took from it the 
power of throwing out the real disease on the surface, and the 
only child of wealthy parents died in forty-eight hours of un- 
developed scarlet fever. 

More recently, a man felt unwell, and concluded to cure 
himself by mixing w T ith a pint of beer a tablespoonful of salt, 
a raw onion, and twenty-five cents worth of quinine. Soon 
after taking it, vomiting set in, and he died in twenty -four 
hours. Fools cannot die off too soon ; but we earnestly advise 
all whose lives are of worth in the community in which they 
live that in any case where, in their own opinion, they are ill 
enough to require medicine, swallow not an atom by any body's 
advice, however simple the remedy may appear, but send at 
once for a respectable physician. The remedy advised may 
do no harm, if it does no good ; but even in that event, it may 
cause a loss of time in waiting for its effects which no medical 
skill may be able to make up for. 


Good wood burned in fire-places, as in glad days gone by, 
never to return, is the most healthful of all methods for 
warming rooms. But the cost of wood renders this use of it 
impracticable in our large cities at the North. 

The next most economical plan is to burn it in stoves. The 
temperature and quality of the atmosphere of a room heated 
with wood burned in an old-fashioned ten plate stove, when 
the thermometer without is hugging zero, compared with the 
insufficient heat of a common open grate for coal, or the heavy 
suffocating warmth in furnace heated apartments, is perfectly 
delightful. The ten plate stove gives a genial warmth, while 
that from coal is harsh and dry, irritating to the lungs, and 
giving feverishness to the skin. 

Twenty dollars worth of solid sapling oak or hickory wood, at 

20 Hair s Journal of Health. 

seven dollars a cord, will keep ^room of three hundred, square 
feet agreeably warm from the first of October until the first of 
May. An open grate will require three tons of anthracite coal 
for the same time at five dollars a ton ; but, for a portion of. 
the time, it will not keep a sitting apartment comfortably 
warm. Half that quantity of coal burned in a good coal stove 
will be amply sufficient for the same room and. time, two 
thousand pounds, or twenty-five bushels, being a New York 
ton. Coal evaporates three times as much water as wood, 
pound for pound, but wood has a great deal of oxygen in it ; 
anthracite coal has none ; hence coal consumes the oxygen of 
the air of a room very rapidly. Forty pounds of coal renders 
unfit for respiration in twelve hours forty-two thousand gallons 
of air, all of which, and five times as much tnore air, is car- 
ried up the chimney. No wonder we call it " a draught" up 
the chimney. Pound for pound, charcoal gives out the most 
heat, for it is almost pure carbon. But it takes a hundred 
pounds of wood to make twenty-five pounds of charcoal. 
Hard coal gives ninety per cent, of heat. Common charcoal 
gives out a hundred per cent, of heat. Hard coal, stone coal, 
anthracite coal — all are the same thing — gives out ninety per 
cent., and wood twenty -five per cent. Soft coal, bituminous 
coal, such as the Liverpool, Cumberland, and Pittsburgh, gives 
out from sixty to ninety per eent. of " carbon," which we here 
use as the synonyme of Lea'., 

What is called " coke" is the charcoal of coal, makes a 
cheerful fire, and is almost as cleanly as wood to handle. 

Peat is half decayed, or rather half fossilized wood — the 
half-way house between wood and coal. Bituminous or soft 
coal is still nearer the fossil state, while anthracite coal is the 
real " stone" coal. The difference between anthracite or hard 
coal, and bituminous or soft coal is — -the latter has not been 
as long under the influences which convert vegetable matter 
into coal; whether higher heat or higher pressure, or both, is 
conjectural. The gas of our dwellings is obtained from soft 
or bituminous coal ; hence hard coal is soft coal without the 
gas, or the gas having been used up in some other way. 

There are two kinds of anthracite coal, red ash and white 
ash ; the latter is used for furnaces and ranges, or cooking pur- 
poses, because it does not " clinker" — that is, its cinders do 

Warming Houses. 21 

not melt and run together, and thus clog up the furnace and 
destroy the draught. But for open grates the " Schuylkill 
peach orchard red ash" coal is best for five reasons: — 1. It 
kindles easier. 2. Ttt burns with a more cheerful, blaze. 3. 
The edges of ' each ash are smoother, while the. edges of the 
white ash are jagged, " saw-like," so ; said by those who have 
examined both with a microscope. 4. It is less dusty than 
white ash. 5. Thirty pounds of red ash give out as much heat . 
as thirty-six pounds of white ash. The ash of the red is near 
the color of iron rust; that of the other is more like wood: 
ashes, whitish. . : 

But coal is not always coal. Of two loads of anthracite coal 
standing, side by side, one will yield double, the heat given. out 
by the other, and yet nine persons out of ten can perceive no 
difference — at least they are unable to tell which is the better 
load. Thus it is that some dealers advertise to sell coal forlive, 
eight, or ten dimes less a ton than other persons^ and. the poor 
and the unwisely economical crowd to them, thinking they are 
getting " great bargains." Such coal would not be taken as a 
gift by honorable dealers, because they see at once it has 
" bone" in it— that is, they know that if a scuttle lull is burnt, 
a large per centage, as high as fifty, will be left in the grate in 
lumps of the color of a burnt bone. Wash it in, water, and 
it is still white, and is wholly useless. Burn fifty, pounds of 
Truslow's coal, and it will leave some five or six pounds of 
ashes and cinders, while the same amount of advertised r 
" cheap" coal will leave ten or twenty pounds. We have 
"experimented" in coal, and have a "feeling sense" of its 
merits. In proportion as a load of coal has broad flat pieces, 
and of a dull or coal-dust look,- it is " bony." If the lumps 
are of a smooth, shiny black., and in pieces as "broad as they 
are long"— that is, approaching a " square fracture"— it is 
the genuine article. The very offer to sell coal fifty cents 
or more cheaper than the ruling price is suspicious. One of 
three things is certain— 1. Somebody has not go.t pay for it, 
and never will. 2. The advertiser is " hard up." 3. Or he is 
selling an inferior article, and knows it. An unfortunate gen- 
tleman, unfortunate because he has no wife to show him how 
to spend his money, inquired of the Tribune not long ago, 
what was the best distribution he could make of a surplus of 

22 HalVs Journal of Health, 

some scores of thousands. One way of doing great good to the 
honest and struggling poor would be to purchase the best qua- 
lity of coal in midsummer, and sell it only to poor people, who 
purchase by the peck or half bushel, at cost only. This would 
be a true and useful benevolence — nothing of the sham, soup- 
kitchen order, which helps to make beggars rather than to 
raise them out of their beggared condition. Giving degrades 
the recipient. Helping encourages and elevates. The truest 
charity is to help the helpless to help themselves. This it is 
that makes men of them, instead of encouraging them into 
whining beggary. 

From indifference or motives of convenience, or false eco- 
nomy, the majority will use coal stoves and furnaces. To heat 
houses by the latter, placed in the cellar or basement, and 
conveyed to all parts of the house by tin pipes, is becoming 
almost universal. It is ruinous to the wood work of a build- 
ing, ruinous to the health of the inmates, and is the fruitful 
cause of many house burnings, as builders do riot seem to know 
how to construct a house which cannot be set on fire by means 
of flues or heating pipes, or the persons who employ them to 
build are too parsimonious to expend money enough to secure 
perfect safety. Between the two, scarcely one furnace-heated 
house in a thousand is safe from fire. 

It is pretty well known that furnaces fail to make our houses 
comfortably warm at ten degrees above zero ; hence many 
have both furnaces and grates. Up to this present writing, 
we have never heard of a furnace which is perfectly free from 
gas or other *odor. The very best have been complained of to 
us. " BartlettV furnace is said to be the nearest to giving a 
pure heat ever^et invented ; it is constructed on philosophical 
principles, the ainitself not being " burnt" by coming in con- 
tact with red hot iron., while the great economy of its use is 

Calvin Pepper, of Albany, 2sTew York, claims that if com- 
mon coal gas be directed : ink) a body of sand, it can be lighted 
with a match in an instant, making the sand hot enough in 
one minute, with two cents worth of gas, to keep a common- 
sized room comfortably warm in winter for eight hours, giving 
a flame without smoke, or odor of any kind. Time must be 
allowed to verify these statements. 

Warming Houses. 23 

Next to a wood fire, the hot water pipe system gives the 
most genial heat, as it does not consume the oxygen of the air 
to anything like the extent which must result from the air 
coming in contact with hot iron. The nearer the heat ema- 
nates from the floor the better, not only because warm air 
naturally ascends, but also because, when a room is heated 
from the ceiling, the head is kept too warm, and serious ail- 
ments ensue. 

Ten years the price of this Journal may be saved any family 
which uses coal largely, by remembering that the quantity of 
coal is determined as accurately by measurement as by one of 
Fairbank's best scales. A bin or box of thirty-four and a half 
feet cubical, holds exactly one ton of two thousand pounds of 
white ash coal, such as is used in ranges, stoves, and furnaces, 
but it takes thirty-six cubicalfeet for one ton or two thousand 
pounds of red ash coal, such as New Yorkers use, for grates. 
It is perhaps known to few, that no coal dealer in Gotham 
ever, by any possibility, sells a lawful ton of coal, although he 
is very clear of purchasing less than a lawful ton of twenty- 
two hundred and forty pounds, or twenty-eight bushels, each 
bushel being eighty pounds. A bin which will hold an honest 
ton of red ash coal should measure forty feet cubical— that is 
the internal length, breadth and height of the bin multiplied 
together — thus, four feet broad, five feet long, two feet deep. 
A seam of coal four feet thick, spreading over an acre, yields 
five thousand tons, and will make steam enough to do the work 
of sixteen hundred men for twenty of the best years of their 

A seam or block of coal as it is in the earth, measuring one 
yard each way, yields a ton. And when it is remembered 
that there are two hundred thousand square miles of coal fields 
already known in the world, and each square mile yields three 
million tons, it is perfectly clear that there is coal enough left 
in the world to keep us all warm, and supply all our other 
fuel necessities for a million of years, as few families use more 
than fifteen tons a year, although a good-sized steamship con- 
sumes six tons an hour. The Adriatic consumes three thou- 
sand tons to England and back, as much in one round trrp, as 
would supply a commou family for two hundred years. 

24 HalVs Jowrnal of Health. 


. - ..'■ ■ > J .. ifjgfi 'lion 

Esteemed Friend. 

In the article on Tea and Coffee in the Journal for ISTovem^ 
ber, yon almost describe my i maimer of life from my youth 
np. As far back as memory serves, I never could eat, drink 
or swallow anything- with pleasure, hotter or. colder than the 
blood, hence whiskey, rum and brandy, were an -abomination 
inmy eyes.'; .-..- d ■■ itn I ■_-■■-■■' ' ; ! 

Gold spring water I never drank if I could 3 help it. If 
memory is '.correct, 5 , about fifty years ago ; , when looking in a 
tumbler of water; through a microscope, I saw a shoal of small 
fishes ! sporting in ; the water. Thinks I to myself, if : we must 
swallow eels, it may be well to boil them first . From, that day 
cold tea and cold coffee: without milkor sugar has been my drink 
between, meals ; at breakfast and dinner half a pint of coffee 
without sugar. I never use milk in either tea or coffee. I eat 
of all the fruits in their season, but they must first pass 
through tho fire in the shape of pies, tarts or. sweet-meats 
Beets, carrots, and turnips, I eat in moderation ; but parsnips 
are my favorites. Cabbage, lettuce, celery and cucumbers, 
are proper food for cows. Pickles, and the smell of vinegar, 
my soul abhorreth. I nursed among the sick seventeen sum- 
mers, when the yellow fever was in New York ; the rooms 
were always sprinkled with vinegar. Since' then, my nose 
hates sour krout. . 

Except in hearing,. I am not sensible of any decay during 
the two years just passed. I rise at seven, A. M., breakfast at 
eight, dine at twelve, ,M., tea at Hve y P. M. ; never eat be- 
tween meals ; never eat enough. I walk without a staff, sleep 
without rpckingj and eat beefsteaks without the help of bran - 
by, bitters, or Brandreth's pills. I select the saplings from the 
wood pile daily ; with my buck and saw I cut them in pieces, 
four inches long. This feeds the stove, warms the room, and 
drives dull care away. 

Thine, with respect. .': nsuh 

Geant Thoebuen - , Sene., 

Aged 85 years and 9 months. 
New Haven, Nov. 13, 1858. 

Real Corn Bread. 25 



A corn dodger is not now what it used to be. Originally it 
was a -corn meal dumpling. In very, early. Kentucky- times, 
the universal dinner, winter and spring at every farm house is 
the state, was a piece of middling bacon, boiled with cabbage^ 
turnips, greens, collards, or sprouts, cabbage sprouts, according 
to the season. The pot, if the family was a large one, con- 
tained about ten gallons, and was nearly filled with clean pure 
water, the middlings and the greens were put in at the proper 
time, . to. give them a sufficient -cooking, j Almost always ■ the 
cook would make with water and corn meal and a little salt, 
dough balls, throw thenx into, the ppV and boil, them tho- 
roughly with the rest. -- ;These were called dodgers, from the 
motion given them by, the boding water in the pot. They eat 
very well, and give a considerable variety to a dinner of bacon 
and collards.: i A dodger in modern times is corn bread baked 
in a roll about the size, of your band, and about, three time 
.as . thick, and in my judgment is not a veritable first rate dod" 
ger, unless when on the table it bears the impress of the cook's 
fingers on it, in in the oven to bake. 

A pone of bread is corn bread baked in a skillet or small 
oven. The skillet or. oven when at the proper heat is filled 
with corn dough, and baked, and .when baked and turned out> 
is a pone of bread. 

A hoe cake is not now what it used to be. I do not'believe 
there will ever be any more good hoe cakes bakqd.. I have an 
unextingnishable longing for hoe cake— -real hoe cake, such a 
the black woman Jinny, my mother's cook always baked. It 
gets its name from the mode of baking. It was originally 
baked upon a hoe* Arnold hoe, (a hoe was one -of our primi- 
tive implements of agriculture, but now almost out of use,) 
which had been worn bright, and the handle out, was placed 
upon live coals of fire^ with the eye down, and on it the cake 
was baked. Xow, hoe cake is baked upon a griddle, or was 
before : Cooking stoves came into use. Do } r ou know what a 
griddle is ? Of course you do. It just occurs to me, may not 
the cooking stove militate against hoe cake? The griddle I be- 
lieve has been displaced by it altogether, and I now have an 
idea that good hoe cakes can be baked only on a hoe or on a 

26 HalV s Journal of Health. 

Corn dodger, corn pone and hoe cakes are different only in 
the baking. The meal is prepared for each, precisely in the 
same way. Take as much meal as you want, some salt, and 
enough pure water to knead the mass. Mix it well, let it 
stand some 15 or 20 minutes, not longer, as this will be long 
enough to saturate perfectly every particle of meal, bake on 
the griddle for hoe cake, and in the oven or skillett for dodge r 
and pone. The griddle or oven must be made hot enough to 
bake, but not to burn, but with a quick heat. The lid must 
be heated also before putting it on the skillet or oven, and 
that heat must be kept up with coals of lire placed on it, as 
these must be around and under the oven. The griddle must 
be well supplied with live coals under it. The hoe cake must 
be put on thin, not more than or quite as thick as your fore fin- 
ger ; when brown, it must be turned, and both sides baked to 
a rich brown color. There must be no burning— baking is 
the idea. Yet the baking must be done with a quick lively 
heat, the quicker the better. Saleratus and soda, procul o 
procul ! Let there be nothing but water and salt. g. w. w. 

The above was written by a son of Kentucky, himself one 
of her best ornaments, and is authentic. 


Is a disease for which there is no known remedy: its pro- 
gress is slow, steady, and resistless as an avalanche, and body 
and mind go out together. It generally comes on with a gra- 
dual loss of sight, while the health of the remainder of the 
body is usually good. The younger son of the "Iron Duke" 
has recently died of this disease, which is becoming of more 
frequent occurrence than formerly. For eight long years he 
had been totally blind, and had amused himself with making 
willow baskets. It usually attacks men who have overworked 
their minds. But Lord Charles was neither a student nor a 
roue ; but, being a man of great wealth, he lived at his ease. 
There were no sufficient inducements to mental and bodily 
activities — hence mental and physical stagnation first, then 
disorganization; and he died prematurely, in the midst of his 

Dieting for Health. 27 

Multitudes think it a hard necessity to tug and toil for daily 
bread, or that it should require their undivided energies of 
body and mind in planning and contriving and laboring to 
maintain their position. This is not a hard, but a happy neces- 
sity, as these very activities are not only the preservatives of 
body and mind, but are productive of those utilities which 
hasten human .progress, develope our powers, elevate the 
people, and happify mankind. 


Has sent many an one to the grave, and will send many more, 
because it is done injudiciously or ignorantly. One man omits 
his dinner by a herculean effort, and thinking he has accom- 
plished wonders, expects wonderful results, but by the time 
supper is ready he feels as hungry as a dog, and eats like one, 
fast, furious and long. Next day he is worse, and " don't be- 
lieve in dieting" for the remainder of life. 

Others set out to starve themselves into health, until the 
system is reduced so low that it has no power of resuscitation, 
and the man dies. 

To diet wisely, does not imply a total abstinence from all 
food, but the taking of just enough, or of a quality adapted to 
me nature of the case. Loose bowels weaken very rapidly — 
total abstinence from all food increases the debility. In this 
case food should be taken, which while it tends to arrest the 
disease, imparts nutriment and strength to the system. In 
this case, rest on a bed, and eating boiled rice, after it has 
been parched like coffee, will cure three cases out of four of 
common diarrhoea in a day or two. 

Others think that in order to diet effectually, it is all impor- 
tant to do without meat, but allow themselves the widest 
liberty in all else. But in many cases, in dyspeptic conditions 
of the system particularly, the course ought to be reversed, 
because meat is converted into nutriment with the expenditure 
of less stomach power than vegetables, while a given amount 
of work does three times as much good, gives three times as 
much nutriment and strength as vegetable food would. 

These " principles" merit consideration, and are more fully 
stated in our new dollar book on " Health and Disease." 

HalVs Journal of Health. 


The Christ Child; one of the publications of the General 
Protestant Episcopal S. S; Union. A Christmas book for 
children; illustrating by a charming little Story, the value of 
Heaven born charity in connection with those beautiful words 
of the Saviqur, u Inasmuch: as ye have done it unto one of the 
least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me." 

" Philip and Arthur" or ' Story of the Chatterton Chil- 
dren,' issued by the same Society; instructive to parents as 
well as children, giving practical lessons in narrative form, in 
that most difficult, apd responsible of all family duties, the 
rearing of our children ; teaching the young impressively, that 
'beginning each day well, is to . begin life well, and secures 
for both, the sunshine of true enjoyment and prosperity ; while 
those who are forgetful of duty and are selfish,, bring upon 
themselves a series of disappointments and heart aches, which 
make of life a miserable failure. 

Blackwood l» Magazine, $3 a year, has greatly added to the 
practical interest of its pages for some. months past, by a se- 
ries of popularized scientific articles on physiological subjects 
— Animal Heat, Respiration, Circulation, &c,,&c. , ... 

For six months past we have missed from our exchange ta- 
ble that safe and instructive 'family monthly u The Home" of 
Buffalo. We hope it will come regularly hereafter. 

Godey^s Ladifs Book for January may well tempt a practical 
man or woman to subscribe for it, if the three dollars had to 
be earned by f day's work. Mrs. Skimmilk says, for exampfe 
that ;: All those who have lived to any purpose in the world, 
have lived methodically." There is serious truth in that state- 
ment, one bv which a young man may select with great cer- 
tainty, a wife worth i having. 1 Had we fallen on one who kept 
things "in a muss," who never knew where to find a thing 
when wanted, we really think we should have predestrianated 
indefinitely, especially as we never failed to find that unme- 
thodical people were always dirty, without tidiness or neatness 
except for the briefest space. Then fhere are Dr. Wilson's 
heal tli items, short, wise, timely. - The reading of the " Un- 
expected Visitor" shows at a glance the striking difference 
between a helpless and a handy wife, the immeasurable dis- 
tance between the woman who can make circumstances serve 
her, and the good-for-nothing creature who is u terribly put 
out" unless every thing is arranged to her ljand by somebody 
else. Next there is " A Days Journey" by Alice B. Haven, 
so full of human nature, as to equally instruct, " good and bad." 
Wonder if " Mrs. Graves", is fhe only woman who always 
comes home from a visit or a shopping illnatured and cross | 
What a devlish quality ill nature is in any body, but in a 
woman, what depth of degradation ! 





We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting' an educated Physician. 

VOL. VL] FEBRUARY, 1859. [No. '2. 


~Men of intelligence and reflection are falling into the habit 
of -requiring something more of the physician than his advice 
and his medicine. They have a curiosity to know what the 
remedy is, and how it is expected to effect a cure. Within the 
last few months millions of people have been made acquainted 
with a very hard word, with the previous existence of which 
they perhaps never had any knowledge. . But it is often desir- 
able that men of an inquiring turn of mind should extend the 
circle of their acquaintance, &c. " Hypophosphite" has been 
introduced into very many families, and received with a wel- 
come ; the other part of the name is lime. It reads in full 
thus : " Hypophosphite Lime,".. and is claimed to have ability 
to treat successfully scrofula, consumption of the bowels, and 
consumption itself. The words run thus : # The cure of con- 
sumption in the second and third (the last, Ed.) stages, except 
when the existing lesion of the lungs is of itself sufficient to 
produce death." That is, " cures consumption in all cases 
where there are lungs enough left to live upon." It was re- 
ported, at the time of General Jackson's death, that on the 
examination of the body it was found that one-third of his 
lungs had been destroyed, and that there was conclusive evi- 
dence that such destruction had been occasioned twenty years 
before. If this be true, then it follows that a man who has 
two-thirds of his lungs left may live twenty years in reason- 
able health. Therefore, * Hypophosphite Lime" can cure 

30 HalVs Journal of Health. 

" all cases" of consumption if only one-third of the lungs are 

"Now, as the lungs of a good-sized man hold (that is, measure) 
two hundred and fifty cubic inches of air — or, in other words, 
can emit, after one full breath, about six tincupfulls of air, it 
in good health, it follows that if he has consumptive symp- 
toms, be they ever so aggravated, if he is still able to measure, 
to expire four pints or two quarts or half a gallon, he can " in 
all cases" be cured by Hypophosphite Lime, M. D., Esq. Any 
person, then, who is in the latter stages of consumption, must 
take two steps preparatory to discovering one more essential ; 
one is merely for " satisfaction," and the other indispensible, 
first pay us a fair fee, according to his ability, for finding to 
the fraction of an inch, before his own eyes, and to his full 
satisfaction, how much air his lungs measure out, which we 
can do in two minutes, with mathematical demonstrability, 
and then if he can, at one full outbreaking, emit one hun- 
dred and sixty-six and two-third inches of air, and Hypophos- 
phite Lime will cure " in all cases." 

How do we know that ? " Why, all the papers say so ;" 
and that is conclusive enough of its truth in the estimation of 
a good many people. This being fixed, how will the cure be 
effected ? "We will now drop all round abonts, premising that 
oil of vitriol be poured on some burnt bones, and the ashes 
of seaweed be stirred in (oil of vitriol is powerful, and anything 
that has " sea" attached to it has great health properties in 
the estimation of every body,) and then allowed to settle, pour 
off, then pour on boiling water, stir, let settle, pour off, and 
dry the remnant, and we will have in the shape of the purest 
whitest powder a pretty good idea of the Hypophosphite of 
Lime and Soda. As much of this as will rest on a twenty-five 
cent piece, taken daily in sweetened water, one-third at a time» 
is the curer of consumption in its last stages, if two-thirds of 
the lungs are left. How ? 

We know that the human bedy has bones in it. We know 
that healthy bones contain phosphorus. We know that in con- 
sumption the bones have not enough of phosphorus. 

All this is plain sailing. The next step, however, brings us 
right jam up against a mountain of brass ; you can't look it 
out of countenance, for the looker gets out of countenance 

Consumption — Its New Cure. 31 

instead of the lookee, from being reminded of the fact how 
little he knows. For example, we do not know what other 
things besides phosphorus the system needs when in a con- 
sumptive condition. The most learned chemists and physiolo- 
gists have not been able to decide whether phosphorus exists 
in»the system with oxygen in it, or with none — that is, we 
don't know in what shape the system needs phosphorus, nor 
whether it is to be had outside the body in the shape in which 
the body will take hold of it and appropriate it to building pur- 
poses. Dr. Gregory, of Edinburgh, says it is absurd to sup- 
pose that it can exist in the body without oxygen ; but Dr. 
Churchill, on the ground that Dr. Gregory is entirely wrong, 
" deduced" that if given to the body in the shape in which it 
combines oxygen with itself, it would cure consumption ; and, 
as the Hypophosphite of Lime fulfils that condition, he advo- 
cates its employment. 

Thus it is that the very theory that Hypophosphites are good 
in consumption is founded on assuming as a fact what eminent 
men strongly deny. 
t But, without wasting time in discussing mere theories, prac- 
tical men have put the matter to a direct test, and have re- 
ported that the Hypophosphites of Lime and Soda are of no 
curative value whatever in consumption ; that tne least that 
can be said of them is— they neither do good nor harm — but, 
if anything, they do harm by the loss of time in using them, 
which might have been better employed in other ways. We 
therefore repeat the assertion of our last number, that the best 
things to take in any and all cases of consumption are exercise, 
substantial food, and out-door air in large but due proportions, 
and that without these no case of consumptive disease has 
ever been successfully treated by any man, living or dead. 


There ought to be no cellar in any family dwelling. The 
house should be one or two feet above ground, with a trench 
around it a foot deep, so that the surface of the earth imme- 
diately under the floor should be always kept dry to the depth 
of several inches, and there should be open spaces in the 

32 ' IlalVs Journal of Health. 

" "under-pinning," so as to allow a free circulation of air at all 

New York lias the reputation of being about the sickliest 
city in the world-— that is, a larger number of persons die in 
it during a year, in proportion to the population, than in any 
other first-class city in Christendom, the mortality of which is 
reliably reported. 

There .is reason to believe that moral causes originate a very 
large number of the deaths in New York city every year. 
But among' the physical causes is the faulty construction of 
dwelling-houses, and no unimportant item' is' the cellar, which 
is under the whole building, its floor being, on an average 
fourteen feet beneath the level of the street. The only door 
of the cellar opens into the lower hall "or passage. Through 
this door the servants pass many times every day for fuel and 
the ordinary articles of cooking, and at every opening a strong 
current of air rushes and passes upward, and impregnates 
every room of the building. That air is always close, raw 
and damp, and saturated with the effluvia given:out by decay- 
ing vegetables, bones, meats, rotten wood, and ofFall of every 
conceivable description; for be it remembered that- the larger 
Houses are .so contrived that, by a convenient arrangement, the 
ashes from the kitchen fire, with' all the articles "swept from a 
a kitchen floor, or usually thrown into a kitchen fire place^ are 
Jet down into the cellar into one promiscuous heap, to be 
cleaned out in the spring, or fall, or both. "We have seen half 
a dozen cart loads borne away at a single time from five- 
stoiy brown stone fronts. In addition, many houses are so 
constructed, that all the water from the kitchen, dish-water, 
Wash-water, soap suds, floor Washings, and the like, pass into 
the " sink," as it is called, which is in the cellar, which is a 
hole dug in the earth or sand, and covered over, to be passed 
off into the street drain; but, before it passes off, the earth 
becomes saturated, and a noisome effluvia is always rising day 
and night, winter and summer. 

Still further, our magnificent mansions have the privy under 
one and the same roof with cellar, chamber, and parlor ; and 
that its sink should not become saturated, and that its effluvia 
should not arise more or less, or in some other manner make 
its way into the cellar, is an impossibility. 

Cellars, .. • • 33 

That such arrangements should prevail in, three houses out 
of four in an intelligent community is certainly not very cre- 

Not long ago we had occasion to go into the cellar of a 
store on Broadway, near the Park, and,- in looking for some 
article, we had occasion to pass the privy of the establishment, 
which was immediately under the grating over which every 
person had to pass to enter the store. . The sights on wall, 
floor, seats, -&c., were' simply incredible; yet into this temple 
of filth gentlemanly proprietors and well-dressed clerks en- 
ter often daily, and ~ within the next three minutes are 
chatting at the breadth of half a counter with the fashion of 
rfew York! 

In houses already built, we suggest that a hole six, eight,. or 
ten inches square, be cut in or near the cellar ceiling, leading 
at some distance' up into" the chimney, where, meeting with 
the hot air, a forcible draft would be made upwards and out- 
wards, and thus secure a constant and thorough cellar ventila- 
tion. Every family should, in addition, fasten up the internal 
cellar entrance, and let it be from without the; house through 
a door opening into the yard or back area, and thus make it 
impossible for the foul air of the cellar to find its way into the 

sitting rooms and chambers of the whole household. 

• : --■ ! _ L 

■ • ■ ■ vn I .-■■■ rsii ' 

Is a familiar expression, and conjures at once an image of a 
face so pale and sad as to show that its owner was utterly dis- 
heartened, was weary of himself, of life, and of all the. world 
besides. Many such are met any day in our public streets, 
feeding upon what is destroying them. It is moral medicine 
which these unfortunates require ; but unhappily the places 
where the " balm" for sorrow is had, free of cost, is not 
frequented by those who most need its healing power. But 
calling in at one. of these moral "dispensaries" on Fifth 
Aveiiue, during the " crisis of '57," we gathered up some 
prescriptions from the " Doctor" of Divinity which we think 
ought to be spread broadcast over the whole country as of en- 
during value ; for in cases not a few we have found that it was 

34: HalVs Journal of Health. 

a diseased mind which was wasting the body into the grave, 
and no drop or drug, or pill, or bolus known to the apothecary 
could avail to breakup the malady of the heart. And not 
wishing to assume responsibilities out of our present line, we 
will use the identical words of the great prescriber, leaving 
it to the reader to compare and find out whether it be accord- 
ing to the law and testimony : 

Trials increase with age, but the path of the just shineth 
more and more unto the perfect day. 

Thinking over past trials, in order to rectify them, is most 

Each trial has its errand— as a bullet its billet. Receive each 
trial as from God. 

Cultivate the habit of regarding daily vexations as trifles. 

Never be troubled with triffes, and soon all trouble will ap- 
pear as trifling. 

Daily educate your mind to turn away from trials. 

We can't lessen our trials by thinking on them. 

You can't mend them by brooding over them. 

Your motto should be — " Look forward and go forward." 

Let past troubles go, except for thanks or penitence. 

Nothing so kills fretfulness as advancing in duty. 

Meet a fire with a new fire ; meet one engrossing trouble 
by zeal in some important duty or enterprise. 

Many hearts may even now be fretting about yesterday's 
trials, or to-morrow's engagements. 

Don't dwell too much on seeking for consolation. Blessed 
are they which " endure." 

The more disinterested, the more happy will you be. Throw 
more of self overboard in a storm, and the lighter will the 
vessel be left. 

Trouble not about want of success in worldly business, or 
that wealth is endangered, or is departing, or is gone. 

Aim to reap benefit from your trials. 

All unnecessary care tends to evil. 

Heaven is perfect freedom from care; Hell is complete 

Examine how we have fallen into a fretful temper. 

The cure of fretful care is in religion. 

Reflective brooding makes our cares greater. 

Poverty, Disease, and Crime. 35 

To nurse our cares is to create more of them. 

Trouble comes like a thunderbolt sometimes in a family ; 
and thus are irreligious men daily now driven over the brink 
of drunkenness, insanity, and suicide. 

We don't know how much material wealth has been con- 
p umed in the late commercial disasters ; but the wear and tear 
of anxiety, and the shortening of life, must be computed by 
hundreds of millions. 

When trials come without our own fault, it is wrong to brood 
over them and to fret. 


Go together ; so do thrift, health, and good citizenship. The 
panacea for human sorrow is not the removal of poverty. 
That will not reach the root of the evil. Make a child good, 
and you give good assurance against idleness, beggary, and 
wasting disease. Teach a child to be clean, to be truthful, to 
hate all wrong doing, to be industrious and saving, and with a 
thorough education in " reading, writing, and arithmetic," you 
make him rich beyond the inheritance of paternal millions. 
Poverty is neither a curse nor a crime. Had we the peopling 
of a world like this, with present views of human nature and 
human need,*we would turn every son and daughter into the 
great harvest field of life without a shirt to the back or an 
implement to the hand. The necessity for " device" has been 
the material salvation of the human family. No children are 
so utterly worthless as those who never knew an obstacle be- 
tween an expressed desire and its gratification. No child is 
so irretrievably ruined as the one whose parent is its slave. 
Let every one enter the world with an income, and it would, 
under the present constitution of things, become, within a cen- 
tury, a world of idleness, gluttonny, and havoc-making dis- 
ease ; so that while it is true that, in one sense of the word, 
" the destruction of the poor is their poverty," it is, in another 
sense, not less demonstrable, that poverty is the material 
safety of the race — as witness the brightest, highest names in 
history, ancient or modern. Poverty has been the main sti- 
mulus in almost all sublime lives ; at the same time, it goads 

36; . HalVs Jmmal of .Health. 

men to the commission of the gravest crimes. What makes 
the difference ?- £Tot certainly what we call " intelligence," 
mere? ^; education,^ iabout -which unbalanced minds so con- 
stantly prate, as an infallible cure for human- woe, the certain 
means of human weal. 

,Mere> ii '.education," imthe common acceptance of the term, 
makes a man a better saint ; or .a bigger devilj according to the 
direction taken in the outset ; and that direction is the result 
of the- instillation, or its neglect,, from the first year qflife^ of 
those principles of human conduct imparted by actions as well 
as^vords, and which are founded in " love, joy, peace, long 
suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance ;" 
for " against such there is no law," Let the reader go over 
all the qualities just named, and consider for a moment how 
not one of them is inseparable from the character of a gentle- 
man and an honest man; and, if all were, such, it is easy to 
see that this would be a world of thrift, of enjoyment, and 
elevation. If, therefore, the words quoted are interpreted 
aright, they mean that in proportion as men folfow out in their 
daily conduct the great principles of love, goodness, and tem- 
perance, however limited may be their "education," they 
escape human suffering for all time, as far as that may arise 
from causes within themselves. The surest way, therefore, to 
beatify the human race permanently, is not to begin at the 
half-way house, by endeavoring to banish poverty and exist- 
ing disease. We must begin at the beginning, and make men 
good by diligently sowing the seeds of " love," and \\ good- 
ness,", and "temperance," while yet in early infancy. This 
high, holy, and important duty, belongs to parents, and ought 
to be delegated to no others. But the fashion of the times — 
and one most widely prevalent — is to turn over this first of all 
duties to Sunday school teachers, many of whom are in their 
teens, and not a few .personally ignorant of the " great sal- 
vation." , 

As far as the children of professing Christians. are concerned, 
and as far as Sunday schools, as nowr too generally conducted 
practically, take the early religious instruction of children in 
the distinctive sentiments of their faith out of the parents' 
hands, and commit it to the unfledged, who themselves need 
to be taught, it were better, that they, as now generally con- 

Poverty, Disease, and Crime. 37 

ducted, and as to their tendencies in relation to the children of 
the church, had never been heard of. 

" A thorough education," a " superior education" of all 
young people, is not the panacea for the world's ills ; will 
never free it from destitution, crime, disease, and premature 
death, using these terms in their general accepted sense. We 
must go behind the school teacher, because the child's destiny 
is shaped before it enters the ABC school-room ; direction 
is given to its goings-out, to a very great extent, before it 
leaves its mother's lap, and while yet it is toddling about the 
floor and amusing itself with its toys; and among the first 
things may be mentioned frankness, truthfulness, consistency, 
and affection. If an infant sees these in its parents, day by 
day, in all things, it will grow up to be like them with encou- 
raging certainty, paving the way for a parental influence in 
teachings .higher and still more important, which will form the 
character in such a mould as will make it safe for all time. 

Father and mother are equally. bound to do all within their 
power in forwarding these primary educations ; but as the 
mother is always at home, and possesses the warmer and more 
entire affection and confidence of the child, a higher share of 
the responsibility rests on her; and as over her the clergyman 
who preaches to her every Sabbath has a commanding influ- 
ence, we come back to the two first truths. First— 

The clergy of all denominations must wake up to a greater 
diligence in urging mothers to an imitation of Hannah of old, 
whose concern began before little Samuel saw the light of day, 
and which concern never flagged, until he was officially com- 
mitted to the temple. Mothers should be taught that the be- 
dewing influence of meditative piety should be shed on- the 
child's nature when" as yet it is not," and they should be 
urged unceasingly to follow it up day by day, until the cha- 
racter is fully formed. To do all this properly, mothers, amid 
the toils and trials and discouragements of daily life, need 
counsel, and sympathy, and help from the minister — given, 
not from the stately pulpit, but from the daily greeting and 
the friendly fireside call, where there is a felt confidence and 
a felt sympathy, the imparting and the reception of which are 
both happifying. 

Thus acting, the clergyman of an ordinary congregation 

38 HalVs Journal of Health. 

would, with other necessary duties, have his time fully em- 
ployed. Second — to do that, others should see to it that his tem- 
poral wants are promptly, fully, and liberally met, and this 
devolves on the people of his charge. In short, the only hope 
of a world's permanent redemption from crime and disease is 
in a faithful ministry, well paid by the people, to enable them to 
give their whole time to the care of the flock over which they are 
the shepherds. And to make a beginning, let the reader lay 
down this page and rest not until he has done all he could to se- 
cure for his minister an abundant support ; nor rest here. If that 
minister fails of an entire consecration of himself to the faith- 
ful performance of what has been marked out, turn him out 
as unworthy of his hire, and even if in all things else he be a 
very Gabriel. 

We may as well wake up to the fact first as last, that all 
modes of " reform" of human elevation will fail, which are 
anything short of preventives, and that efforts for the amelio- 
ration of the condition of mankind, to be permanently success- 
ful, must reach behind the college, the academy, the Sunday 
school, they must reach to the infant child — must go before its 
birth — must operate through a mother's prayers and tears, and 
bedewing piety. The Editor hopes that abler minds will carry 
out the idea, the subject having been suggested by a letter 
from a rich man, without family, who desires to lay out some 
scores of thousands of dollars in a manner which shall most 
certainly accomplish the highest results. lie has already spent 
much time and large sums of money in diffusing information 
which was calculated to benefit the masses, and especially the 
poor. Having been the architect of his own fortunes, he has 
not, in his social and pecuniary elevation, forgotten those who 
are now enduring that grinding poverty through which he 
once passed himself, and knowing its hardships, its tempta- 
tions, and its trials, he has a heart broad and full enough to do 
something to save others from them, and we do certainly 
believe that his objects will be most radically and perma- 
nently secured by a faithful ministry and a faithful mother- 
hood : 
" Dr. Hall : 

" Dear Sir — We are advised to * take time by the forelock, P You 
are evidently engaged in the endeavor to instruct the masses to take 
disease by the forelock. Why, then, may we not endeavor to teach 

Poverty, Disease, and Crime, 39 

the masses how to take 'poverty' by the forelock 1 But first we must 
determine its cause or causes, 

" William Perm said — ' If you would reform the world, you 
must begin the reformation with your children.' (Not mine, for I 
ar'nt got any !) I contend that one great cause — if not the principal 
cause of poverty— arises from the fact that children are taught from 
their infancy to be spendthrifts, fearful that the little dears will not 
know, when arrived at the years of maturity, how to spend money eco- 
nomically ! and, therefore, they are taught to spend all. they get, and 
as fast as they get it. I should say that children should be taught how 
to save money, and that to spend it is as much a sin as to lie or steal, 
and, if there is any spending to be done, let it be done by the parent. 
This is my doctrine, and 1 would pay a handsome trifle for a good 
essay upon this subject. 

" My worthy pa used to say — ' The destruction of the poor is 
their poverty r Many a one has been destroyed by consumption ; but 
this is only the effect, and so is poverty only an effect. Let us have 
the cause, that the effect may be averted. If you agree with me, I 
should be pleased to see an article in your journal upon this subject ; 
but if not, we will drop the subject like a hot potato, and let it slide. 

" By the way, doctor, I have had one of your ' physiological chairs' 
made (ten-inch seat, not eight, as you suggest), and it gives so much 
and so general satisfaction, that I have ordered several more made. 

" Mr. Fowler took a seat, and pronounced it a capital idea. 

'"Yours, "C." 

Let the three points of our article remain distinctly before 
the reader's mind. First— That mere education, talent, genius, 
is not sufficient to restrain men from crime, else Lord Bacon 
would never have been bribed, Dr. Dodd would never have 
perpetrated a forgery — else Voltaire might have been a Luther, 
Hume a Calvin, and Apollyon a Gabriel. Dr. Murray says, 
with great truth : " High talent, unless early cultivated, as 
was that of Moses, and Milton, and Baxter, and Edwards, and 
"Wesley, and Robert Hall, is the most restive under moral re- 
straints ; is the most fearless in exposing itself to temptation ; 
is the most ready to lay itself on the lap of Delilah, trusting 
in the lock of its strength. And, alas ! like Sampson, how 
often is it found blind and grinding in the prison house, when , 
it might be wielding the highest political power, or civilising 
and evangelising the nations." 

Second — The best time for making the imprint for eternity 
on an immortal nature is while it is yet in its mother's womb. 
It was while bearing the unborn Napoleon, that the mother 
scoured the country at the side of her warrior husband. It was 

40 • HalVs Journal of Health. 

before the birth of Samuel, who became higher than kings, 
that Hannah sanctified him in her heart, set him apart, and 
consecrated him to a religious life. 

Third — It was Eli the priest who comforted Hannah in her 
despondency, and the priests were so amply cared for, that 
they could give their whole time to their duties. 
• •..■■■ ij | 



Unwise above many is the man who considers every hour 
lost which is not spent in reading, writing, or in study ; and 
not more rational is she who thinks every moment of her time 
lost which does not find her sewing. 

¥e once heard a great man advise that a book of some kind 
be carried in the pocket to be used in case of any unoccupied 
moment. Such was his practice. He died early and fatuitous ! 

There are women who, after a hard day's work, will sit and 
sew by candle or gas light until their eyes are almost blinded, 
or until certain pains about the shoulders come on which are 
almost insupportable, and are only driven to bed by a physical 
incapacity to work any longer. The sleep of the overworked, 
like that Of those who do not work at all, is unsatisfying and 
unrefreshing, and both alike wake up in weariness, sadness 
and languor, with an inevitable result, both dying prema- 

Let no one work in pain or weariness. "When a man is tired 
he ought to lie down until he is most fully rested, when with 
renovated strength the work will be better done, done the 
sooner, done with a self-sustaining alacrity. 

The time taken from seven or eight hour's sleep out of each 
twenty-four is time not gained, but time more than lost ; we- 
can cheat ourselves, we cannot cheat nature. A certain amount 
of food is necessary to a healthful body, and if less than that 
amount be furnished, decay commences the very hour. It is 
the same with sleep, and any one who persists in allowing him- 
self less than nature requires, will only hasten his arrival at 
the madhouse or the grave. 

Make a Brick. 41 


In a late New York Observed* we read " Do not conclude 
the Lord is not with you because things go very contrary, and 
he does not appear for you ; he was in the ship notwithstand- 
ing the storm." 

In all that Scott or Dickens ever wrote, there is not found a 
single sentence so fraught with solid comfort, bringing conso- 
lation so ineffably sweet to the heart all oppressed with har- 
rowing trouble or torn asunder with saddest trials. Such a 
sentiment and such a sentence can never die, and will continue 
for ages to come to soothe the sorrowing children of humanity. 
And for that single sentence, we consider its unknowu author 
a greater benefactor to his kind than both the men whose 
names are written above. When Scott and Dickens have been 
once read they are laid away; we instinctively withdraw from 
a second perusal, because nothing new is expected ; but the 
lines we have quoted will give fresh comfort to every medita- 
tive heart at every new trial, making it feel- — "There is no 
sorrow that Heaven cannot cure." 

In the " Presbyter" of Cincinnati, another excellent family 
paper, we read not long ago, — "The danger, temptation, and 
sin of the age, is the thoughtless has,te to secure the world that 
now is, forgetful of the better, wider, everlasting world to 

Composing a sentence like either of the two we have quoted, 
or doing a good deed in helping the helpless, in raising the 
fallen, in cheering those who are striving in privation and hard 
toil for an honest life, is to " make-a brick" for the great build- 
ing which, is to pass the fiery ordeal of the general judgment, 
and which cannot be consumed like the " wood, and hay, and 
stubble," of which the scriptures have spoken. 

Or, to change the simile, and bring it near a medical sense, 
the deeds above, and others like them, are " cordials" prepared 
before hand, which impart a life giving influence to those who 
have a right to use them in hours of trial and sickness, on a 
dying bed and at the judgment day ! 

How many of our readers have been making it a point to 
prepare a good supply of these " cordials" in case of emergen- 
cy, when something will be needed beyond the common order 

42 HalVs Journal of Health, 

of tilings, not the jams and jellies of the ordinary table, but 
the sweet-meats of the soul, of good deeds done humbly in un- 
selfishness I 

We do not know when we were more impressed with com- 
miseration, than when reading of a great reformer, so called, 
dying at the age of almost ninety years, the hero of Lanark, of 
communism. The absorbing desire of his heart, the thing 
which waked up for an instant his expiring energies, the one 
all pervading longing of his soul was — to reach his childhood's 
home and there die ! What feeding on dry fence rails, on the 
veriest husks and chaff is this. Were there no sweet memo- 
ries of unselfish deeds done in the long pilgrimage of Robert 
Owen, upon which the soul could linger, while in another 
sense they could be accounted as " nothing !" The Christian 
has died before now in raptures ineffable, in a parched desert, 
on a rock of the sea, aye on the wheel and at the stake, lean- 
ing his head on the bosom of the Saviour, and breathing his 
life out sweetly there, panting all the while to be in heaven, 
in the consciousness of having endeavored, now and then at 
least, and O how feebly, to live for man and God, to do 
something to happify a brother pilgrim and help him onward 
to the skies. 

Reader ! How many " bricks" made you for 1858 ; what of 
" cordials" did you prepare in that long year of blessings, the 
bricks and the cordials of good deeds done for your fellow man, 
to the end of glorifying his Maker ? How many do you pur- 
pose making the present year, for it may be your last on 
earth? and to lay on a bed of pain and weary suffering, to 
encounter the mortal agony, and have no cordial by your side 
to carry you through it all, happily, triumphantly, how 
dreadful !— Go this minute and do some good deed to some- 
body, for you may die to-morrow, and if you do not die to- 
morrow, u repeat the prescription" every day until you do. 


Many an excellent clergyman has lost his voice, and even- 
tually his life, by preaching in a cold, damp, and close church ; 
and multitudes of people have been made invalids for months 

Warming Churches, 43 

and years, and have prematurely died, from sitting in churches 
insufficiently warmed in winter time. 

The atmosphere of any building closed for six days in the 
week becomes unfit for respiration in summer as well as win- 
ter by reason of its damp, heavy closeness. It requires several 
days for the cold and damp to get into a closed house, and a 
mueh longer time for it to get out. Hence, after several days 
of very severe weather, it may be sultry — even uncomfortably 
warm in riding, walking, or any other slight effort, and no 
fire is deemed necessary ; on the contrary, the air of the 
church seems, on first entering, to be refreshingly cool, but 
has, nevertheless, sowed the seeds of untimely death in multi- 
tudes ; for, remaining still for a couple of hours, the body 
becomes chilled through and through, to be followed by fever, 
pleurisy, inflammation of the lungs, or other dangerous forms 
of disease. 

Many country churches are heated by stoves, which, on cold 
days, are kept red hot, roasting those who are near, leaving 
the more distant ones to freeze. 

These difficulties may be easily avoided by a little know- 
ledge and attention, which may be illustrated by stating the 
practice of the sextons of our city churches — or, to be more spe- 
cific, the practice of the sexton of the church which we attend 
in Fifth Avenue, Mr. Culyer, who will doubtless be surprised 
to find his name in print ; but as the health and lives of a 
thousand people are in his custody every winter's day, and as 
we have not in the course of years ever noticed the building 
too hot or too cold, his fidelity to duty, and his intelligence in 
this regard, merits a public notice. A thermometer is kept 
about five feet above the floor, about half-way between the 
door and the pulpit. The heat is made to reach fifty-five de- 
grees of Fahrenheit at the time the service is about commenc- 
ing. With the same heat in the furnace, it is raised to sixty 
by the warmth imparted from the bodies of the congregation. 
The fires are not built, as in country churches, on Sabbath 
morning, but early on Saturday morning, and are kept pushed 
for twenty-four hours, with a proper opening of doors and win- 
dows to secure a thorough airing of the whole building. If the 
weather is intensely cold, the fires are built early on the 
Friday morning preceding the Sabbath. 

44 HalVs Journal of Health. 

In summer time, the- doors and windows are opened at day- 
light to let in the cool air, and at ten are closed to keep it in. 
Thus, by these simple arrangements, the building is delight- 
fully cool in midsummer; while, on a zero day, we have the 
soft and balmy warmth of a southern clime: 

. — __ 1 — . j 


[yilio rn n . s •■ , . . i 

Some years ago a returned foreign missionary had almost 
settled down in the sad conclusion that for the remainder of a 
life yet young, he was to be but a cumberer of the ground ; 
but a letter just received says—" I am happy to say that my 
health is now unusually good ; I. am under the necessity of 
being constantly vigilant;, yet, with due caution, I labor hard, 
as hard as any of my brethren, and, what is far .better, it 
awakens my sincerest gratitude God has greatly blessed 'my 
labors. For all this, under Him, I am indebted, my dear sir, 
to you; and that He may make you the instrument of still 
more and more good, especially in helping his poor broken 
ministers, is my sincere desire," &c. 

There is a lesson of the very highest importance in this nar- 
ration. This gentleman was enabled to maintain his ability 
for pastoral labor, hard but' successful, by means of constant, 
untiring vigilance. Very many attempt to test the perfection 
of their, cure by unnecessary exposures or extravagances ; 
others by the most unpardonable in difference or inattention to 
their health, with the result of coming back to the physician 
with almost expressed upbraidings for a "temporary" im- 
provement. The price of life to any one who has been 
seriously ill is eternal vigilance. 



Pope Adrian died by a gnat. 
A Koman counsellor by a hair. 
Anacreon, the Greek poet, by a grape-seed. 
Charles the Sixth, by a mushroom. 
Stephen Girrard, by a milk-cart. 

Broken Bones. 45 

Jacob Ridgeway, by a dray. 

General Taylor, by a bowl of berries. . 

The Duke of Wellington, by a plate of venison. 

Abbott Lawrence, by an injudicious change of clothing. 

Rachel, the tragedienne, from want of an extra dress in the 
cars between New York and Boston. 

Life, being hung on such little things, its preservation is a 
daily miracle ; and that any of us should arrive at mature age 
is owing to the fact that there is an eye upon us which never 
sleeps, the eye of a Heavenly Father, whose loving kindness 
is over all his works — whose " mercies are new every morn- 
ing, and fresh every evening." 


May be prevented in icy weather by taking steps short and 
slow, but fast and long in all weathers, in a direction from a 
mad bull. 

If, by a neglect of these reasonable precautions, a bone is 
broken, the first thing to be done is to groan with an earnest- 
ness prodigious ; don't yell, for that repels the hearer, while 
the former attracts by sympathy. Besides, groans, like tears, 
bring relief. Tearless silence is the sad precursor of certain 
death in all great bodily ailments.. 

Persons have added to their injuries before now by attempt- 
ing to rise, and falling down again, in consequence of a limb 
having been broken. This may be avoided, if, on the first re- 
turn to consciousness, after a " collision," bursting of a boiler, 
and the like, a man would take the precaution, or have the 
presence of mind, before attempting to rise, to endeavor to 
move each leg and arm ; for, if he can, neither is broken, nor 
are any of their joints dislocated ; upon obtaining which intel- 
ligence there can be no rational obstacle to the most expedi- 
tious pedestrianism which the emergencies of the case admit of. 


To any man about building a house or locating a farm, it 
may be useful to know that a difference of half a mile, or even 

46 HalVs Journal of Health. 

a hundred feet, may make for his family a healthy home, or a 
hospital. To make a safe decision, the general laws of 
" maiaria" and " miasm"— that is, of bad air and marsh ema- 
nations—should be understood ; and it is by the investigation 
of these, and their publication for the benefit of all, that this 
journal and honorable physicians are steadily endeavoring to 
promote human health and happiness ; yet, sorry are we to say 
that every now and then we hear of an unexpected defection ; 
the love of gold seducing some to conceal their discoveries, 
real, imagined, or pretended, and to make of them a barter for 
dollars and cents. Be withering shame and irredeemable in- 
famy the portion of him who, having gleaned all he can from 
the generous stores of his brethren, clutches with miserly grasp 
and hides in his own bosom the first ray of new practical truth 
which chanced to dawn on his eye. Such is the mean-heart- 
eclness of the authors of patent medicines^ one of whom is fre- 
quently styled in the reading matter of even religious news- 
papers as the " benefactor" of his race. Proh jpuclor / gen- 
tlemen of the religious press. 


Many years ago, in travelling among the blue mountains of 
the Old Dominion, on a visit of curiosity to her " springs," 
we chanced to fall in with a young clergyman just married. 
He unfolded to us his prospects, bright and sad — bright as to 
position and opportunity — sad as to the poor health, which 
threatened to blast them all. Since then he has risen, and 
made. a high mark among his fellow-men— a mark as good as 
it is great. A quarter of a century has passed, during w T hich 
we have never forgotten him, and have never met him ; but 
to-day we received the following : 

" Dear Sir-— Very highly estimating the ability and utility, the 
wholesome moral and religious, as well as healthful tenor of your 
Journal of Health, you will please mail it to me." 

He has forgotten that we ever met ; but the point of observ- 
ance is this — the writing is in a hand so trembling, and indi- 
cating such bodily debility, that it struck us with amazement. 
Men of eighty years have written to us in a firmer, bolder, 

Premature Decay, 47 

younger hand ; and yet he cannot be far from either side of 
the line of half a century. What changes has time wrought, 
and how different our constitutions ! We are as merry as a 
cricket and as blithe as a lark of a spring morning in spite of 
the rubs we have had on land and sea, in city, prairie, or 
boundless forests of the malarial South. A knowledge and 
practice of the laws of life unfolds the mystery. He is young 
enough to electrify the Southern pulpit with his profound and 
burning eloquence for a quarter of a century to come. But 
he will never do it, nor for a decade even. Moral : — Theolo- 
gical students ought to spend less time in chewing Hebrew 
roots and poring over Greek themes— less time in handling 
theological polemics, and more in studying how to live long, 
work hard, thrive upon it, and die victorious — the battle won 
over sin, Satan, and a wicked race. 

Let the church in general, and theological professors in par- 
ticular, remember that a sick soldier is bad enough — he is but 
a unit — but a sick leader modifies the efficiency of whole 
regiments. The remedy is patent — let the friends of a sound 
Christianity look to it. 


The God of both is one and the same. In the operations of 
both the same great general principles run parallel. In the 
vegetable world, the world of mind and the world of grace, 
there are the same great changes of seed time and harvest— 
of ebb and flow — of renewal and decay — of increment and 
loss — of opportunity improved or forfeited— of chances used, 
or for ever gone. 

Every spring the vegetable world takes a new lease of life; 
every morning man wakes up to renewed vigor. In the human 
body, too, there are times which, more than any others, are 
adapted to the renovation of health and to the arrest of sick- 
ness ; but, if unimproved, the vigor of manhood declines, dis- 
ease burrows in the system, and there is no repair. Nor is it 
different in the momentous world of grace. Ordinarily a man 
may at any time become a Christian ; but there are seasons pi 
extraordinary fructification, when the facilities are so largely 

48 HaWs Journal of Health. 

increased, that resistance, refusal to employ them, is a mad- 
ness, a fatuity; because, if rejected, then, the offer may be 
made no more. It is certainly true in the life of every man 
that there are critical periods, which, if rightly improved, acid 
many years to his age. These periods regularly recur, and, if 
not improved, that man never lives to see another. The fruc- 
tifying shower does not always fall, and the sheltered plant, 
which needed it so much, will die long before another comes. 
And just as certain is it in this time of " great awakenings," 
that multitudes who stand under the spiritual showers but 
ward them off by feelings of indifference, or shame, or greed 
of gold, or thirst for human applause, or love of festivity, 
revelry, and mirth, or the fatal indecision, which is the 

"Thief of time! 
Year after year it steals, till all are fled, 
And to the mercies of a moment leaves 
The vast concerns of an immortal scene." 

To doubt or uncler-estimate these special opportunities, 
because they are unusual, or transient, or may fail of perma- 
nent benefit to some, is to be like a simpleton gardener, who 
protects his plants against the shower because it falls at an un- 
usual season, or because it is not 1 sufficient, in his estimation, 
to produce any other than a temporary good effect, except to 
a portion of them ; or like the unthinking invalid, who, racked 
with torture, refuses to take the soothing medicament because 
its good effects may soon pass away/ So also are there times 
more than ordinarily propitious for the securement of health 
and the prompt arrest of the advance of insidious disease. 
Youth is the time for the former, as also about the age of 
forty years. As to the latter, f,- prompt attention" is the uni- 
versal rule, given at length in our new book, " Health and 

. __ ua s-s± • 


Most strange affinities are taking place now-a-days, in the 
social, religious and political world, and not less in the world of 
literature. A missionary from the very far west writes, "I al- 
ways read the Journal through, also' Dr. Rice's ' Expositor' of 
Chicago, I cannot say as much of any other publication." 

Fraternization. 49 

From the banks of the turbid Missouri, a lawyer of renown 
assures us, that he "expects" to take Hall's Journal of Health 
and the New York Observer as long as he lives. A note 
comes from one of the first divines in modern Athens, " when- 
ever I receive the ' Journal' I read it through on the spot." 
A professional gentleman informs us, " There are two men's 
writings which I intend to have the very first moment of my 
ability, those of the Editor of the Scalpel, and Journal of 
Health." A Clergyman ! writes us, " The Water Cure Journal, 
Life Illustrated, and Hall's Journal of Health ought to be in 
every family in the land." Another man thinks the Indepen- 
dant the best family paper extant, and his wife agrees with 
him ! and further, that it and our Journal are indispensable to 
their comfort. Now if the Journal .pleases, and strikes the 
common sense of persons whose views so widely differ in the 
taking of other publications, the inference may be fairly drawn 
that it ought to have a circulation wider than either of them, 
and it would, if each of its friends would exhibit the same zeal 
in the promotion of what they feel to be useful and true, as 
the misguided advocates of error and false doctrine, show in 
their alacrity for the diffusion of the specious and the empty; 
but error is too often up and away by morning light, while 
laggard truth lies abed until breakfast. Gentle reader, resolve 
to break in upon this habit for one, by sending us the names 
of a dozen persons whom you love and esteem best, and thus 
serve truth and us too. 

Extracts from Health and Disease, by De. W. W. Hall. 


The power which sets all stars and suns in motion, ordained 
that it should be kept in continuance by inherent properties; 
we call it gravitation. That same power started the complex 
machinery of corporeal man, and endowed it with regulations 
for continuance to the full term of animal life, and we call it 
instinct. . , 

The irresponsible brute has no other guide to health, than 
that of instinct— it is in a measure absolutely despotic; and 
can not be readily contravened. 

50 HalVs Journal of Health. 

By blindly and implicitly following this instinct, the birds 
of the air, the fish in the sea, and four-footed beasts and 
creeping things live in health, propagate their kind, and die 
in old age, unless they perish by accident or by the warfares 
which they wage against one another, living, too, from age to 
age without any deterioration of condition or constitution ; for 
the whale of the sea, the lion of the desert, the fawn of the 
prairie, are what they were a thousand years ago ; and that 
they have not populated the globe is because they prey on one 
another, and man in every age has lifted against them an ex- 
terminating arm. Man has instinct in common with the low- 
er races of animal existence, to enable him to live in health, 
to resist disease ; but he has in addition a higher and a nobler 
guide — it is Reason. Why he should have been endowed with 
this additional safeguard, ft found in the fact, that the brute 
creation are to be used for temporary purposes, and at death 
their light goes out forever, but man is designed for an immor- 
tal existence, of which the present life is the mere threshhold. 
He is destined to occupy a higher sphere, and a higher still, 
until in the progress of ages, he passes by angelic nature ; ri- 
sing yet, archangels fall before him, and leaving these beneath, 
and behind him, the regenerated soul stands in the presence 
of the Deity, and basks forever in the sunshine of his glory. 

Considering then, that such is his ultimate destination, it is 
no wonder that in his wise benevolence, the great Maker of us 
all should have vouchsafed to the creature man, the double 
safe-guard of instinct, and of a diviner reason ; that by the aid 
and application of both, his life might be protected, and pro- 
tracted too, under circumstances of the highest advantage and 
most extended continuance, in order to afford him the fullest 
opportunity of preparing himself for a destiny so exalted, and 
for a duration of ceaseless ages. 


We do not mean a temperance restricted in its application 
to spirituous drink, but on the comprehensive scale laid down 
in the Holy Scriptures, in the injunction to be "Temperate in 
all things." While it is quite certain that those who begin in 

True Temperance. 51 

their teens to adhere to a rational temperance, may very safely 
calculate on reaching threescore years and ten, and even four- 
score, there is the hope which example and un controverted 
fact give, that even if health is lost at " forty-five," a wise tem- 
perance begun and continued from that age, promises the liv- 
ing in comfort and happiness, to double the number of years ! 

Lewis Cornaro, an Italian nobleman, gifted and rich, yielded 
to the depravities of his nature, and at the early age of forty- 
five, found himself a wreck in fortune, fame and health. The 
physicians whom he consulted, being familiar with his ex- 
cesses and his reckless character, fortified in their opinion, by 
the evident fearful inroads which disease had made on his con- 
stitution, considered an attempt at restoration so hopeless, that 
they declined bending their minds to the preparation of a proper 
prescription, and to save themselves, as they supposed, a use- 
less trouble, they informed him that he was beyond remedial 
means, and that the best thing he could do would be to recon- 
cile his mind to the inevitable event, and make for it a Christ- 
ian preparation, 

lie at once determined that as he had but a short time to 
live it should be a merry one, and was about casting himself 
into the maelstrom of a drunken vicious life, but by some un- 
explained circumstance, a freak possessed him, that at one ef- 
fort he would cheat death and the doctors, by entering at once 
upon a life of the most heroic self-denial, and become in all 
respects a temperate man. So precise w T as he, that he weighed 
his food and measured his drink to the end of his life. He 
regained his health, regained his. possessions, resumed his title 
and his social position, and became a happy-hearted Christian 
minded gentleman. His whole nature seemed to overflow 
with kindness to all his race, and on the twelfth of March, fif- 
teen hundred and sixty-five, feeling that he was approaching 
the termination of his life, and reclining on his cot, the excel- 
lent old man exclaimed : " Full with joy and hope I resign 
myself to thee, most merciful God." He then disposed him- 
self with serenity, and closing his eyes as if about to slumber, 
gave a gentle sigh, and expired at the age of " ninety-eight 

SalVs Journal of Health. 


Phonography in five parts. By Andrew J. Graham, conductor of 
the Phonetic Academy, New York ; author of "Brief Longhand" 
A book on this subject, able, systematic, comprehensive, and clear, 
has long been a want, which the author has now fully met. Sent post- 
paid for $1 25. 

" Seven Miles Around Jerusalem;" a mapj 21 by 24 inches, in 
book form, for $1. By James Challen & Sons, Philadelphia. A 
most valuable aid to every Bible student in localizing some of the 
most interesting incidents of New Testament history. The same 
house furnishes for one dollar each the most beautiful and finished 
steel engravings of the leading men of the '■ Christian" denomination, 
beginning with Alexander Campbell, who, like Saul of old, stands a 
head and shoulders above them all in learning, courage, and mental 

Sargenfs School Monthly, $1 a year, Boston, we heartily com- 
mend to every growing family in the land. It is instructive to all. 

" Blackwood" and the four reviews — Edinburgh, London Quarterly, 
Westminster, and North British, $10 a year, Leonard Scott & 
Co. — affords a large amount of valuable reading to all educated men. 

Educational. — We have never yet met with a man who could in- 
form us where, in the city of New York, a young girl could get a 
thorough education in any one thing short of having a special teacher. 
Too many of the female boarding schools and " Institutes" are 
schools for sham, and smatter, and show — skimming in every thing, 
thorough in nothing ; the theatres, where meet the snobbery of recent 
wealth and the pretentiousness of those once rich, but have lost every 
thing but their pride, making a repulsive alliance for mutual advan- 
tage. But this the really rich and elevated would be very willing to 
submit to, if their daughters could, in these institutions, become 
thorough in anything, from orthography upwards. The subject of the 
education of our children is not understood by over one in a thou- 
sand ; and until it is, it would be better, at least in cities, for each 
church to assume the exclusive control over its own young, as to their 
literary and doctrinal instruction, aiming to have both radical and 
thorough as far as they went ; and even although that did not go 
beyond first principles, it would be greatly preferable to the present 
system, and we hope that earnest Christian people will give it their 
serious consideration. 

Repudiation.— A writer in the Home Journal states, that an emi- 
nent physician in Virginia intimated to him that the " half-educated 
and slenderly supported country doctors find it to their interest to 
prolong disease." How. a man represented to be an " excellent con- 
versationist," a "philosopher," and " scientific observer," and about 
retiring from the successful practice of medicine, should make such 
a charge against " country physicians," who perform more hazardous 
personal labor, without any other reward than a love of humanity and 
a desire of maintaining professional honor, than any other class of 
men, without exception, we cannot conjecture. Such a man is neither 
a " Virginian" nor a " gentleman;" and, if he is an educated physi- 
cian, he is there by mistake, and is unworthy of professional recog- 





We ami to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] MARCH, 1859. [No. 3. 


We consider it unbecoming a philosopher and a christian, 
to have anything to do with these establishments, directly or 
indirectly. Faro bank dealers, lottery men and stockjobbers 
are tumbled over into the hands of the " adversary," to be 
dealt with secundem artem, without the slightest compunction, 
and every where there is a repugnance against the failure of a 
fair quid pro quo : while religious men are so horrified at any 
thing like "chance," that they won't " draw straws!" The 
gambler says " heads, I loose, tails, you win ;" the insurance 
company says, in effect, " I will bet you two thousand dollars, 
against fifty-six dollars, that you won't die in a year, provided 
you pay the fifty-six dollars in hand, and take our word for 
the payment of the two thousand, in case you should die." It 
seems to us that there is a slight degree of downright imperti- 
nence in the " transaction," with no small share of impiety in 
the phrase " I will insure your life for one year !" If the in- 
sured dies within the year, his family or friends receive two 
thousand dollars, for fifty -six ; there is no equity in that — no 
just reciprocity. Many a lottery policy will give you a chance 
of getting five times as much money for one-tenth of the a- 
mount. There ought to be a repugnance in the mind of a 
husband or wife, or other near relation, against reaping a be- 
nefit by virtue of the death of the other party : therefore, we 
say to every Christian man, " have faith in God," that the 
experience of the sweet singer of Israel will be fulfilled in 

54: HalVs Journal of Health. 

your children — " I have been young, and now I am old. yet 
have I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed be^iner 

CJ ' DC O 

bread." Besides this, the most desponding of all the prophet- 
ical writers enjoins, — " leave thy fatherless children, I will 
preserve them alive ; and let thy widows trust in me." To our 
mind these things mean something, they mean a great deal ; 
they mean all that they say. God fulfils his promises literally, 
giving " good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, 
and running over." The barrel of meal decreased not, neither 
did the cruse of oil fail in old Elijah's day, nor will it ever, to 
the truly trusting, unless for higher advantages. 

But the Almighty's ways are the best ways, even in a pecu- 
niary point of view, for they not only habituate the mind to 
humble trustingness, they are profitable, both as to the life 
that now is, and that which is to come. Let us look at the 
life insurance figures. They make money by it; the daily 
papers show that they are dividing ten and twenty per cent, 
annually, and these immense dividends are profits paid by the 
poor and the struggling, to those who are clothed in purple 
and fine linen, and fare sumptuously every day ; who toil not, 
neither do they spin, but lounge on velvet cushions, and roll 
along our streets in equipages, vieing in splendor with those 
of princes, which they have a sort of right to do, if the daily 
toiler chooses to pay the piper. 

Insurance companies are very clear of giving policies to any 
but persons in sound health ; and that the chances of life are 
in favor of the company, the profits at each annual report 
clearly show. The best insurance is a temperate, rational life, 
with the immense advantage, that the insured in this case, 
lives to enjoy his policy instead of its being done by the hus- 
band of his widow. 

Then again, policies are frequently paid, only at the end of 
a law suit So common is this, that it is not an unusual 
thing, when a prominent person dies, and his family connec- 
tion is too powerful for a company to contend with, the policy 
is promptly paid with a flourish of trumpets in the daily pa- 
pers, which catches gulls, as the announcement of the drawing 
of the highest prize in a lottery leads multitudes to try their 
chii.nce, which otherwise they never would have thought of 
doing. ' 

Life Insurance. 55 

There is another item, the presidency and secretaryship and 
brokerage of an insurance company are valuable births, each 
worth thousands of dollars, some of them live thousand dollars 
a year ; and yet, after all these salaries are paid, annual divi- 
dends are made, reaching to twenty per cent. — who pays all 
this ? Poor clergymen, from meagre salaries, eked out by 
painful economies ; working men, whose daily labor procures 
that same day's need ; loving parents and self-denying hus- 
bands, who seldom part with a premium without a pang. — • 
Shame on the whole thing ! 

But there are cases not a few, where honorable men have 
paid the premiums for many years, amounting to thousands 
of dollars, when r the company "fails ;" and being now too old 
to secure a fresh policy in some other office, except at a price 
which is simply impossible to them, they, in a year or two 
die, with an amount of money in the company's strong box, 
which would make their helpless families comfortable for 
years. If then, a man wants to lay up a safe treasure for his 
family in case of his death, we propose to him* a plan for se- 
curing his life, and the premiums of a life time too. As to the 
first we say, live in temperance, moderation, cleanliness, and 
then lay by a premium every year, to be put out at legal in- 
terest, payable quarterly, which also put out in the same way, ; 
and in the course of twenty years, the amount on hand would 
be greater than the amount received from the company would 
be, and just double in thirty years. So if the insurer makes 
money, the insured can make money too, by insuring himself. 

Be it remembered, that insurance companies require a man 
to be in good health, of regular habits, and to avoid hazardous 
occupations; then, for fifty-six dollars, at forty-one years of 
age, they will insure his life for one year for two thousand 
dollars ; but a man at forty-one, of such a character as the 
above, stands a good chance of living to seventy years, the 
three score and ten of scripture ; in that case, his family will 
receive at his death, just half what he has paid, but double 
that if he had insured himself. 

"We say, therefore, to every christian reader, keep away 
from the life insurance office, whose foundation is on chance ; 
as is the lottery, the faro bank, and the stock board. On the 
other hand, have faith in God, in a regular temperate life and 

56 HalVs Journal of Health. 

in a true economy ; living within yonr income, and resolutely, 
"with an invincible determination, put the surplus at safe in- 
terest and collect it quarterly. Doing this from year to year 
is true wisdom, for it is a more profitable investment than any 
life insurance company dares to offer. Scarcely had we closed 
the last paragraph, when carriage after carriage rolled along 
the street, and above the clatter of wheels was heard glad 
sounds of women's voices, and men speaking quick and cheer- 
ily, for they had all brought up next door, on the occasion of 
a complimentary visit to an aged clergyman, who for fifty- 
eight years had been an active, eloquent and an efficient mi- 
nister in the methodist church ; and still, in his keen black 
eye is the fire of younger years, for Sabbath after Sabbath he 
fails not to preach the gospel. But one just closing his eight- 
ieth year needed a staff, and a handsome one they gave him ; 
rather heavy, however, for they had " made a deposit" within 
it of four hundred live dollar gold pieces, which was so un- 
expected to him, that he could only say that he regarded it as 
another evidence of the goodness of that Providence which 
had never failed him in his past pilgrimage, and would not 
fail him unto death. Had it been at all known that such a 
manifestation was in progress, there are multitudes in New 
York of all denominations, who would have considered it a 
pleasure and a privilege to have been allowed to participate 
in gladdening the aged heart of so useful and good a man as, 
Nathan Bangs, of Irving Place. 

After all, who shall not say that the best insurance office is 
n ot in Wall street, but in Heaven, where " premiums" are 
paid, not in gold and silver, not in bills and checks, but in 
the privilege of a useful and guileless life, a life honored and 
honorable, for such a life has been that of the revered father 
whose name we have written. 


Is the title of a dollar book by Dr. D. King, of Boston, 
which is alike suggestive to medical students, practising phy- 
sicians, and all who think for themselves, which by the way is 
a very small army, but to be of that army an indispensible 
pre-requisite is, that a man must be the " bravest of the brave.' 1 

Quachery Unmasked. 57 

The Doctor wields a facile pen, and no reflecting mind will 
fail to be amused and instructed by the perusal of the work. 
And when we consider how many young physicians, on the 
advent of " medical inhalation," wrote patronising letters to 
its propagators, thereby showing their ignorance of medical 
history, and a consciousness of their incompetency to the sci- 
entific application of medical science — when this is brought to 
mind, we doubt not that if our medical schools would make 
Dr. King's book one of the standard works, a very salutary 
influence would be the result. 

Dr. King wields a trenchant blade, and his cleaver of histo- 
rical facts falls mercilessly on some of the isms of the day. — 
The closing paragraph in reference to women practising 
medicine, is characteristic of the whole book — " But when she 
enters the fetid laboratory of the anatomist, and plunges her 
hands into the gore of dead men, she loses all her feminine 
loveliness, and appears like a fallen angel, an object of univer- 
sal horror and disgust." 

More than one-half the book is devoted to the annihilation 
of Homeopathy. Its founder, a Dutchman, was born over a 
hundred years ago, and died at a good age. Dr. King's illus- 
trations run about as follows : Hahneman's system was founded 
on two theories. The first was that " like cured like," that 
what causes a disease will cure it. If a man is sick at the sto- 
mach, give him an emetic. If another is going down hill give 
him a kick, and it will bring him back. 

The other foundation stone of the system is, that if any me- 
dicine is valuable as a remedy, it becomes more powerful by 
division. That is, if a drop of cologne be put into a hundred 
drops of water, and be shaken a hundred times, it will have a 
hundred times more powerful effect, (will smell stronger we 
presume,) than it did at first ; and that it may be gone on in 
this way until a drop will finally impregnate lake Superior, and 
that if one drop of this be taken, it will produce the most tre- 
mendous effects on the whole human frame, which will last a 
month. Hahneman carried this process through two thousand 
vials, and on. giving a patient six or eight drops of it, he came 
very near killing him. 

According to this, a grain of pulverized charcoal, divided 
into a million parts, will produce over two hundred symptoms 

5S IlalVs Journal of. Health. 


of disease from the crown of the heel tatbe toe of the head ; 

and that these symptoms will last thirty-six days. See " Jahr's 

new Homeopathic '"Manual," page 565. 

The one decillionth part of a grain of common chalk gives 
a hundred and twenty-five diseased conditions of the body. 

Professor "Wharton, of London, says, — that one grain of me- 
dicine dissolved in a hundred drops of water, and a drop of 
'that into a hundred other drops of water, until one drop of 
water has in it a decillionth part of the original grain, it would 
take a million of people a million of years, swallowing one drop 
a second, to take that grain of medicine ; and max the vessel 
which should contain it all, would be a million miles long, a 
million miles broad and a million miles deep. We have not 
given the words of Dr. King exactly, but'have given the ideas. 
If our infinitessimal friends think that we have not given a fair 
statement of the case, they must quarrel with their leaders, 
Hahneman, Jahr and others. If our readers clo not desire 
to be bothered in the fog of the multitudinous pathies and isms 
of the times, we advise them to the use of natural inexpensive 
agencies, at least in the treatment of ordinary ailments, such 
as colds, neuralgias, dyspepsia, constipation, sick head ache, 
and the like ; these agencies being a wise adaptation of food, 
rest, air, warmth, cleanliness and ' exercise, as uniformly and 
consistently set forth in our practice ! as well as in our writings. 


A philosophical writer in the American Homeopathic Re- 
view of New York, utters the grand practical sentiment that 
4t pathology is submitted to a sucession of forms, consistent 
with the different strata or ages of society." There are two 
important ideas suggested by this statement, which we will 
state in language familiar to the masses. Pathology is the 
science of disease, but the same disease in a day laborer is 
different from what it is in one whose occupation is sedentary, 
in a body of health for example, or in one who has a frail con- 
stitution. Hence a treatment which would cure a clay la- 
borer might kill a weakly woman. Hence the absurdity of 
using patent medicines, even taking the huge impossibility for 
granted, that one " certificate" in a thousand is fully true. 

The Science of Medicine. 59 

Another important inference which very many physicians 
will strongly object to, because it is an idea ground into 
them with great assiduity by the professors of medical schools, 
which possess hospital facilities, is that those facilities are indis- 
peusible to the making of an able medical practitioner. But 
the advantages in this direction are overrated, simply because 
coarse and rough people and constitutions are met with in 
hospitals ; but to subject those whose whole modes of life and 
temperament and general systems are entirely different to the 
same processes of cure and the same doses of medicine, is most 
extreme folly. The latter would die by the power of the 
remedies, while the former, if treated as the latter would die 
for want of remedies. This is an extreme statement, in order 
to make the contrast more striking. 

There is wide complaint of the incompetency of our young 
doctors, and no stronger proof of this is needed than in the fact 
that so many soon abandon their profession for other callings ; 
not a few resort to dishonorable means of obtaining practice, 
whilst multitudes barely succeed in making both ends meet 
at the end of a lifetime, and even this, not seldom, is attained 
by painful economies. 

Another reason for the incompetence of medical graduates, 
is their haste to get into practice, and the facility of doing it 
by means of two courses of lectures, embracing a period of 
eight months. Unless there is some remedy found for this, 
we had better go back to tie old plan of putting our sons in 
the office of a village practitioner as an apprentice for two or 
three years, then gradually taking the master's place in com- 
mon cases, going round with him from patient to patient, and 
be thus taught the first great essential of a successful physician, 
to observe closely and justly, and ask his preceptor all ques- 
tions freely and fearlessly. Does the young man who -walks 
the wards of the hospital in company with a dozen or two at 
the heels of his " Professor" do such a thing once a week ? — 
Let them answer. 

Another suggestion made by the quotation is this. The 
same disease in different classes of society, requires a corres- 
ponding difference of treatment. But this is only the half of 
a great truth. The same disease must have a treatment modi- 
fied by the locality of the patient, by the country, and by the 

60 HalVs Journal of Health. 

generation or age. And as these are constantly changing, the 
treatment of the disease that goes by the same name is changed. 
The man who treats a bilious fever to-day, as it was treated in 
the last generation, or thirty-three and a third years ago, would 
kill half of his patients at least. An age ago, bleeding to faint- 
ing was considered the great cure all, as indispensible in many 
forms of severe disease, the man who would follow that prac- 
tice now, in diseases which bear the same name, would be 
considered demented. Some of us, not very old either, can 
muster up reminiscences not particularly delightful, in fact 
horrible, at the very mention of " salts and senna," or " calo- 
mel and jalap," or " cream of tartar and jalap ;" and yet, for 
the same diseases for which these things were considered most 
potent and indispensible once, not one physician in a thousand 
now administers them. In fact diseases come and go as do the 
fashions. Once " every body" had dyspepsia, then clergy- 
man's sore throat was the rage, and now, don't every third per- 
son have same form of neuralgia ? 

These incontrovertible facts lead us to appreciate the depth 
of truth contained in an editorial of the Medical and Surgical 
Reporter of Philadelphia. " The profession are too much in- 
clined to follow a routine practice," and hence very properly 
discourages the publication of books which contain the modes 
of preparing medicines, with their doses. Such books are 
worse than useless, they are positively mischievous, they re- 
tard progress. The way for any young physician to become 
successful, is to study out the formulas, the doses of medicine 
which answer the best purpose in his own locality. We know 
personally, that one of the most justly eminent surgical and 
medical practitioners in this country, while at the zenith of 
his fame, gave the hydriodate of potash in three prescriptions 
out of four to the drug store, where we had an office for seve- 
ral years. At a period two years later, the hydriodate of pot- 
ash was seldom mentioned, simply because it had lost its adapt- 
ability. This gentleman prescribed from observation and not 
from books, hence is still a magnate among his brethren. And 
this brings us to the answer of a question proposed by a south- 
ern planter in September last, " Why is it that the medical 
schools now send such inferior men among us ?" The reason 
is simply this— the student very naturally reveres his professor 

The Science of Medicine. 61 

and preceptor, believes him to be none other than Sir Oracle. 
The professor states what he gave when he was a young man, 
and what marvels it performed ; the student jumps to the con- 
clusion that what was efficient in his preceptor's youth, must 
be equally so in his own hands, and he goes out from the green 
room, with diploma in hand, with the utmost confidence of 
curing all curable diseases, and of accomplishing like wonders 
with his preceptor, with a like weapon, when like as not, the 
very first essay is met with the most signal failure. 

If then, the professors in our medical schools really desire to 
elevate the profession, and will suffer a word of exhortation 
from one, quite as " regular" as the very foremost of them, 
being an allopathic dyed in the wool, and from one of the first 
schools in the Union, after having taken the second collegiate 
degree, we will give utterance to our wisdom in the words fol- 
lowing, to wit — spend more time in teaching young men the 
principles of medicine, and how to apply them. Teach them 
to observe what passes before them, rather than to remember 
what they have read and heard as to theories. Do not lumber 
up their brains with formulas and endless combinations of 
quantities and qualities, vemembering that a single half dozen 
of true medical principles thoroughly understood, are of more 
worth in the making of a skilful practitioner, than all the me- 
dicines in the universe ; for we are not far from the conviction 
that medical science as it now is, for the most part is one half 
figment and the other half fudge, as to its certainties, and will 
continue so to be, until our medical colleges require, as a con- 
dition of graduation, a thorough collegiate education ; a tho- 
rough knoAvledge of anatomy and physiology, and of those 
general principles of health and disease, which are a part of 
established medicine ; and even then, if the mind of the can- 
didate does not accustom itself to a minute attention and care- 
ful consideration of the various phenomena presented, he cannot 
be a good medical scholar nor become a safe or successful 


Dved in the wool, radical, inherent, of a piece, these are 
various forms of expression intended to convey one and the 
same idea, to wit — a part of a chip of the same block. But 

G2 IldWs Journal of Health. 

by the expression a in the blood," we desire here to convey a 
moral idea, by the aid of a medical phrase ; an idea repudi- 
ated by multitudes, abhorred by not a few, but true for all 
that, as the following narration may illustrate : A city mer- 
chant wanted a small boy in his store ; one aged ten years was 
highly recommended by a lady, who guaranteed his good con- 
duct, she having befriended and aided the family materially, 
for several years since their arrival in this country. The youth 
was not known to have been in a place of trust before. He 
proved to be diligent and attentive ; small pieces of money 
were .brought to the proprietor from time to time, as picked 
up from the floor in sweeping out, and there was an evident 
effort to please. Within a week of his entrance stolen property 
and money were found in his pocket, which at the instant before 
discovery, he declared contained nothing whatever, but it did 
contain the proprietor's pocket bopk, with money, papers, &c. 
Here was a systematic effort of a mere child, began from the 
very first day of entering the store, by an appearance of strict 
honesty and integrity in trifling matters, to throw the proprie- 
tor off his guard, to enable the child to steal from the shelves 
and cash box without suspicion. We personally know the facts 
of the case, and can account for such precociousness in crime, 
such adeptness in deception, such facility and aptitude for 
perpetrating thefts, in no other way, than that both father and 
mother were thieves and liars, and had never been any thing 
else, having been indoctrinated thus for perhaps long genera- 
tions preceding. We know that persons are born with the 
physical characteristics of their parents — born with their pa- 
rents' diseases. Napoleon's mental nature was impregnated 
from his mother before his birth, when she rode by her war- 
rior husband at the head of armed bands for days and weeks 
and months together ; while at the same time, he inherited the 
disease of his father, and likewise perished with it. It is noto- 
rious that three-fourths of the idiotic are born of parents, one 
or both of whom are drunken ; shadowing the state of mind of 
the parent, bestial, stupid, low, at the instant of conception, as 
the mould in which the child is cast. Some practical use may 
be made of these things, but not we presume, until the human 
mind becomes more generally, more thoroughly, more su- 
premely religious from principle, high, uniform, abiding. — 

In the Blood. 63 

What, therefore, physiology teaches of corporeal man, the Bi- 
ble repeats as to his moral nature, in the stern declaration that 
" the wicked are estranged from the womb, they go astray as 
soon as they be born, speaking lies." That it is just as natural 
for man to sin, as it is for the sparks to fly upward, or for a 
duck to take to the water the instant it breaks from the shell. 
Sin and crime bring destitution, disease and death. From ano- 
ther direction then, we come to the practical conclusion, stated 
in the last number, that the time for impressing the future 
child with greatest certainty with a high moral character, is 
during the months preceding its birth, just as certainly as a high 
state of physical health kept up during gestation, is one of the 
most certain means of ensuring a good constitution to the com- 
ing beinff. 

It, therefore, seems to follow, that all modes of human re- 
form, in order to be successful, must be founded on truth, and 
that the million plans which have been spawned forth on the 
world, with only a butterfly life, have had their foundations 
laid in error, in false doctrine, and that -false doctrine has co- 
lored almost every system of- human amelioration which has 
ever been presented ; it is the doctrine of human perfectibility 
as opposed to human depravity., innate and total : a depravity 
not equally deep as to all, but a depravity of varying shades, 
pervading all, from the new born infant to the centennarian. 
Owen of Lanark, Cabot of Paris, Communism and the Phi- 
lanstery, all founder here; and their defeated glorifiers now 
crimson not to confess that their systems are ■ only adapted to 
the- unselfish ; which means really, that to succeed, they must 
have perfect men to begin with : but ask them how they will 
make men perfect, and they are either as dumb as the ass, or 
utter incoherent ravings about education and the elevation of 
the masses. Then, philosophers, so called, may blunder and 
flounder and prate as they please, but it all comes to this at 
last, that the very first step towards human elevation is in. hu- 
man abasement; each man for himself must see and feel and 
acknowledge that he is a poor, weak, miserable sinner, and 
then, in the light of the bible, look for help in the direction of 
Him, who is able to elevate and save all who, while looking, 
believe and live. 

64 HalVs Journal of Health. 


" A dying man can do nothing easy," were the last words of 
the immortal Franklin. A diseased man can do nothing well, 
are words of our own, quite as true. 

If any thing should be well done, it should be the prepara- 
tion which is needed to fit us for the exalted condition which 
has just been described, and to do it well, the highest health 
and the longest life should be sought by all. Such a prepara- 
tion should be made under the most favorable of all possible 
conditions, and it is to no less an end, that this book has been 
conceived, to wit, to show the reader how health may be main- 
tained, and how disease may be averted to the utmost limit of 
human life, that by the aid of health and length of days, the 
most perfect preparation possible may be made for the immor- 
tal existence beyond, and in this light, who shall deny that 
Health is a duty ? Echo answers, ' Disease is a crime !' 

" Health and Disease" 


This is the title of our new book, composed by urgent and 
repeated request. After it was prepared, the manuscript was 
submitted to some of the oldest and most respectable publish- 
ers of New York, but they all, with one exception, began to 
make excuse ; whereupon we became greatly encouraged, and 
on making another effort, sold the whole edition to Mr. Price, 
for about three times as much as the o^inary rates would 
have yielded us, and thus far he has had no occasion to repent 
of his bold and liberal offer, for his sagacity has been already 
proven in the encouraging sale and high appreciation of the 
book, by some of the best minds and competent judges in the 
city. In refusing to touch our bantling, the publishers, like 
all sensible men, were very polite, very courteous — in fact, 
quite complimentary of our genius, ability, and all that, but 
firmly held off, notwithstanding. 

The book is useful and truthful, chaste in idea, sound in 
doctrine " Allopathic ; appealing constantly to the observa- 
tion and common sense of the reader. It never advises a dose 

Health and Disease. G5 

of medicine, does not recommend expensive appliances, does 
not ride on the hobby of starving a man to death — of denying 
coffee and tea and roast beef. It wars relentlessly against the 
patronage of uneducated physicians, of quackery and of 
patent medicines in all their forms; it discourages self-medi- 
cation, shows its tendencies and its dangers, and plainly incul- 
cates the practice of never taking an atom of medicine, 
except by the advice of a respectable physician ; but not to 
seek that advice until the natural agencies of air, exercise, 
temperance, cleanliness, rest, and warmth, have been fully 
employed, according to the directions given. 

Furthermore, " Health and Disease" contains advice which 
every human being needs ; advice which needs to be put in 
practice every day of his existence ; advice, the lack of which 
is resulting daily in the early loss of health and premature 
death of multitudes ; advice which has, perhaps, never yet 
been given in any printed book for popular use ; advice 
which tens of thousands now living would give a large share 
of all they possess, had they known and practised it before 
their misfortunes came upon them. 

"Why, then, would not the long-headed publishers of ISTew 
York take hold of this book, and risk on it three hundred and 
seventy-five dollars on the first thousand copies, retailing at 
one dollar? And why was *it that in the face of these hard 
facts we did not throw the manuscript in the fire, and vote 
that " every publisher in the universal world was a fool, and 
had no sense?" 

In the first place, we knew that publishers, like politicians, 
never work for the people; they work for themselves; the 
only question which they ever busy themselves in answering 
is, " Will it pay ?" But to answer that with any certainty, 
their guide must be their experience ; and long since it became 
an axiom in " the trade," that books, whose aim was the 
solid benefit and permanent advantage of the people, were 
uniformly published at a loss. Now this is not the fault of the 
publishers, but of the people themselves ; and as publishers, 
like other people, have families to support, food to eat, houses 
to live in, children to educate, and baby shoes to buy, the 
laws of self-preservation, long-headedness, and rhinocerocity 
of hide and conscience, dictate a falling in with the tide of 

6Q . IlalVs Journal of Health. 

public demand, and not of public need. Flashy novels pay — - 
so does the yellow-covered literature. Periodicals containing 
splendid fashion plates of monstrosities, only worn by pimps 
and courtezans, and people " from the country" — that is, out- 
side of cities — these do well ; and quite as profitable are sen- 
sation weeklies, with blood and murder stories of land and 
sea, illustrated " in wood" by pictures of indecency, profa- 
nity, and blood. So do papers well pay which spread abroad 
by the million impossible stories of the " spirit world," the 
falsities of " water' cure," and the atheisms of phrenology; 
but when it comes to books which treat of the " uses and 
abuses of air," of a rational temperance, which shows how, 
in a timely manner, to avoid disease and to cure it when pre- 
sent by prudence, patience, and a wise self-denial, a conserva- 
tive, let-alone-ism, such books remain on the sheli' of a 
humane publisher to gather dust and mold, and finally to be 
eaten of worms. 

Bat with all these things before his eyes, Mr.Price had no fear 
that the book would not sell. He knew that though all the 
fools were not dead yet, there were sensible people at magni- 
ficent distances, and that these would derive practical advan- 
tage from reading the book, and, doing so, would not fail to 
recommend it to others. Besides, we gathered courage from 
the fact that while it was in course of publication in friend 
Gray's mammoth establishment in Jacob street, it made con- 
verts among every class of operatives, whose duties required 
a perusal of its pages in composing, setting up, correcting, &c. 
We judged from this that there was persuasive eloquence in 
it ; that those of very moderate education could easily under- 
stand it, and that their personal experiences compelled a con- 
viction of its truth. This was enough ; for we wanted to 
reach the capacity of the masses, and we have succeeded. 

It is a book not for the day and hour, but for the age. It 
will be as true and practical and necessary in the year nine- 
teen hundred as now, for it advises temperance, without starv- 
ation ; enjoyment, without satiety ; mirth, without tom-foolery ; 
exercise, without exhaustion ; and piety, without pretence. It 
aims to show that constitutions impaired and broken in early 
life may, by means of natural agencies, be built up again, to 
last to a green old age, and that by these same means the 

Be Thankful. 67 

ordinary ailments of dyspepti a, neuralgia, constipation, suscep- 
tibility to colds, chilliness, &c, can be safely, efficiently, and 
permanently cured. 


Very many persons fail to enjoy what they have in the 
eating anxiety for what they have not, forgetting all' the while 
how much they are in advance of others quite as good as they 
are, but whose days are blackness, whose every breath is in 
pain, and who feed on tears and sighs. 

Yalentine Perkins, of Mantua, Ohio, aged forty-five years, 
has every joint in his body as immovable as a solid bone, 
except those of two toes and two fingers. His jaws have been 
set and motionless for thirty years, the only aperture through 
which he receives food being that made by the falling out of 
his front teeth. His appetite is uniformly good. There was 
in London an old man who was called the Judge ; he was 
always the picture of neatness, cheerfulness, and content. His 
wife, poor soul, is all but bed-ridden ; he can only do half a 
day's work, and kind friends make up the remainder. 

A correspondent writes from Virginia: 

Carrsville, Va., August 27th, 1858. 
Dear Dr. Hall : 

1 was most pleasantly surprised a few days since by a very unex 
pected visit from a once familiar friend and guest — your highly 
and deservedly popular little Journal. From the chirography of the 
superscription upon the envelope, which I recognized in a moment, as 
I would the features of an old acquaintance, I suppose I am indebted 
to you for the favor ; arid it is to thank you, most warmly thank you 
for the rich intellectual repast which it afforded me, that I venture 
to intrude upon you. Be sure it found no ungrateful recipient or un- 
appreciative reader. 

Last year, through the kindness of a considerate friend, it was 
placed upon my pillow on each successive month. Since then, ad- 
verse circumstances have forced me to forego the indulgence ; but 
long years of suffering and dependance have taught me the lesson of 
self-abnegation. And now a word as to my health, of which you 
may possibly entertain some curiosity to be informed. Six years 
from the incipient attack — four and a half from my prostration upon 
my couch — find me yet struggling with a relentless monster ; yet as 
rigid and as helpless as a mass of stone, my eyes and tongue being 
the only members over which I have the least control. Recently my 

68 HalVs Journal of Eealth. 

constantly increasing debility and emaciation admonish me that I 
shall soon receive a summons from beyond the dark valley. An 
almost unmanageable constipation of the bowels, together with a dis- 
tressing asthmatic affection, are steadily but surely wasting away my 
constitution, which, until some time past, resisted disease with 
astonishing obstinacy. My digestive organs have lost so much <*f 
their energy, and have grown so torpid, that it is extremely difficult 
for me to effect an operation upon my bowels. An interim of two or 
three weeks frequently occurs between evacuations. The inability to 
open my jaws forces me to subsist upon such food as I can compress 
through a cavity made by the loss of two of my teeth, such as baked 
fruit, milk, boiled custards, half-cooked eggs, toasted bread, &c, &c. 

W.-H. E. 

!N"ot many will read these statements without a deep sym- 
pathy for these afflicted men, and an earnest hope that as to 
each one of them the sufferings of this life will bear no pro- 
portion to the high happiness in reserve for them in the heav- 
enly world — a happiness as pure as a sunbeam — as eternal as 
the throne of God. On the other hand, let us all turn our at- 
tention in upon ourselves and cultivate a deep and an abiding 
gratitude to the Giver of all good, in that we and ours have 
been born perfect in limb, and form, and feature ; our bodies 
without a blemish, our minds without a blot, and, further, 
that these things have been continued to us for the period of a 
life time, and that we have had given to us all things richly to 
enjoy by a Beneficence as ceaseless as the flow of time, and as 
boundless as the universe. 


Dr. Cox is reported to have said in a college address : " I 
am glad that Luther had a good digestion as well as a great 
soul, for the reformation would have been delayed had he 
been a dyspeptic." The rev. doctor has been a martyr him- 
self to throat ail, arising from a d}^speptic stomach ; and it 
has been reported to us that his wife is the only person able to 
keep him well, by always accompanying him and treading on 
his big toe under the table to remind him that he had eaten 
enough, and instanter the plate is obediently pushed back. 

Moral Nutriment. 69 


"Whose mind does not run far back into the past with sunny 
memories in reading the dear familiar lines — 

" In works of labor or of skill 

I would be busy, too, 
For Satan finds some mischief still 

For idle hands to do V 

Lazy people eat more than the busy, at least for awhile, 
because it affords them enjoyment ; it. is a standing source of 
gratification, until they become dyspeptic, when every meal 
becomes more or less a torture. 

But want of occupation has its attendant moral evils as well 
as physical. Idlers are nervous, fretful, peevish, cross. Ill- 
nature becomes a second nature, and they grumble, and com- 
plain, and whine from morning until night, with chance inter- 
vals of sunshine, but ever so transient. . 

One of the causes of the deep moral degradation of many 
sailors, is want of occupation in the interval of their " watches," 
especially in long voyages. We have many a time and oft 
been with them in the forecastle, from the full-rigged ship 
down through bark, and brig, and schooner, and tiny sloop, 
and have seen and heard all that was degrading in story and 
foul in act, profane and beastly, for want of occupation to lead 
them to higher things. The knowledge of this has led us for 
a long time past to preserve carefully all our religious ex- 
changes, our agricultural papers, and the outside half-sheet ol 
many weeklies, which, for safety in sentiment, purity of teach- 
ing, and courteousness of spirit, favorably compare with the 
religious press. For these a friend, whose heart is in the right 
place, comes regularly on the first of every month. No win- 
ter's frost or summer's fire by any chance keeps him away, 
although gray hairs are upon him, and his shadow is lengthen- 
ing for the grave; and going down among the shipping, he 
hands them to the sailors of such vessels as are just weighing 
anchor, for the chance that some good sentiment may strike 
their attention in hours of quietude, and make them think- of 
home, and sisters, and mother, and minister, the country 
church, the grave-yard close by, and of heaven; for even 
transient thoughts like these have a restraining, an elevating, 

70 HalVs Journal of Health. 

purifying power. " These are the best things that come 
aboard for my men; they keep them out of mischief," said 
Captain i of the steamship Prince Albert, as the distri- 
butor jumped aboard and handed him a large bundle of read- 
ing matter. " We don't swear half so- much when we have 
your papers to read," said a hardy jack tar. These two un- 
varnished statements are full of meaning ; and 1 we trust that 
our city readers will give tlicm a practical turn by carefully 
preserving their religious papers, and other safe, transient, or 
loose reading matter, and send them free of charge to J. H., 
283 Spring street, New York. A good religious newspaper 
ought not to be destroyed ; nor, as we think, ought it to be 
laid away, to become moulded and worm-eaten, in the calcu- 
lation of reading it again ; for it is hiding in the napkin — it is 
hoarding up, instead of putting out at interest. * We have 
many times copied a good article rather then mutilate the 
paper which contained it, thinking that if it did us- good, it 
would be likely to do as great a good to some others, or a dozen 
others. Further, those who can write well for their favorite 
paper, who can throw off sentiments- sparkling and pure, and 
short, terse, striking, and do not do it, are responsible to huma- 
nity and to God for the default. The making of a religious 
newspaper interesting, useful, influential, by reason of the 
sterling character of its reading matter, ought no more to be 
left to the editor, than the building up of an active, efficient 
church society, should be left wholly to the minister. Every 
man, woman, and child, ought to help him in all ways possi* 
ble ; and so ought the editor to have the sympathy, encourage- 
ment, and literary help of every reader who can thus contri- 
bute ; for, next to the minister, a well-conducted religious 
newspaper is an instrument for present, extensive, enduring 
good, and they are essential to the times, as counteracting the 
malign influences which are scattered with a reckless hand by 
anonymous writers, who can stab from behind and in the dark, 
or by those who, leaving foreign countries for their country's 
good and their own safety, boldly solicit to be made the paid 
contributors of our best papers; and, having left home disap- 
pointed and depressed, take refuge in "liberal" views in doc- 
trine and in drink, and pour out their infidelities and atheisms 
as largely as a sleepy public will allow; when at length, 

Moral Nutriment. 71 

having lived ftp to their principles for a year or' two, or more, 
their death and their nom de plume, with " real name,' 5 are 
for the first time made public; the " report" being— " Died" 
of nianise potu, delirium tremen, drowned, run over by the 
cars at midnight, " died" by his own hand s by the visitation 
of God! Such are not a tew of the men who, through the 
daily* the weekly, the monthly, and the quarterly, enter our 
parlors, and talk to our wives, and sons, and daughters, in 
gingerly infidelities — in gilded whoredoms. Men of a true 
humanity and a true progress ! look to it that you write to 
counteract these poisons, and write as splendidly ; look to it 
further, that your center tables be cleared of all this worse 
than trash, and assert and practice your right of a proper 
supervision of what your families are to read. There is 
" death in the pot," literary and" moral, as in olden time there 
was in the culinary — moral death in many a fascinating novel 
and high-sounding magazine and "popular" Weekly. Some 
reason was there in the declaration made to us lately by one 
of our sternest, most useful, and aged divines : "I allow no 
newspaper to be read in my family." Another, of a different 
profession, who was second to none in position and profess 
sional ability, since passed away with years and honors, 
said : " There is but one daily paper in New York that 1 con- 
sider fit to enter a family of daughters." Therefore, while one 
part of the community should watch the reading* of their fami- 
lies with a jealous care, let those who can write well, pun- 
gently, and powerfully, feel it their duty to do what in them 
lies, to ensure that the literary pdbuhtm of the people shall 
be unpoisoned — shall be prepared with materials that are 
morally pure, safe, and nutritious- — that the reading for the 
masses be sound, truthful, and divine. 


Warts are removed in a fortnight if creosote is painted on 
them, and they are then covered with a common sticking 
plaster, to be renewed every third day. But as creosote is a 
virulent poison, it is safer to use some acid or strong alkali — 
say potash or hartshorn, every day, until they disappear, as 

72 HalVs Journal of Health. 

most of them will, under this latter treatment, if persevered 
in, using only the creosote in incorrigible cases. We know by 
personal experience that persevering friction with anything, 
even with the finger, is efficient in the removal of some kind 
of warts ; and such was Lord Bacon's observation and expe- 
rience, possibly the vulgar notion, that a wart is cured by 
stealing apiece of bacon, originated in a hair-brained or maddy 
headed individual, who used the thing itself instead of the 
advice of the man who gave it. 



As spring is approaching, we earnestly advise all persons 
who use well water and spring water, to have both wells and 
springs thoroughly cleaned out, and then washed out in early 
May and also during October, as there is strong reason to be- 
lieve that the settlings which have accumulated, including de- 
cayed vegetation, impart their disease engendering qualities 
to the water, and thus originate some of the most dangerous 
forms of low or typhoid fever, at a time of the year when the 
weather is so cool as to preclude the idea of their arising from 
vegetable decomposition.. The stench of the debris at. the 
bottom of wells should induce all cleanly persons to expurgate 
them thoroughly, aside from considerations of health. 


In a series of letters now in course of publication, " Trip to 
the Rappahannock," No. seven, in that inimitable paper, The 
Home Journal, the writer makes an " eminent" Virginia doc- 
tor say, that the avoidance of inhaling the out-door morning 
and evening air, is a certain means of exterminating fever and 
ague, called elsewhere chills and fevers. We advocated that 
doctrine a quarter of a century ago, and every year for five 
years past, in "Hall's Journal of Health." On pages 32, and 
217 of vol. 5, 1858, the subject is treated, the declarations 
made, and the reasons given in the plainest manner possible. 
It seems further, that the eminent writer of the Rappahannock 

Student Health. 73 

letters lias been deluged with enquiries as to further particu 
lars, leading him to suppose that the information was a know- 
ledge much wanted. 




A theological student who was about abandoning his studies 
in utter discouragement in consequence of declining health, 
arising from constipation and indigestion, was induced to fore- 
go his purpose until he tried what' could be done for him by a 
change of habits, as to eating, sleeping and study. No medi- 
cine was advised beyond some half-a-dozen weekly pills. But 
before he had taken them all he writes " my health is improv- 
ing, study begins to be a pleasure. I shall ever feel grateful 
to you for your advice and treatment, to which I attribute my 
change of health. 

There can be no doubt that many young men who might 
have lived to high distinction, have lost health and life itself 
from want of timely and judicious advice as to their habits of 
life, being deterred from seeking that advice from their ina- 
bility to pay for it. "We believe a valuable substitute may be 
found in our last dollar book on " Health and Disease," in 
which we mainly strive to show how ordinary ailments may 
be cured by natural and inexpensive agencies. 


Salt, milk, salseratus, soda or any think else is made as fol- 
lows, according to Elsie M. Emory, of Cardington, Ohio, as 
communicated through that delightful family paper the Coun- 
try Gentleman, of Albany, New York:- — Take boiling water, 
let it stand until the temperature is reduced below the scalding 
point, then stir in flour as thick as you can well beat it with a 
spoon. Set it in warm water kept at a proper temperature to 
promote fermentation, usually three or four hours. If it should 
become thin after standing a while, stir in a teaspoonful or two 
of flour, beating it occasionally until it commences to rise. — 
When light, put it with the flour, mixing up with water, 
kneading thoroughly ; then make into loaves and put on tins 
to rise, keeping warm and bake as usual. 

74: HalVs Journal of Health. 


M. Yiennot, of Paris, proposes to erect ornamental columns 
throughout New York, below Fourteenth street, at his own 
expense, receiving pay therefor in the exclusive privilege of 
using the wall of those columns for placards for twenty years, 
after which they revert to the city. It is sufficient to say that 
these columns are to be used as urinals. If any plan could be 
devised to keep these places as neat as a new pin, as to sight 
and sense, they would be productive of great, very great good. 
The inconvenience, the discomfort, and the positive danger 
which result from the want ot these facilities in a large city 
cannot be denied. As to the positive danger, and the daily 
injury, any experienced physician will give a prompt testimo- 
ny. For want of the conveniences referred to, violations of 
public decency are of daily occurrence, while the prostitution 
of the corners, areas and recesses of private property for these 
purposes is shameful, and is an opprobrium to any civilized 


It is stated that in a female college at Harrodsburgh, Ivy., 
the girls are taught to think, in the highest sense of the phrase. 
We hope President Peaser will establish a branch college of 
the same sort in New York city, there being nothing of the 
kind here. It seems that the u Euthalean Banner" is con- 
ducted by the young ladies connected with the institution. 
The name is puerile enough ; better burn it up. It spoils both 
boys and girls to write for the papers, for it will not be done 
without diverting attention from study. A newspaper writer 
ought to have passed thirty years. The newspaper has become 
a too important institution to be written for by children j its 
responsibilities are becoming daily more momentous. 


A new feature is inaugurated in hotel life, and greatly 
needed too. The proprietor of the Astor House, New York, 
advertises that, among other desireable things in his world- 

A Physiological Chair. 75 

famed hotel, " invalids will be especially attended to." If 
that should be so, it is the only hotel in New York in which 
" special attention" is not given to the special neglect of the 
unfortunate sick. 


Is made and sold by somebody — we know not who— pro- 
nounced by Prof. Fowler to be " the very thing" to make 
lazy young gentlemen and crooked-back girls sit erect ; for, if 
they do not, they will slide off. We consider it the happiest 
thought of the times, : put in practical shape, originating in the 
same broad platform of benevolence which led George Conch 
to devise how a natural shoe should be made. We never 
learned whether he was strikingly successful ; but we think 
a New York " C," has, in the devise of a true physiological 
chair, accomplished a more important success than the great 
name just mentioned essayed to do when he gave his magni- 
ficent mind to the solution of the shoe problem. We advise 
all city mothers to call at once at our office, and see the 


We have made an arrangement with Hubbard W. Swett, Book 
and Periodical Dealer, 128 Washington Street, Boston, to act as our 
Agent in that City, for the following books (our own publications) : — 
Health and Disease, a Book for the People ; Consumption, Bronchitis 
and Kindred Diseases ; and the Bound Volumes of the Journal of 
Health. H» B. S. will supply the trade of Boston at our Lowest 
Cash prices. We shall establish no agencies for the Monthly Journal, 
but leave the Sale open to all the Trade out of New York City, can 
be supplied by the following Wholesale News Agents, Ross & Tou- 
8ay, 121 Nassau St., Dexter & Bro., 14 and 1G Ann St., and R. M. 
Dewitt, 160 and 162 Nassau St. 

H. B. PRICE, Publisher, 

No, 3 Everett House, New York. 

The CounUy Gentleman, weekly, $2 a year, Albany, New York, 
is instructive to any family in the city or country, and merits as it re- 
ceives, a wide and generous pationage. 

The Independent, New York, $2 a year, has for its special contribu- 
tors tor 1859, John G. Whittier, Harriet Beecher Stow, George B. 
Chever, Henry Ward Beecher ; great names all. 

Ladies American Magazine, $2 a year, 7 Beekman Street, New 

HalVs Journal of Health. 7(3 

u Opthalmic Hospital-" New York. Fifth annual report, with an 
address by Mark Stephenson, M. D. Subject—" Law and Medicine 
contrasted." Able, scholarly, discriminating. 

Moral Insanity. — Anything which Dr. Reese may choose to write 
on an important medical subject, commands the respectful attention 
of the medical profession. His " report" prepared at the request of 
the American Medical Association, should be preserved for reference, 
by every lawyer or physician of any eminence, not only here, but 
abroad. It is an able and standard contribution to medical jurispru- 

Millions of eyes have been delighted in past years by the beauti- 
ful engravings in " Graham's Magazine," which is now merged in 

The Ladies Magazine, $2 a year, single numbers 1 Sets, Henry White, 
publisher, No. 7 Beekman Street, New York : we cordially wish it 
the success which it merits. 

The Home, by Metta Victoria Fuller ; $1 50 a year. New York, 
and Buffalo. Is a safe companion for our wives and daughters. 

Christian Revieiv, $3 a year; removed from Baltimore to New York, 
published by Shelden, Blakeman & Co., is one of the very best reli- 
gious quarterlies in AAerica. Baptist Lutheran Home Journal, 
$1 50 a year, published monthly at 732 Arch Street, Philadelphia. 

Sixteenth Annual Report of the Young Men's Social' and Benevo- 
lent Society of the Presbyterian church and congregation, Fifth 
Avenue, corner of 19th Street, New York, organized March 22,. 1842. 
The average monthly attendance is two hundred ; of the 237 young 
men who have become members, since March 1842, only five have 
died ; this simple statement is one of the strongest proofs that can be 
given of the life insuring, and life preserving influences of that sobri- 
ety of character, of that steadiness and regularity of deportment 
which belongs to young men in cities whose tastes lead them to a con- 
nection with "Christian associations." Let every parent then, from 
the country, who sends a son to the city to try his fortune, enjoin it 
upon him, as a means of preserving character, health and life itself, to 
make it his first business, and by no means to be neglected, to con- 
nect himself with one of these " associations," a thousand fold better 
than any "company" or "club," or "band" in the government. 

American Medical Gazette for February, edited by Dr. Reese, is 
the best number issued for variety, abili ty, and practicality. The 
world renowned Whitney case — for it is destined to travel through all 
civilized lands, and to be handed down to posterity, is fully reported. 
The learned editor comes ably and manfully to the defence of Dr. 
Horace Greene, who is by common consent, allowed to be one of the 
best, most honorable, and most eminent medical men at home or 
abroad. The incontrovertible facts declare, as does every physician 
in New York, who has taken proper -measures for a thorough investi- 
gation, that the operator had no agency whatever, directly or indirect- 
ly in the death of the patient, and such was our opinion from the first; 
the very supposition was an absurdity, under the true circumstances 
of the case. 

Blackwood, $3, for FeVy, comes promptly and welcomely. — Fo? 
sale at our counter. 





We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] APRIL, 1859. [No. 4. 


/When quite a child, a beautiful big dog came to our father's 
house, no one knew whose or whence. All the children were 
wonderfully taken with him; he was fed and caressed and 
played with, from morning till night, and we all thought we 
had gotten a valuable prize. Before long, however, we disco- 
vered a failing, a serious draw back ; there was no reliability in 
his mood ; for in the very midst of our gambols with him, he 
would sometimes turn round and snap at us so savagely, that 
we began to avoid him. Strangers would often exclaim " what 
a beautiful dog you have!" But we could not join in any 
commendation of him. We let visitors praise him, and we let 
him alone. 

Later in life, we have found bull dogs everywhere, in every 
party, in every sect, in every profession, and in very many 

A young man is a suitor, his dress and address mark the 
gentleman. He is educated, travelled, handsome. His de- 
meanour is unexceptionable, and he wins, the hand and trusting 
heart and makes them his own. But on a nearer view, after 
marriage, unexpected developments are made, startling prin- 
ciples are enunciated, the principles of the roue, of the gam- 
bler, of the infidel; with such an one a pure heart can never 
assimilate, and retires more and more within itself, while the 
other left more and more to itself, grows cold arid fretful ; be- 
comes daily more soured, and complaints, and faultfindings, 

78 HalVs Journal of Health. 

and growls, are the order of the day — that is a Domestic Bull 

A strange physician arrives, he is polished in his manners, 
plausible in his theories, and confident in himself. Courteous 
in deportment, agreeable and gossipping in conversation, he 
wins his way among the people ; they forsake the man to whom 
they have been bound by ties of citizenship and near neigh- 
borhood for a dozen or twenty years, and the new comer is all 
and all. But time developes character. With a remorseless 
maw, he snaps at his new patrons' purses, bites out in merciless 
mouthfuls the substance of his patients, who just about that 
time find out that he is not as good as their " old doctor." But 
the new one got -their purse, and they got their experience by 
paying the — Medical Bull Dog. 

A minister comes among us, we never heard of him before, 
but he "walks into our affections" unresistingly^ for we are 
carried away with his eloquence. As lavishly as corn grains 
to a brood of chickens, does he scatter around him the bright 
jewels of thought ; we feel as if we could sit and listen to him 
always, and he settles among us. But no sooner fixed, than 
some idea is proposed, which we do not like altogether, but 
thinking that we must have heard amiss it is passed over, and 
for " a spell," all moves on smoothly- as before: then another 
new idea is thrown out, rather more rousing than before, In 
fact it is disquieting ; and with the charity which many good 
qualities engendered, we think perhaps he did not mean what 
he said, had failed to express himself clearly ; but before the 
irritation has subsided, another shot is cast, and another and 
another, with shortening intervals, until not a sermon is heard 
without some expression is made more or less startling, enough 
to make us feel that it is nothing short of a desecration of the 
day and the place and the occasion. These things go on until 
by degrees the new-comer is "shied" from by the more re- 
flecting; they cease to wait on his ministrations, say nothing 
in his praise, and let him alone. ISText the newspapers take 
him up, they handle him gingerly ;at first, but his sentiments, 
and his conduct becoming more and more " liberal" in an un- 
gracious sense, he is, after much long suffering, in consequence 
of his undenied mental power and other bright qualities, re- 
luctantly " read out," and he settles down among the hetero- 

Bull Dogs. . 79 

dox and the infidel, where he belonged from the first, and 
thenceforward is regarded as a Clerical Bull Dog. 

A daily, a weekly, a monthly, a quarterly publication is left 
at our doors. A close criticism discovers nothing objectionable 
and much to commend. It comes too, at a low price, and we 
conclude to give it the support of our patronage and influence. 
It continues good, and by degrees we begin to feel a personal 
interest in its prosperity ; and about this time, the rise in price 
to that of others of its class, is announced, we wince and bear 
it. Later- still, there is a latitudianarism in its editorials, not 
wholly agreeable ; these gradually grow more and more de- 
cided, to become in time as dogmatical, as impertinent, as 
levelling as any of its class, and we tolerate when we do not 
admire ; and as we can't better ourselves, we submit, to be 
aroused to indignation even, at sentiments uttered eYery now 
and then, political, social, religious, which almost determine 
us not to take that paper another day. But we must have a 
paper, it is no worse than the others, while in some things it is 
better, and we take it still, forgetting that an arrow poisoned 
with a false doctrine in politics, in domesticities, in religion? 
especially when barbed with ridicule, never fails to leave in 
young minds a venom which remains and rankles and corrupts 
to the utter ruin sometimes of the whole moral character. — 
Beware then of Editorial Bull Dogs. 

The dog which came to our father's house had no doubt been 
kicked out of somebody .else's: we at length did the same 
thing, and he slunk off to find another home. He was, a peri- 
patetic bull dog, his prototype is found in those who go about 
the country lecturing professionally on this, that, or the other 
specified subject; but to cut the whole matter short, we will 
state it as our observation, that with very few exceptions, we 
come away from a public lecture with feelings varying from 
dissatisfaction to disgust, and now and then with horror ; for 
no later than last night, having for the reason above given, al- 
most wholly ceased from attending public lectures, we heard 
a man discoursing professedly on " Fun ;" we love a laugh, 
for we know it to be a better pill for the dispersion of blues, 
inanity and the like, than any of our compounding, hence we 
go willingly where a whole-souled risibility may be reasona- 
bly expected. The lecturer pleased us hugely at first. He hit 

80 • Hairs Journal of Health. 


off gaming, and profanity, and drunkenness to a T, closing, 
however, with the laudificatioh of Punc h, and Thackeray, and 
Dickens, making quotations from these men, as being superior 
to any sentiment from any pulpit in Christendom, and with a 
twitting of parsons and of people, "who were so pious that a 
smile was considered a profanity, he ceased with the growl of 
a Bull Dog Lecturer. The lesson of the article is — beware of 
new men, of strangers. Take time to " try the spirits." Of 
social bull dogs,' domestic bull dogs, and bull dogs medical, as 
also those of the press, the rostrum and the pulpit, beware ! 

_ . 


That infant children should be starved to death deliberately 
in the great city of New York, is an almost incredible state- 
ment, except to the few, whose large intercourse with the 
world, has led them to the observation, that there is no mean- 
ness so unfathomable but some human wretch may be found 
who shall dive down and perpetrate it. 

On a February day, within six squares of the palatial resi- 
dences of Fifth Avenue, three infants were found, so abject 
and idiotic in expression that all trace of humanity seemed lost. 
"They could not cry, and so brutish were they, that when lifted 
from their cradles they merely gazed about, as puppies or kit- 
tens ; none of them had any flesh on their bones." 

Nearly two thousand children whose parents cannot take 
care of them, are constantly on the hands of the city ; the help- 
less children of crime, of poverty, of infidelity and prostitution. 
About two hundred of the above are to be nursed, and are 
distributed over the city to women who profess to have lost 
their own children; of these two hundred, were the three 
above referred to. • 

We do not hold up to public reprobation the woman who 
engaged to take care of these three children, at the stipulated 
payment of one dollar a week each, the price paid for boarding 

dogs in street, for most likely she was poor and ignorant 

and perhaps herself at not a great remove from starvation.— 
Half frozen and famishing, the very best of us can't say what 
we would not do. Theoretical incorruptibility is the easiest of 
all easy things, to those who roll in wealth. 

Sorrowing Poverty. 81 

Ten men are elected, called governors of the almshouse. It 
is a position of honor and responsibility, for hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars pass through their hands every year. These 
governors will not let a child go out to nurse until a respectable 
physician certifies that the woman is every way proper, to re- 
ceive the child ; next, a visitor is sent to the. house to see if 
appearances correspond, and if so the child is given out, and 
the matron of the alms house is required to visit each child 
once or twice a month. And yet, notwithstanding all this, 
here are three children accidentally found in the condition 
above named. These statements simply show the unfitness for 
office, somewhere. 

Three-fourths of all children picked up in the streets of 
Kew York, die before their teens, because they are born dis- 
eased. In cases where most especial care was given, two- 
thirds died, showing this, that the children of vice are born 
diseased, are brought into the world with the physical mala- 
dies of their parents. Three-fourths of the idiotic in a Mas- 
sachusetts charity, were found to be of parents, one or both 
of whom were drunken. Physical vices therefore are not only 
perpetuated in the offspring, but they originate mental deform- 
ities. But if this is true of the degraded, it must be true 
of the genteely vicious. A Fifth Avenue mother, who in- 
dulges in opium or wines or cordials, is just as likely to have 
an idiotic child, as the besotted of the purlieus. The gour- 
mand of Fourteenth Street and Madison Square, who is al- 
ways " full," in skin and paunch as well as in purse, is just as 
likely to have a child which shall perish with marasmus or 
chronic diarrhoea, as the other of bad liquors at the five points. 

Therefore, those who do not make good health a study and 
an aim, who do not practice daily the temperances and self 
denials which seldom fail to secure this good health, are com- 
mitting a crime against their unborn children, which they 
never can atone for. 


W ithtn" one week, three persons have complained that their 
lives have been made lives of suffering, by the ignorance of 
parents, thus : They grew up rapidly, almost as tall at sixteen 

82 HalVs Journal of JETealth, 

as at mature age. The rapidity of their growth was attended 
with great debility, while the parents judging of the ability 
to work by the size, required more of them than they were 
able to perform, and a strain was imposed upon their constitu- 
tions, which made them a wreck after ; not indeed destroying- 
life, but leaving the body a shell, and all its functions so im- 
paired, as to their capabilities, that none of their work was 
well performed, resulting in disease of the whole system, 
making life a torture, and in one case we know of, there is a r 
never failing reprehension of parental memory. 

Persons who are healthy and hearty themselves, do not 
know how to sympathize with a rapidly growing child, and 
their complaints of weariness are unheeded, blamed or scold- 
ed at. To all parents then, especially to farmers and me- 
chanics, we give the advice, when a child has grown up ra-* 
pidly, impose but little labor, and that,, never violent nor long, 
protracted ; it should be light, short, steady, not by fits and 
starts, never drive, always encourage, and when they go to bed 
at a regular, early hour, let them have all the sleep they will 
take, never allow them to be waked up, let nature do that, and 
she will do it regularly, and in due time. We know a man 
who almost daily execrates his father's memory, although he left 
him a handsome fortune, and a lady who at seventy -five, thinks- 
hard of her mother's severity, and want of sympathy in, this 



'The tiniest pebble thrown sea- ward from the beach, causes 
a wavelet, whose influences arc felt for unnumbered leagues- out 
upon old ocean's bosom. The softest whisper excites vibrations 
in the atmosphere . around us, which cease not this side the 
boundless ether ; so the act or thought of an immortal man, 
however insignificant, may color a lifetime,may leave influences 
which shall not cease, until time shall be no longer ; influences 
for good or ill, to millions of immortals like himself, for un- 
ending ages. These things being so, it would seem that every 
act should be a felt responsibility, and every thought a prayer.- 
Let us all walk softly then, or at least with, a motive and a 
wish for good. 

Beautiful Old Age. 83 

A crust of bread thrown thoughtlessly by a fellow student, 
made Prescott, in a measure, sightless for near half a century. 
An ill-timed jest has severed many a warm friendship, and 
planted bitterness for a lifetime, where ought to have welled 
up the warmest, and purest, and loveliest springs of our nature. 
Many a time and oft, has a frown, a harsh word, an unfeeling 
or contemptous gesture, crushed resolves forever, which were 
budding to a new and changed and better life; Header, let 
us all walk softly then by day and by night, at home and 
abroad^ inasmuch as for every step m life, we must give ac- 
count at the judgment. 


"What a lovely old' man he was; so simple and modest." 
Such is a traveller's testimony of a sage in his ninetieth 
year;, a man "whose greatness has : not destroyed his noble* 
ness of heart, but nobleness of heart has rendered still greater. " 
The author of " Cosmos" stands out among a million of men 
in his intelligence, in his age> in his striking physiognomy ;: 
the blue bright eye, the " massive forehead, deep, broad, over- 
hanging;" and the heart too, stands out, in even higher relief, 
than all the others, and the stranger apostrophises, " what a 
lovely old man!" 

Religion makes a man lovely in his age ; true and deep 
science makes a man lovely in age ; and- so does a real great 
heart ; but the imperfections of our nature, all together fail to 
do it, too often, when there is not sound bodily health, under- 
lying the whole. It is good health which moulds the features 
in smiles, which warms up the affections, and mellows the 
heart with human sympathies \ on the other hand, illness cor- 
rugates the brow, freezes up the fountains of lovingness and 
despondency, and fretfulness reign supreme, unless counteract- 
ed by high christian principles. 

With so much depending on bodily health when grav hairs 
come upon us, who shall not say that, next to securing a Bible 
piety, it should be the aim of all who are truly wise, to do 
what is possible by study, by observation and steady self de- 
nial, to maintain all the time, a high state of bodily health 

84 HaW.s Journal of Health. 

To grow kindly as age comes on, is to grow in likeness to, 
and a fit preparation for companionship with angels in the 
mansions where all is love ; but to grow cross and peevish and 
complaining, by reason of the irritating influences which a 
diseased and suffering body exercise over the. heart, making 
it a leafless tree, sapless and dry, when it should have boughs 
bending almost to the earth, with the delicious fruits of a loving 
nature,— how wide the contrast. Old age with religion and 
health, and old age with neither, let Cornaro and Yoltaire be 
the representative men ; and let every man determine within 
the hour, which portrait he will sit to, in what mould he shall 
be cast ; forgetting not, that that mould is in process of forma- 
tion now. 


It has been the aim of ova Journal to inculcate the idea 
that man should be in his fullest mental prime at sixty, and 
ought to live in good health an hundred years, and so would 
we, as a general rule, if we lived wisely, temperately, every 
day. We expect to be living an hundred years to come, not 
bodily, but in influences. This journal is influencing its steady 
readers from month to month, to live more or less according to 
its teachings, giving them increased vigor of body, and of 
mind, to be perpetuated in their offspring and they again to 
theirs. This is what we call " living for ages." 

"Within a week, one of the best specimens of a whole man 
in New York, said of our writings, " they ought to be read, 
they will be read when you are gone." This single expression 
in the busiest hum of high noon in New York threw over 
our most time sunny heart, one of the most sudden and som- 
bre clouds in our remembrance ; not indeed a cloud of sorrow 
or of disapointment, but of responsibility. It came upon us 
like the weight of an avalanche, starting the enquiry, have I 
written truthfully ? invitingly? Have I, in anything, hoisted 
a false light, which some foundering brother long afterwards 
looking trustfully to, shall mislead and make a wreck of? 

Then came the resolve, we will write more carefully here 
after, especially as our* transient readers are more than five 
fold what they ever were before. The next moment our 

Object of Eating. 85 

thoughts ran away off among our brother editors, and then all 
the writers and clergymen. Do they feel as fully as they 
ought, that every line they write, every sentiment they utter, 
are pebbles thrown, on the bosom. of the great sea of human 
life, which shall make waves of influences, that for all 
time, shall aid in propelling some human brother to glad 
successes, or to bitter disapointments, to final happiness, or to 
ultimate despair. Let us resolve then, one and all, as we must 
" live for ages," for good or for ill, that we will live to elevate • 
and bless humanity, by being truthful in every line we write 
in every sentiment we utter. 

r I ~^~: 


Taking food into the body is called eating, passing it from 
th-e body is called defecation. . 

Three fourths of all our ailments occur, or are kept in con- 
tinuance, by preventing the daily food which is eaten, from . 
passing out of the body, after its substance has been extracted, 
by the living machinery, for the purpose of renovation and 
growth. A healthy laboring man will eat daily two pounds of 
solid food, of meat,, bread, vegetables and fruit; these two 
pounds, if brought together in one heap, would fill to overflow- 
ing the largest sized dinner plate, aud yet there are myriads- 
of grown-up men and women to whom the idea has never oc- 
curred, that if this mass is retained in the body, day by day, 
inevitable harm must accrue* If a man eats two pounds daily, 
near two pounds daily must in some way or other pass from his 
body, or disease and premature death is a* speedy and inevi-. 
table result. 

The object of passing food through the body is threefold in 
youth; in maturity, two; for growth, sustenance,. and repair 
in the one, in the latter for support and repair only, that is> 
nutrition ; and the process by which the system .separates the 
nutriment from the food is called digestion ; the distribution 
of this digested material to the different parts of the body 
where needed, for the purpose of being incorporated' into bone, 
flesh, nerve, and tendon, is termed assimilation. 

From " Health and Disease" 

86 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Sometime ago, a little child had a pimple on its breast, 
which became a little sore, an amateur doctor advised a " sim- 
ple" remedy to be applied to it, which was done, neither the 
advice nor the remedy cost anything, except the child's life in 
forty-eight hours. 

A gentleman had a small running sore on the top of his foot ; 
he was anxious to have it " cured up," we advised him to 
keep it running, but that was troublesome, and it was healed 
up, in a short time, a cold set in, and he died of consumption, 
at the end of a year. 

The son of a merchant wanted to .reduce a swelling in the 
side, which began to " run ;" general remedies were proposed, 
with advice to let the " sore" alone. v This did not suit his 
views, so he had it healed up, and died of consumption within 
two years. 

A lady had a sore on the leg : it interfered with her walk- 
ing, she was impatient to have it " cured up," but was advis- 
ed as to the consequences, but this was disregarded.. The sore 
was healed up, and she died of consumption. 

A lady aged seventy had a sore leg, and was extremely 
anxious to have it healed up. She was advised by all means 
to make no application to it, but merely to keep it under con- 
trol by general remedies. An old woman was applied to, and 
with various salves a wonderful " cure" was the result. 
Within a few weeks the lady took dinner in usual health, and 
died dm an hour. 

A 'lady aged sixty six had a long continued violent and pain- 
ful cough, a "running" took place under the toe nail, she 
feared -mortification, and was anxious to have it healed up. 
She was told that it was the best thing that could have hap- 
pened toiler, inasmuch as it would probably cure her cough, 
and add years to her life, while by improving the general 
health the running might slowly dry up of itself, all which 
proved to be so, and now in her seventy-fourth year; she has 
better health than half our women at forty. 

Oua* object in stating these facts which have occured in our 
own experience, within a comparatively short time, is to im- 
press upon the reader's mind, the signal danger of tampering 
with sores, ^especially such as are sometimes called " old sores,'' 

Heart Disease. 87 

for they are the outlet to disease, and if injudiciously closed, 
what they would have discharged, will be thrown in upon 
more vital internal organs, causing apoplexy, consumption or 
fatal congestions, as certainly as the boiler of a locomotive 
will be shivered to atoms, if the fire is continued, and all escape 
of steam is prevented. In all cases of old sores, apply to a 
physician of age and experience. If that is not practicable, 
the safest and best plan is first, to diminish the amount of food 
eaten each day, one half, and keep the parts in a cleanly con- 
dition, by washing them' twice a day in soft, milk-warm water, 
until relief is given. 


"When an individual is reported to have died of a "Disease 
of the Heart," we are in the habit of regarding it as an inevi- 
table event, as something which conld not have been foreseen 
or prevented, and it is too much the habit, when persons sud- 
denly fall down deadj to report the " heart" as the cause ; this 
silences all inquiry and investigation, and saves the trouble 
and inconvenience of a repulsive "postmortem." A truer 
report would have a tendency to save many lives. It is 
through a report of " disease of the heart," that many an opium 
eater is let off into the grave, which covers at once his folly 
and his crime ; the brandy drinker too, quietly slides round 
the corner thus, and is heard of no more ; in short this " report" 
of " disease of the heart," is the mantle of charity, which the 
politic coroner, and the sympathetic physician throw around 
the grave of " genteel people." 

At a late scientific congress at Strasburgh, it was reported, 
that of sixty-six persons who had suddenly died, an immediate 
and faithful post mortem showed that only two persons had 
any heart affection whatever : one sudden death only, in thirty 
three, from disease of the heart. Nine out of the sixty-six 
died of apoplexy, one out of every seven, while forty-six, 
more than two out of three, died of lung affections, half of 
them of " congestion of the lungs," that is, the lungs were so 
full of blood, they could not work, there was not room for air 
enough to get in to support life. 

88 HalVs Journal of Health. 

It is then of considerable practical interest to know some of 
the common every day causes of this " congestion of the lungs," 
a disease which, the figures above being true, kills three times 
as many persons at short warning, as apoplexy and heart dis- 
ease together. Cold feet ; tight shoes ; tight clothing ; cos* 
tive bowels ; sitting still until chilled through and through, 
after having been warmed up by labor or along or hasty walk; 
going too suddenly from a close heated room, as a lounger or 
listener or speaker, while the body is weakened by continued 
application, or abstinence, or heated by the effort of a long 
address ; these are the fruitful, the very fruitful causes of sud- 
den death in the form of " congestion of the lungs ;" but which 
being falsely reported as " disease of the heart," and regarded 
as an inevitable event, throws people off their guard, instead 
of pointing them plainly to the true causes, all of which are 
avoidable, and very easily so, as a general rule, when the mind 
has been once intelligently drawn to the subject. 

. i ■ 


Conducted by scholars, christians and gentlemen, and with the 
tact, energy and industry which characterize the secular dailies, 
w T ould be one of the greatest moral, social' and physiological 
boons of the present age. True, it is not a very easy matter to 
find a man who, besides being a scholar and a christian, is a 
practical- gentleman all the time. We do not believe there is 
a dozen such men within the city limits. There are a great 
many christian men, a great many learned men, and not a few, 
who are both learned and christian, but the. gentleman I where 
is he who is learned and christian too ! He must be hunted up 
with a lighted candle, and when found, it will be some man 
of whose quiet, retired and enjoyable existence, the great mass 
of citizens have never heard, because his very nature shrinks 
from exposure to the innumerable sources of contamination of 
the times. No man of reflection , can go intp a religious newsr 
paper office, and take up the' religious exchanges of any day, 
and fail to conclude that wormwood and gall are in too extent 
sive requisition. What a diarrhoea of sarcasm ; what a 
fecundity of satire ; what keeness of repartee ; what wordiness 

A Religious Daily. 8 9 

of reply ; a whole column at once, sometimes expended in 
annihilating an adversary, real or supposed. This has pro- 
ceeded to such an extent, that the staid and conservative of 
the secular press, have been forced to hold up the conduct of 
even fathers of the religious press, for public reprobation? 
which attempt to gentleman ize the delinquents, was met with 
fire and fury, intense!* still, and the exhibition of their malig- 
nity abated not a tittle ! 

A daily paper is a commercial necessity in our large cities, 
and generally our wives, and sons, and daughters get into the 
habit ot reading them. And what do they read _?: 1'he legal- 
ly constituted rulers and authorities are a standing subject of 
abuse, of vilification. The judiciaries are brought into con- 
tempt, clergymen are held up to public ridicule by namej 
church going people are sneered at, and the levelling principle 
predominates. The privacy of families is ruthlessly, on the 
least show of justification, dragged forth, and spread out before 
a million readers, while columns of police and Other reports 
are printed every day, in which crime is made a jest of, and 
the writers make themselves merry over the friost harrowing 
details. A girl is reported as " chopping" up- her mother, and 
in a diction, which makes it of little more importance than 
chopping up a pig for sausage meat. Especially is printed 
with a lucious gusto, what pertains to divorces, infidelities, 
assignations, rape and the like, with particularities, nothing 
short of disgusting ; and going further still the most abomi- 
nable bestialities are opened to the light of day. As to pri- 
vate character, all sacredness has been destroyed, and no man 
can wake up any morning in New York, and feel sure that 
he is not charged with some crime, or compromised as to some 
nefarious transaction, to be rectified next day, after it has been 
spread before a million eyes, by an anouncement in small 
print, in an obscure part of the paper, " we regret to have al- 
lowed a statement in yesterday's paper^ that our highly respect- 
able fellow citizen, Mr. Smith, had been taken up for horse 
stealing, when such was not the case." 

We think that an important advance has been made towards 
protecting families from the vicious influences of the weekly 
secular press of New York, by the New York Observer, 
Evangelist, and others, giving all the important, reliable, se- 

90 HalVs Journal of Health. 

cular and commercial news, markets, price currents, &c, thus 
making it unnecessary for religious families, out of cities, to 
take any other paper than that which supplies them with reli- 
gious news and reading. Let us go another step forward, and 
have a religious daily, which will equal the very best secular 
paper in its shipping news, commercial, stock, and money ar^ 
tides, and as to the rest, filled up with the plain and un exag- 
gerated advertisements of honorable business men, having a 
corps of " correspondents" from main points abroad, who 
will always send facts, instead of conjectures, and in every 
thing, being prompt, sterling ai\d reliable. 

If such a paper could be set on foot in New York city, with 
a semi-weekly and weekly edition at the rates, at which the 
secular dailies have become rich in a few years, it would 
be fitter cause for public illumination, bonfires and universal 
rejoicings, than the establishment of a dozen atlantic cables: 
and we believe further, that it would secure the patronage of 
the sterling citizens of all creeds and all parties. 

But what has this to do with a Journal of Health ? It has 
much every way, and the connection is close enough. Such a 
paper would be a powerful source of moral health, militating 
against every grog shop, every beer saloon, every dance house, 
every place of assignation, public and private, for these are 
the places where the young are initiated into vicious practices, 
which ruin the health, crowd the hospitals, and perpetuate 
diseased constitutions. 


Beautiful is it of a winter's morning, to look out upon the 
snow laden trees, the limbs and twigs bending to the ground 
with their crystal burden ; but there is coldness in that 

Beautiful is it also to gaze upon the sculptured marble, 
and see its lineaments almost speaking with expression, but 
that beauty is more than cold, it is dead. 

Beautiful is it to gaze upon the mirage of the desert, but it is 
deceitful ; and upon the rainbow, and the icicles of a million 
forms, sparkling like diamonds in the noon days' sunlight, but 
transient, empty, and unreal all. 

Frost Work. 91 

In painting and in music, there is beauty too ; but they, 
and ail others, are lacking in this, they want the beauty, 
transcending every thing else, the beauty of life and of love. 

There is beauty in a splendid education, where the mind has 
been trained in all the accuracy of mathematics, in all the 
elevating elegances of poetry, and painting, and sculpture, 
and music. And grammar, and logic, and rhetoric may have 
been thoroughly mastered and reduced to the practice of an 
accomplished writer and a finished orator, an abstract moral- 
ity may pervade every line written, every uttered sentiment. 
But who does not know, that these things alone, never make a 
loveable character, there is beauty iuttjt, as cold as the icicle, 
as dead as the marble, as transient as rne clouds of mornings 
the body is without warmth, the heart without sympathy, the 
whole nature without love, beyond the circle of its own cold 
and dead, and magnificent self. 

The son of a London Alderman, was "William Beckford, 
left fatherless at ten, with an annual income of half a million 
of dollars. No pains were spared to give him a refined edu- 
cation. The great Mozart taught him music. Sir William 
Chambers gave him lessons in architecture. At the moment of 
his majority, he launched out upon the world, proud, haughty 
and accomplished, withdrew from men, encircled his domains 
with a two mile wall, razeed his father's residence, which had 
been built at an expense of more than a million of dollars, and 
erected another on its site, in mid-winter, men working day 
and night, and amid gorgeous palaces, in more than eastern 
magnificence, he passed his time in luxurious ease. He feasted 
in the contemplation of his own grandeur, but the day wa3 
not long enough for that, for at times when his whole estab- 
lishment was lighted up with torches at mid-night, he would 
repair to a distant elevation, and gaze upon it by the hour. 
All this was the result, the very natural result of an '^accom- 
plished education." Had he been brought up in another school 
which would have invited out the affections, which would 
have trained him in the exercise of a benevolent nature ; had 
he been been taught that the best way to happyfy himself was 
to be employed in happyfying others, he would most probably 
have lived to high purposes, and Would have gone down to the 
grave with the benedictions of multitudes On his head, to be 

§2 EalVs -Journal of Health. 

repeated as to his memory, by every successive generation, 
for all time. Instead of. which his towers fell with thMfc own 
weight, property depreciated, law suits terminated -adversely, 
the sheriff entered where royalty had- beem refused, and he 
fell unpitied. Font Hill Abbey, like its owner, was levelled to 
the earth, and the wealth and the name of the author of Vatfok, 
have faded away " like frost work before the sum" From this 
narration, many of the families of this land may derive instruc- 
tion. The great aim of multitudes of parents, especially in ci- 
ties, is to afford their daughters a splendid education, and the 
music of harps and guitars and pianos, is assiduously cultivated 
for months and years, jktead of the infinitely more purifying 
and harmonizing " psalms and hymns^ and spiritual songs" of 
Isaac. Watts. The obscene and impossible mythology of clas- 
sical poets is studied more than the real truths of scripture 
history, and the dance, and the ball, and the opera, are patron- 
ized before the prayer meeting, the lecture, and the sabbath 
worship. The result of all this is, our -daughters grow up 
dressy, idle, proud, vain and worthless as to the real and ne- 
cessary duties of lite. They live in sham and show, anda vain 
parade, of which they soon get weary, because of their un- 
satisfying nature; life has no absorbing object; that of it 
which they see is tame and tasteless, there is nothing in it to 
stimulate them to energizing activities of mincl or heart or 
body, and they pine away in listlessness and early disease, or, 
to protract for a brief space the flickering lamp of life, they 
feed it with opiates^ or fill it with alcohol. - ■ 

That this may not be regarded as the figment of a lively 
imagination, it is only necessary to repeat -an official decla- 
ration in reference to the State Inebriate Asylum, now in pro- 
cess of erection, at Binghamton, that of those who have al- 
ready applied for admission for the cure of the disease of 
drunkenness " four hundred are women in the higher walks 
of life, educated and accomplished." 

. . ! _ 1 — j , • 


i v't v 
Fkesh, pure, luscious, cream and all, from farm-fed cows, 

is served on our table every day, within a dozen hours after it 

is drawn from its natural fountain. What a countless multi- 

Milk. 93 

tude of Gothamites envy our good fortune, and how the ques- 
tion leaps from the lips "How do you get it?" Don't be in 
a hurry. We will tell you by degrees, not only how ve get it, 
but how you may get it, and at common milk cart prices for 
the adulterated article; swill one half, water one quarter, 
milk " a trace," as a chemist would say. - / 

A New Yorker does not know what pure milk is, theoreti- 
cally or gustatorially. In the first place, nobody WOuld drink 
pure milk willingly, except babies, pigs, and such like. 
Within our remembrance, we never drank but one fill of it, 
and that was over twenty years ago. We have vivid recol- 
lections of its lusciousness even now, by virtue of the peculiar 
circumstances and surroundings of the case. We were be- 
yond the boundaries of civilzation. We were literally among 
the savages. We had been travelling across the wilderness 
for a long, long time, day in and day out, our provisions were 
exhausted, no game to be seen in those wild, wild regions, and 
weary and faint, at close of day, we suddenly confronted an 
Indian encampment, and making our way to the wigwam of 
the chief, who was at once recognized by his dress and pre- 
sence, sitting at the door of his tent, we signed that we were 
hungry. Instantly his maiden daughter, as straight as ail 
arrow, and with the graceful spring of youth, ran to the herd, 
and in a few moments presented a vessel foaming and brim- 
ming full to our thirsty lips, and such a quaff of nectar we 
never had before or since, despite of its natural warmth, and 
the multitude of little scales and other things, from the cows 
teats and elsewhere^ which were swimming in discouraging 
abundance on the surface. We soon found it was no use in 
blowing them aside, and we comforted ourself in the reflect- 
ion, that although these particles were not exactly milk itself, 
they were pretty near milk, at all events ! and down they went ; 
the diversion from this very slight circumstance being, the 
contemplation of the beautiful young creature before us— for 
we were then young. 

In ordinary weather, milk remains fresh and pure for about 
three hours af#r the milking, when it begins to decompose, 
that is, begins to putrify, and hence is no longer "pure" milk, 
no more than meat is fresh or pure after it has begun to decay. 
These being the facts of the case, there is sound philosophy 

94: HalVs Journal of Health. 

in recommending milk " warm from the cow." Hence we have 
seen in St. James Park, London, within a few yards of the 
palace of the Queen, a fine healthful looking cow tied to a 
tree, and nurses coming up in their turn, with little cups to be 
filled from the teat, to be drank bj the children and infants 
under their charge. 

Science, and art, and invention, have led to several plans 
of securing milk in its purity to that large class of persons 
who live in towns and cities and on the sea, to whom a cow is 
an impossibility. Solidified Milk is one result, and is prepared 
as follows : premising that of every thousand pints of milk, 
as it comes from the cow, eight hundred and sixty-one pints are 
simple water, this water is evaporated away in' the manner of 
making sugar out of cane juice, or " sugar water," when a 
thick doughy substance is left, which on being dried, chrystal- 
izes, and becomes a granulated, yellowish, creamy tinted, 
dry powder, it is then put in tin cans, covered tight, and re- 
mains fit for use at once, or for months after, having however 
finely pulverized loaf sugar mixed with it, to preserve it longer. 
Hence solidified milk is not pure milk, it is sugar and milk. It 
is prepared for use by re-adding the amount of water which was 
at first taken from it, or it is stirred in tea and coffee, until 
whitened to the taste of each person. This milk is prepared 
by a New York Company, in the midst of an agricultural dis" 
trict, out of convenient reach of conveyance to the city> where 
they are glad to sell it for two or three cents a quart, as it 
comes from the cow. • 

Condensed Milk is another form of more recent introduct- 
ion, the discovery of Gail Borden, a man of great reflective 
powers, and of indomitable energy. He has spent long years 
of time and anxious thought, with many thousands of dollars, 
before he succeeded in bringing it to its present perfection of 
process, and in persuading the people that it was a reality 
and not an imposition. Mr. Borden's establishment is also in 
an agricultural region, where the milk would otherwise find no 
market. The farmers bring it while yet warm, it is then de- 
prived of a large part of its water^ whicttl leaves it of the 
thickness of syrup or molasses, it is then placed in a cool ves- 
sel surrounded with ice, sent to New York, and delivered from 
these vessels at the doors of those who use it. Some of the 

Milk. 95 

ocean steamers take enough for a voyage out and back, keep- 
ing it in an ice chest, and it is apparently^as good on the day 
of return, as on the day of departure. Nothing is mixed with 
it, not even sugar. It is essentially a pure milk. All the pre- 
paration needed for using it, is simply to stir it in the tea and 
coffee. If it is to be drunk or used for cooking purposes, com- 
mon cold water is to be stirred in, until it is reduced to the pro- 
per thinness. One pint of condensed milk with three pints of 
pure water, will make a thicker, richer milk than is to be had 
of any city milk dealer, and at a rate about the same that is 
paid for ordinary cart milk. % 

As long as one pint of condensed milk weighs twenty ounces, 
we are getting what we pay for, a less weight for a pint, is that 
much of a fraud. . 

There are two things which will oppose the introduction of 
condensed milk — 1st. The servants will see at once its richness, 
and will use the concentrated condensed article, with the same 
measure and freeness as they use the common kind. 2nd. It 
requires more care in handling, than the generality of city 
mistresses will give to it, and being left to servants will be 
badly and wastefully used. The only care required is that the 
vessel containing the milk, shall remain in the refrigerator or 
other cool place, all the time, taking only enough from it, as 
will answer the occasion, for if it is taken to the kitchen or 
placed on table during the meals, the whole of it gets warm 
and sours, but even then, for all the purposes of sour milk, it is 
most admirable. 

As pure milk is associated with fresh eggs, it may be well 
to state that while milk remains pure only for about three 
hours after it is taken from the cow, an egg is not tit to eat, is 
not " set" until about twelve hours after it has been laid. 

We may as well complete this essay on milk, by stating 
that it is the only article of food yet known to chemists, which 
has in it all the elements of nutrition. 'Hence it is sufficie nt ,to 
sustain the child until it is weaned. No grown person could 
live and work, and thrive so long, on any one article of food. 
So wise and kind is that Providence which opens in the 
mother's bosom a fountain which contains all that the child re- 
quires for its fullest wants. ' 

96 HalVs Journal of Health. 

In every thousand pounds of milk there are of — 

Water, • . . . . ; . . 861 pounds, 

Caseine or Cheese . . 66 " 

Butter, ...... 38 " 

Sugar, ...... 29 " 

Salts, . 6 ' " 


That is, the water quenches thirst, the cheese makes the 
flesh, the butter oils the skin and keeps it soft, lubricates the 
joints, and like the sugar, which makes the milk palateable, it 
affords material for warmth, by means of the respiration, 
while the fixed salts goto make up the bones as a frame work 
for the body. But When the child gets old enough to run 
about, it must have food which contains more of these phos- 
phatic salts ; if it does not, it becomes rickety, being proof 
conclusive, that milk was designed as the main food, only for 
the very young. 

But to make this more directly practical to city readers, who 
are beginning in this April spring time, to yearn for the coun- 
try, its milk, and butter and eggs, for themselves and their 
children, the first enquiry to be made when a " farm house" 
is found, should be, not whether they keep cows and hens, for 
they will point you at once to the finest, largest, sleekest ani- 
mals you ever laid eyes on ; and as for hens, the whole yard 
cackles and the little chickens come about your feet, so that it is 
difficult not to tread on them, but ask this pregnant question, 
— Do you get a good price for your milk, eggs and butter ? 
or the more effectually to guard yourself from imposition, 
visit said farm houses incog, as a " middle man" or huckster, 
and price these valuable articles, the grass butter, the snowy 
eggs, the luscious milk, and act accordingly. 

But while the " solidified" and " condensed 5 ' milk are ad- 
mirable for their respective purposes, the Rockland County 
Association have gone a step farther, and propose to deliver 
milk twice a day during the summer, in a state as natural and 
pure as at the moment of the milking, except that it shall be 
of a refreshing coolness, and all this, at the common price of 
seven cents a quart. It is interesting to know how this thing 
is done. 

Milk, 97 

It is delivered as is the condensed milk, '.while- yet warm 
from the cow into the cans of the agent, who has these cans 
placed in cold water, while the milk in them is kept stirred 
by machinery until it is cold, he then locks each can, and 
places it in a box, surrounded with ice, but so as not to make^ 
it ice cold, for that also would decompose the milk, he then 
accompanies these cans to the city on the rail road, and on 
reaching their depot in Tenth street, the cans are unlocked, and 
multitudes of smaller ones holding two quarts each, are filled 
and locked, the names of the persons to whom these cans are 
to be delivered is painted on them. Each can lock has a du- 
plicate key, the agent keeps one, the customer the other. The 
milking of last night is. delivered for breakfast, that of. the 
morning is delivered at sun down. 

We may safely say, that until this company gets into full 
operation, and. a large custom, we will very certainly have 
pure milk in its natural state, and fresh, placed on our tables, 
but with thousand of customers, the temptation to adulterate 
will most likely become too strong to resist. Meanwhile, those 
who patronize the association for the first year or two, may, 
for that time at least, with their children, luxuriate in pure> 

fresh milk, from farm house cows. 

• • ■ ' ■ i 

. ' i 


If a man were to see a. quarter of an inch of worm put in 
his cup of coffee, he could not drink it, because he knows that 
the whole cup would be impregnated. If a very small amount 
of some virulent poison be introduced into a glass of water, 
the drinking of it might not produce instant death, but that 
would not prove that it was not hurtful,, only that there 
was not enough of it to cause a destructive result immediately. 

We sicken at the thought of taking the breath of another 
the moment it leaves the mouth, but that breath mingles with 
the air about the bed, in which two persons lay; and it is re- 
breathed, but not the less offensive is it in reality, on account 
of the dilution, except that it is not taken in its concentrated 
form, but each breath makes it more concentrated. One 
sleeper corrupts the atmosphere of the room by his own 
breathing, but when two persons are breathing at the same 

98 HalVs Journal of Health. 

time, twelve or fourteen times in each minute, in each min- 
ute extracting all the nutriment from a gallon of air, the de- 
terioration must be rapid indeed, especially in a small and 
close room. A bird cannot live without a large supply of 
pure air. A canary bird hung up in a curtained bedstead 
where two persons slept, died before the morning. 

Many infants are found dead in bed, and it is attributed to 
having been over laid by the parents, but the idea that any 
person could lay still for a moment on a baby or any thing 
else of the same size, is absurd. Death was caused by the 
want of pure air. 

Besides, emanations serial and more or less solid, are thrown 
out from every person, thrown out by the processes of nature, 
because no longer fit for life purposes, because they are dead 
and corrupt, but if breathed into another living body, it is just 
as abhorrent as if we took into our mouths the matter of a sore 
or any other excretion. 

The most destructive typhoid and putrid fevers are known 
to arise directly from a number of persons living in the same 
small room. 

Those who can afford it, should therefore arrange to have 
each member of the family sleep in a separate bed. If per- 
sons must sleep in the same bed, they should be about the same 
age, and in good health. If the health be much unequal, both 
will suffer, but the healthier one the most, the invalid suffer- 
ing for want of an entirely pure air. 

So many cases are mentioned in standard medical works, 
where healthy, robust infants and larger children have dwin- 
dled away, and died in a few months from sleeping with grand 
parents, or other old persons, that it is useless to cite special 
instances in proof. 

It would be a constitutional and moral good for married per- 
sons to sleep in adjoining rooms, as a general habit. It would 
be a certain means of physical invigoration, and of advan- 
tages in other directions, which will readily occur to the re- 
flective reader. Kings and Queens, and the highest persona- 
ges of courts have separate apartments. It is the bodily em- 
manations collecting and concentrating under the same cover, 
which are most destructive of health, more destructive than 
the simple contamination of an atmosphere breathed in com- 

A Surfeit 99 


Ix man is called founder in a horse, and is over-eating, eat- 
ing more than the stomach can possibly convert into healthful 
blood. Wise men r and careful men will sometimes inadver- 
tently eat too much, known by a feeling of fulness, of unrest, 
of a discomfort which pervades the whole man. Under such 
circumstances, we want to do something for relief; some eat a 
pickle, others swallow a little vinegar, a large number drink 
brandy. We have swallowed too much, the system is oppress- 
ed, and nature rebels, instinct comes to the rescue, and takes 
away all appetite, to prevent our adding to the, burden by a 
morsel or a drop. The very safest, surest, and least hurtful 
remedy, is to walk briskly in the open air, rain or shine, sun, 
hail, or hurricane, until there is a very slight moisture on the 
skin, then regulate the gait, so as to keep the perspiration at 
that point, until entire relief is afforded, indicated by a general 
abatement of the discomfort ; but as a violence has been 
offered to the stomach, and it has been wearied with the extra 
burden imposed upon it, the next regular meal should be 
omitted altogether. Such a course will prevent many a sick 
hour, many a cramp, colic, many a fatal diarrhoea. 


A very large amount of the discomfort, lassitude, depression 
and actual sickness which prevails in the spring can be modi- 
fied or wholly avoided by the exercise of a little reflection and 
self denial 

One of the main objects of eating in winter time is to keep 
us warm, and to that end, provident nature gives a vigorous 
appetite in cold weather, but if as warm weather approaches 
we eat with the appetite of winter, the system not having time 
to adapt the appetite to the temperature, mischief will follow as 
inevitably as if a locomotive is diminished in speed one half 
while the fires are kept burning as fiercely as when it was 
moving at the utmost allowed rapidity. A prompt diminution 
at each meal of one-third of the amount eaten in winter, begin- 
ning before April in the latitude of New York, and earlier 
further south, would diminish spring diseases to an incalcula- 
ble extent: 

100 IlalVs Journal of Health. 


We had just finished reading the " proof" of our article — 
" A Dail y Religious Newspaper,'' when a gentleman informed 
us that a hundred and fifty thousand dollars were secured for 
commencing such an enterprise in New York, and that it 
would shortly bepnt in execution. Simultaneously in London, 
a million and a half of dollars have been secured for making 
a religious daily of " The Dial" Who shall not say "The 
day breaketh." 

The Westminster Review for January, reprinted "by Leonard 
Scott & Co., New York, at $3 a year, has an able and extended 
article on Chloroform and other anaesthetics, which the me- 
dical scholar will read with interest and profit. 

House Architecture, Fowler & Wells, New York, sent pp. 
for 30 and 50 cents, being No. 1, of Rural Manuals, useful and 
practical. ; 

The British <& Foreign Medicd Ghirurgical Review, pub- 
lished quarterly by the Messrs. Wood, 389 Broadway,, New 
York, $3 a year, postage free, to all advance subscribers, is a 
standard and sterling publication. The No. for Jan., 185y, is 
of unusual interest: sanatory science, obstetrics, cerebral phy- 
siology, influence of climate on disease, therapeutics of electri- 
city, the antagonism of ague and consumption discussed, &c, 
&c. The Messrs. W. offer 23 new medical works from Lon- 
don, with 300 vols, in French, at reduced prices; also sixteen 
different works on diseases of the ear, ninety an the eye, and 
seventy-six on the teeth, with prices attached. They promptly 
order medical works from all parts of the world. 

Boston Medical & Surgical Journal, $3 a year, for March, 
is enriched by observations of M. Trosseau, on asthma ; him- 
self a sufferer from that disease. 

/ 1 j 

A line or two from the eastern shore of Maryland, telling 
how much interested two deaf and dumb mutes were in read- 
ing one or two articles in a stray Journal of Health, encou- 
rages us to hope that we are not wholly living to or for our- 

The unknown (to us) Editor of the United States Hotel Di- 
rectory, weekly, $2 a year, New York, has our thanks and cor- 
dial approbation for the real excellence of, the reading matter 
of his paper, original and selected; we hope he will continue 
the same. 

Medical and Swrgical Journal, weekly, Philadelphia ; in- 
creases in interest w T ith the evident thrift of the new enterprize 
of Drs. Butler and Lewis, judging from its mechanical im- 

The American Agricultural Monthly, $1 a year. Orange 
Judd, New York, is' a marvel of the age. 





. . . ■ : ' ' '■ ■■ ' . - ' ; . 

We aim to show hoio Disease may be avoided, a?id that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] MAY, 1859. [No. 5. 


' . ■■ . 

Is any large city, and emphatically in this respect, is New 

York the city of the dead. Not a day, scarce an hour passes, 
which does not witness some fond anticipation wilted in the 
grasping ; some long cherished expectation withered in an 
honr ; and in an hour the plans of life wrecked for ever. 

On a beautiful afternoon of the earliest spring time, we 
walked Broadway from Trinity church to Union Square, first 
for months. It occurred to us to step in and. see a familiar 
face, which we had not met since summer." Then, there was 
the portly mien, the manly eye, the confident expression.- — 
There was the ruddiness of cheek and solidity of muscle which 
told of vigorous health. In his well-ordered establishment, 
the piles of goods, the crowd of customers, the activity of 
clerks, silent, staid, respectful, all spoke of thrift. But now 
the name was gone, the sign was down. Knowing the house 
and neighborhood and number, we entered ; and new arrange- 
ments, and strange faces were presented. Is Mr. in ? — 

No! Where is he? Gone! When will he return? Can't 
tell. The story was soon told. He had failed. Money gone, 
friends fled, hope prostrate, he had left the city. Whither, no . 
one knew. What to do no one cared. If to return ever, none 
thought to inquire. What anxieties, what apprehensions, 
what struggles, what tortures tore that man's heart in the 
daily battle to keep up his name, which, always precedes an 
honorable failure ; and at home what silent meals, what trou- 

102 HalVs Journal of Health. 

bled looks, what unaccustomed coldness to children, what un- 
usual and short and almost cross replies to the enquiries of an 
apprehensive and affectionate wife ; what listless meals ; what 
startling dreams; what sleepless nights ; what clouds, the 
clearest morning sun but darkened ; what pangs the careless 
prattle of children struck home upon a loving father's heart, 
whose thoughts could dwell on nothing but coming demands, 
dishonored bills and protested notes, we shall never know, 
but a monument, the grave of hopes of early, vigorous man- 
hood, we have seen. 

A dozen blocks on, and within the hour, we thought of ano- 
ther name and looked for it on the street, but looked in vain. 
It was not be found. Six months earlier, a little old man, of 
rugged health, of sprightly eye, of active gait, benignant look 
and joyous good nature, made our acquaintance. At the first 
visit, he spread out a life of alternate hopes and fears, of suc- 
cess and failure. But never discouraged, never cast down, he 
had struggled through his last battle with perplexities and 
obstacles and delays, which well might have vanquished any 
heart, and now, believed himself near the topmost round, the 
battle of half a century almost ended, the victory almost won. 
A month later, a cloud had come, disappointments muttering 
thunders sounded in the distance, next the crash, hope died 
out for ever, and we shall see him no more. 

Within the same week, we met a gentleman whom we had 
not seen for months ; then his " transactions" were by the tens 
of thousands. Every thing prospered with him. lie was also 
a scholar, refined in feeling, elevated in sentiment, having a 
most generous and manly heart. But to-day he had changed. 
There was the easy courtesy of the gentleman, but there was 
at the same time that subduedness of demeanour, which re- 
verses always u impress on the sensitive." I am not worth a 
shilling to-day, Doctor. I could have put out a hundred and 
twenty thousand dollars on bond and mortgage, but I wanted 
" a little more," and I have parted with my last shilling lite- 
rally. " You are yet young" said we, " look upward and a- 
head, only those who have failed can know that they are men, 
that knowledge you have, and it is equal to another fortune 
you did'nt think of," and we parted. 

The Grave of Hope. 103 

A very few hours later, we met another, respected and ho- 
nored at home ; he visited foreign lands and stood in foreign 
courts ; assembled thousands had waited on his lips ; his utter- 
ances were printed in both hemispheres. The morning sun of 
his life had risen in splendor. His estates were measured by 
miles. Great men, traveled men, rich men felt complimented 
to seat him at their tables. But within six months, a change 
had come over him too. The foretime ready smile came not 
at his greeting. Furrows had been plowed, and settled sad- 
ness had made its deep imprint on that lang syne sunny face. 
" Money" gone, children scattered, wife worse than dead, was 
the short, sad history, of budding prospects blighted in an hour, 
of early flowers wilted in tbe blowing, of human hopes all pe- 
rished in a night. 

Little know the plain plodding workers of the country, 
whose farms are paid for, and clear of liens, how happy and 
stable they should feel, and what little ground there is for the 
envious thoughts which often rise within them when they hear 
of men in cities handling money or merchandize by the mil- 
lions every year, and who in a season spend more than would 
buy a good sized farm. Four out of five of them die poor, 
unless they have secreted money from their creditors. The 
owner of a dozen acres, or a hundred, or a thousand, can go to 
bed any night and feel secure that he shall wake up next 
morning with a home of his own, and a living within it, for 
him and his. On the contrary, the city merchant or banker 
has no such security. The mail of any morning may bring to 
him the death warrant of all earthly hopes, and he go home 
that night the penniless occupant of a brown stone mansion ; 
wife, children and friends all unconsoious of the dreadful 

Said a merchant the other morning, " your article on life 
assurance has come a day too late, for I had just taken out a 
policy for fifteen thousand dollars." On expressing some sur 
prise that a man of his wealth should ever think of his family 
coming to need so small a sum, he said — " a man in our busi- 
ness can't tell how long he will be worth any thing." And 
this is precisely the uncertainty which consumes the ftfe of 
business men in great cities, before half the allotted term has 
passed away. They take no time to eat or rest or sleep ; no 

104 HalVB Journal of Health. 

time to revel in the smiles of love at home, in the prattle of 
sweet children, who would love with a warm affection, if they 
did not see that the father's thought and heart were elsewhere. 
Said a merchant, failed some months ago, whose name is 
familiar to two continents — "'for .«-— — years, except on Sun- 
days, I have never seen my children out of bed." The num- 
ber is left blank, because its expression would excite discredit. 
He ate i his breakfast by candle light,, took his dinner in his 
pocket; and returned home long ; after dark. This he had 
done for years, and amassed. a fortune; and in a night had lost 
it! Well may he have used the words reported of * another, 
who had failed, as to what he intended to do-— " I believe I 
will go home and become acquainted with my family." Such 
as we have named are men of mind enough to live down the 
contemplation of wrecked fortunes, but let the thronged apart- 
ments of the Bloomingdale asylum tell the other story— ol in- 
tellects crazed, of minds demented. Let the grave yard tell 
of lives sacrificed, and the judgment day of souls lost, by the 
inordinate " haste to be rich." > : 


Sometime ago a stranger came into our office whom we were 
glad to see, when we found out that he was from the sterling old 
" Eorth State," to which almost as many "Journals 5 ' are sent, 
as any other in the Union, owing partly to his' personal influ- 
ence ; and several letters having passed between us, he was in 
the light of an old acquaintance. Within a day or two we re- 
ceived the following off-hand note, which we should judge 
was written on his safe arrival at home, before he had taken 
time to kiss his wife and children. By this it would seem 
that another name is added to the small list of editors, who 
are at this time regarded as entitled to that distinctive appel- 
lation, " The." Our readers will have no difficulty in calling 
up at once four names, as towering above the twenty thousand 
others in this broad Union of States, and all in Gotham too ! 
as if it were the vast center, where all greatness met. The 
iiame% alphabetically, are Bennett, Dixon, Greely, Willis ; all 
known wherever the English language is read, as " Peers of 
the" Realm" Periodical; each a head and shoulders taller than 

Quintuple Alliance, 105 

any of his class. Bennett for his brave enterprises in throwing 
a vigor and an energy into newspaper life, which it never 
knew before ; Dixon of the Scalpel, for his persistent and 
fearless onslaught against sham and show, and hollow pretence 
in medicine and morals, for the merciless blows, scathing and 
keen, which he inflicts on the twin brothers, assumption and 
ignorance ; and not least, for that genius, profundity and med- 
ical scholarship which turn out whole pages in an hour of 
what is beautiful in reading, and blessed in practice, to wit, 
lessons of wisdom, safety and truth in reference to health and 
disease. . . ■ ■ , .:.■■• 

Next comes Greeely, the " philosopher" so called, a man 
"who has made himself; who travelled from the clod to con- 
gress; a representative man, standing up always and .every 
where for what he believed to be the right, never fainting, 
never faltering, the friend of the ■ poor and the oppressed, the 
lover of his kind. Next comes Willis, and at once there rises 
before us in imagination, for we have never seen him, the 
personification of grace, the embodiment of the gentleman, 
with visions of all that is sweet in poetry ; and in prose, spark- 
ling, elegant, and pure. Now " truly," as our dear little Alice 
says, we are ashamed entirely, to say any thing about the qual- 
ity and quantity, of the fifth individual, for he ought not to 
be mentioned in the same day, with that breadth of enterprise 
which marks the first, with that genius and medical lore which 
distinguishes the second ; with that power and daring against 
all odds, of the third ; nor with the high culture, which has 
enabled the fourth to make his mark amongst the men of his 
time. Now really, we wish we had not begun this article, and 
but for our habit of never going backwards, we certainly would 
throw it in the waste basket, not for any thing which has been 
written, but for the "falling off" there must be, in what is to 
be written, but as old North Carolina has " made the best of 
it," we will give the letter. 

March 19, 1S59. 
Dear Doctor. 

I didn't get sick, although I must confess the inducement was great. 
The idea of Dr. Hall coming to visit me ! Yes, sir, your promise 
was instantly recorded, and whenever your New Yoik February 
weather seemed' to affect me, I remembered your promise, and had 
no dread of sickness. That morning's very brief interview with you 

106 Hall's Journal of Health. 

gave me infinite satisfaction. The purpose of the call was more than 
a double one. First, I had a great desire to see the living Dr. Hall. 
I had been paying my dollar per annum, for several years past, to 
hear from and know of him, but the real live Doctor, and editor of 
the " Journal of Health" it had never been my privilege to see face 
to face. Now I have seen the man, whom, were I to describe in a 
few words, I would say, " The comfortable and satisfied Doctor and 
gentleman. The practical man, the man who never wants to be 

I thank you Doctor for the pleasure you have given me and mine. 
We all read your good sense, and but One complaint have I heard at 
our fireside, i. e., after every word you write for the Journal has been 
read, the complaint is " there is not enough of it." That compliment 
can rarely be paid to the monthlies of the present day ; rather too 
much than too little. 

Upon my return, our mutual friend Dr. Thomas, lost no time in 
asking after you; " Tell me about Dr. Hall," was the first command 
after " How are you." I did tell him, and told him all I knew. 

Excuse me Doctor for the liberty, but I couldn't help telling you 
how much you are esteemed and respected by your friend and obe- 
dient servant, 

We presume that mere notoriety is, to all great minds, an 
annoyance ; to such it must be a pleasure and a relief to pass 
along as one of the undistinguishable crowd ; there must be 
rest and sweetness in that privacy. But he that would have 
a well spring of pure joy rising to his lips perennially, let him 
aim for the celebrity which quiet, busy, unpublished well- 
doing never fails to secure after the work has been done, and 
the worker has gone to get his reward. Thus, while he escapes 
the idle or impertinent gaze of the crowd, he can at the same 
time be drinking the nectar, made of the consciousness of hav- 
ing done good with a pure motive, and a true heart ; of having 
done good, in the love of it; this w T ill be an oil to throw on 
the troubled waters of a late in life," it will soothe the unes- 
capable griefs of age, and gradually prepare the heart for that 
more perfect rest, where u sorrow and sighing shall flee away." 


The complaint of " lassitude" is almost universal as spring 
advances, and' those who have reached fifty years, can w T ell re- 
member the old time custom of taking something to " purify 
the blood," to " thin the blood," as regularly as the season of 

Spring Diseased* 107 

spring returned; and even now, the failing in appetite and 
"falling off" in flesh corroborate the idea in the unthinking, 
that they must take something, and forthwith " bitters" are 
prepared, and these bitters, being nothing less than some herb 
or root put into a bottle of whisky, are the means of initiating 
multitudes into habits of drunkenness. The more elevated 
and refined of cities, use various kinds of wines, and too often 
recommend their children to do the same, to end in drinking 
vulgar gin, or in secretly chewing opium. 

But there is a better way and a safer. The decline of appe- 
tite in spring is not the symptom, or the effect of disease, it is 
as it were the wise forethought of a sleepless instinct, which 
puts out its blind feelers ahead to clear away danger. Instinct, 
that wonderful, impalpable thing, the agent of Almighty pow- 
er, the instrument of love divine ; its lesson is, that the body 
does not require so much food, hence the desire for it is taken 
away ; and if men could only be induced to read that lesson 
aright, to practice it by simply eating according to the appe- 
tite, by not going to the table if they did not "feel like taking 
anything," and then resolutely wait until the next meal, and 
at no time eating an atom, unless there was a decided desire 
for it, — if such a course were judiciously pursued, the spring 
time would be to us a waking up to newness of life, as it is to 
the vegetable world. But instead of thus co-operating with 
our instincts, we " take something," bitters, pills, any thing 
that any body advises as good for u whetting up the appetite." 
It acts like a charm, we speak loudly in its praise, and a doz- 
en more are induced to follow the example. But soon the 
bubble bursts. Nature was only drugged, her voice was hush- 
ed, only to wake up a little later to find her ward prostrated by 
serious, and as to old persons, often fatal sickness. To avoid 
spring diseases then, abate the amount of food eaten at least 
one third, and work or exercise with a proportionate delibera- 

When a child is observed to have little or no appetite for 
breakfast, sickness of some kind is impending. If in addition to 
this indifference for food in the morning, there is a uniform 

. 1 Q8 HaWs Journal of Health. 

desire for a hearty supper at the close of the day, a dyspepsia 
for life will be founded, which will embitter many an other- 
wise happy hour; or some other form of chronic disease will 
result, which medical skill for many years, will often fail to 
eradicate.' • 

This want of appetite in the morning, and this over appetite 
late in the day, is the creator of disease in multitudes ot grown 
persons who have reached maturity in good health, but whose 
change- of position, of business, or of associations, has gradu- 
ally led to the perversion of nature's laws. 

Young children naturally, in common with the animal crea- 
tion, are greedy for breakfast, after the long abstinence of 
twelve hours, this is the natural arrangement, and it is wise. 

As persons of any intelligence at all, cannot but know that 
eating heartily late in the day, is destructive of health, we 
need not stop here to prove it; but by pointing out an easy 
remed}', we will, if it is attended to by every reader, arrest 
more disease, and save more life than can easily be computed: 
The importance of attending to what we shall say is such, that 
we entreat all parents who have any true wisdom and 
affection", who have an abiding desire for the future happiness 
of their offspring, to give it their mature consideration, their 
steady and prompt attention. 

Allow nothing to be eaten between meals, not an atom of 
any thing, and let the time of eating be fixed, and regular to 
a minute almost, for nature loves regularity. 

On the first evening, allow the child just half of his common 
supper. In three or four days, diminish the last allowance 
one half more. For another week allow nothing at alj, but 
one or two ordinary slices of cold bread and butter, and a cup 
of hot water and milk, with sugar in it, called cambric tea, • 
from its similarity in color to that fabric. Meanwhile, the ap- 
petite for breakfast will gradually increase, until it becomes a 
hearty meal, and all the exercise of the day will go to its 
thorough digestion, and perfect adaptation to the nutrition of 
the whole system. 

It is contrary to physiological law, to nature and to com- 
mon sense, to eat .an atom of any thing later than an hour 
after sun down, and alike contrary to all these is it, to make 
the last meal of the day, the heartiest one, as in the maimer 
of live o'clock dinners. 

Temperament Differences. 109 

Those who do not work hard, and who will have supper, 
"Tea," should, especially where there are children, have no- 
thing more inviting than cold bread and butter ; " Relishes," 
such as cake or chipped beef and the like, however " simple" 
they may be, are only stimulants to eating, when nature does 
not require any thing, and we goad her at our peril. 

: ■,..''.: . ' ■ 11/; gd 


Angel or angel fallen, fills the description of a woman for 
her life time. For a month before marriage, and a month 
after death, men (whether many or most, deponent saitli not,) 
regard their wives as angels ; all between, angels fallen ; the 
only difference being, that men are angels never. Young 
ladies before marriage, and widows, strive to make themselves 
pleasing, and they succeed, the latter especially. After awhile 
the decree of divorce reads, "on account of incompatibility of 
temper." But they pleased one another once, and could do it 
again, and to the end ; only the effort is wanting, that tells the 
whole story. In these times, when a degraded press, uuder 
the prostituted plea of " liberty," finds a mine of Wealth, and 
consequently gloats over a "divorce case," whether of me- 
chanic or millionaire, whether of the " boards" or the " pulpit," 
laying before our wives and daughters, morning after morning, 
the bough t-up testimony of outsiders, and the filthy rehearsals 
of impossible facts by malicious or time serving menials, 
when these things are so, it becomes those of us who are pa- 
rents, to consider seriously if something cannot be done to 
devise safeguards, at least in individual instances, against the 
calamity of the ought-to-be sacred precincts of the family, 
invaded by impertinent reporters and lawyers, not less worthy 
of public execration, who, forgetting that they themselves are 
husbands and fathers, too often, in the halls of justice, indulge 
in obscene ribaldries, and disgusting probings ; not for truth's 
sake, but for purposes of sarcasm and of personal abuse, as 
if right was not to be obtained, without these degrading and 
infamous aids. 

There is a great deal of rank atheism in some of the teachings 

110 Ball's Journal of Health. 

of phrenology, possibly confined to its blind teachers, in that 
crime is excused virtually, on account of the " temperament," 
or " physical conformation." We admit that as far as phrenolo- 
gy teaches and encourages us to rectify these deformities, it is 
well, but by throwing out intimations, that to a certain extent, 
crime is excusable on these accounts, making it a moral insan- 
ity, it uproots all law, human and Divine, and moral anarchy 
reigns universal. 

We firmly believe, and most unhesitatingly avow, that a 
sound Christianity, early instilled, will uproot thig whole mat- 
ter, and make domestic life akin to angelic communion. The 
fundamental teaching, the great practical idea of Bible reli- 
gion, is expressed in two words by its Divine Author, "Deny 
Thyself." Taking a wider range, it means self control. In its 
application to all that is desirable, " I can't" is not in the vocabu- 
lary of a man , of a christian. That an efficient early self control 
is possible, is proven in the fact of its practice before marriage ; 
there is nothing in that ceremony which makes it less practi- 
cable. The power exists, only the effort is wanting. Let all pa^ 
rents then, let all who are about to be married, let all the 
married, remember that the inculcation, the practice of self 
control, is the key stone of practical religion, it is the panacea 
for domestic disquietude, the entrance door of a heaven on 
earth, and a brighter heaven in the skies. 

On the other hand, let those remember, whether husbands 
Or wives, that the indisposition to make this effort, is not only 
a want of all religion, it is a want of all nobility, it is beast- 
like ; it demonstrates the want of gentle blood, and the pre- 
sence of a nature essentially low, one which no improved con- 
dition of outward circumstances would ever elevate, but 
which on the contrary, would be fed by them, and the aids to 
elevation would be only prostituted to purposes of a deeper 
degradation. In plainer phrase, the man or woman who will 
excuse an acknowledged short-coming, by saying " I would 
do better if I were better off," give me this, that or the other 
which I have not now, and I will show you that I will be a 
different being, that person is yet " in the gall of bitterness, 
and in the bond of iniquity," and needs the pity and the prayer 
of all good men. 

Well Done. Ill 


To do any thing well, there should be a sound mind in a 
healthy body. There have been men who were perhaps ne- 
ver well, never for an hour enjoyed good health, and yet they 
lived to purpose, for their deeds are this day exerting a hap- 
pylying influence on mankind. William the Conqueror was a 
wheezing asthmatic all his days. Bishop Hall was a martyr 
to pain as ceaseless as it was severe. Baxter had an infirmity 
of constitution, and from early youth to the grave, labored 
under bodily disease, and wearing pains. Calvin scarcely 
knew in twenty years, what it was to have a well day. No 
doubt the sufferings of these men aided in molding their cha- 
racters to a form which the age required. The most we can 
say of these cases is, that their diseased condition was over- 
ruled, and good was brought out of it. What greater good 
might have resulted had they been men of stalwart constitu- 
tions, we may never know, but certain it is, that When we are 
well, thought is a pleasure, and labor is a pleasure, but when 
sick, both are a burden, and every thought, and every act, is 
the result of an effort. We shall never do any thing perfect- 
ly, until we get to Heaven, but there, pain, and sickness, and 
disease can never enter. And if health is needed to enable 
us to do our duty well in a perfect state, much more is it need- 
ed to help us perform our parts well on earth. But whether 
sick or well, let us do what we may towards fulfilling our 
duty, and that is all that will be required of us. We can re- 
dily see how personal afflictions may humble, and subdue? 
and sanctify, and thus redound to the good of the individual ; 
but for all that, the great cause of humanity must suffer by it. 
The Almighty may permit disease, as he permits sin, and we 
cannot believe that he has any agency in sending either, we 
bring both on ourselves, but for all that, both may be over-ruled 
to our good, and his glory. 


A cold bath is in water under seventy degrees Fahrenheit, 
a warm one, is over ninety. A warm bath in pure water de 
bilitates, in salt water, strengthens. 

*& UaWs Journal of Health. 

Two cold hip (sitz) baths of fifteen minutes each, during 
six hours fasting, diminishes the weight of the. body one and a 
half pounds, hence in all appropriate cases is a prompt, efficient,. 
and valuable remedy. 

The best, safest, most invigorating bath for persons in health, 
is to jump into a river of a morning immediately on rising 
from bed, splurge around for two or three minutes, wipe dry, 
dress and run home. All who have any regard for personal 
cleanliness and health, should, once a week, in a warm room, 
with soap, brush and warm water, give the whole body a 
thorough washing, then with a cold instantaneous shower bath, 
or -a vessel of water dashed over head and shoulders, wipe, 
dress, and awav. 


The Almighty rested one seventh of the time of creation, 
commanding man to observe an equal repose, and the neglect 
of this injunction, will always, sooner or later, bring mental, 
moral and physical death. 

Rest is an invariable law of animal life. The busy heart 
beats, beats ever, from infancy to age, and yet for a large part 
of the time, it is in a state of repose. 

William Pitt died of apoplexy at the early age of forty-seven. 
When the destinies of nations hung in large measure on his 
doings, he felt compelled to give an unremitting attention to 
affairs of state. Sunday brought no rest to him, and soon the 
unwilling brain gave signs of exhaustion, but his presence in 
Parliament was conceived to be indispensable for explanation 
and defence of policy. Under such circumstances, it was his 
custom to eat heartily of substantial food, most highly seasoned, 
just before going to his place, in order to afford the body that 
strength, and to excite the mind to that activity deemed neces- 
sary to the momentous occasion. But under the high tension 
both brain and body perished prematurely. 

Not long ago, one of the most business men of England 
found his affairs so extended, that he deliberately determined 
to devote his sabbaths to his accounts. He had a mind of a 
wide grasp. His views were so comprehensive, so far seeing, 
that wealth came in upon him like a flood, and he -purchased 

Sabbath Physiology. 113 

a country seat, at the cost of -four hundred thousand dollars, 
determining that he would now have rest and quiet, but it was 
too late, for as he stepped on his threshold, after a survey of 
his late purchase, he became apoplectic, and although life was 
not destroyed, he only lives to be the wreck of a man. 

It used to be said that a brick-kiln a must" be kept burning 
over sabbath ; it is now known to be a fallacy. There can be 
no H must" against a Divine command. Even now, it is a re- 
ceived opinion, that iron blast furnaces will bring ruin if not 
kept in continual operation. Eighteen years ago, an English- 
man determined to keep the Sabbath holy as to them, with the 
result, as his books testified, that he made more iron in six 
days than he did before in seven ; that he made more iron in 
a given time, in proportion to the hands and number and size 
of furnaces, than any establishment in England which was 
kept in operation during the sabbath. 

In our own new York, the mind of a man who made half a 
million a year, went out in the night of madness and an early 
grave, only two years ago, from the very strain put upon it by 
a variety of enterprises, every one of which succeeded. 

" It will take about five years to clear them off," said an ob- 
servant master of an Ohio canal boat, alluding to the wearing 
out influences on the boatmen, w T ho worked on Sundays, as 
well as on other days ; almost as destructive as a life of prosti- 
tution, of which four years is the average, while as to the boat 
and firemen of the steamers on the western rivers, which 
never lay by on Sundays, seven years is the average of life. 
The observance therefore, of the seventh portion of our time, 
for the purposes of rest, is demonstrably, a physiological ne- 
cessity, a law of our nature. 


Two continents of civilized men lament the premature death 
of Prescott, the model historian, the scholar and the gentle- 
man. Not sixty -four, in the plenitude of his mental powers, 
he passed away, There was but a brief interval between his 
usual health, and the damps of death. Wealth from childhood 
gave him all the facilities of taking life easy, of husbanding 

114: HalVs Journal of Health. 

its energies, of avoiding wasting toil and wearing care. Edu- 
cation of a high order placed within his easy reach the means 
of living wisely, well and long ; while his position was such, as 
to enable him to enjoy riches, the humanizing, vivifying influ- 
ences of social life, in the associations of kindred, of friendship 
and of good citizenship, giving relaxation from study, and 
from that unrest, which close application produces. In addi- 
tion, he was regular in his habits, systematic in all his move- 
ments, loved to be on horseback; and " on foot," was exacting 
as to time and distance ; he would walk so far and so long, and 
yet, he died early, for he might have lived a quarter of a cen- 
tury longer, to have given more of his golden histories to the 
world, and still have been younger than the living, and loved, 
and honored Humbolt Why then did he die so soon ? Sim- 
ply because he was practically ignorant of the laws of his be- 
ing ; laws which he might have learned in any dollar's worth 
of this Journal. But how to keep well, is not considered by 
great men generally, as an indispensable knowledge. The 
shelves of their libraries are filled with the rarest and costliest 
of books, gold glistening from every leaf; but in all the long 
catalogue, there will not be found a dollar volume, which shows 
how to live healthily and long. The habits of the great histo- 
rian in the latter part of his life were admirable in the main, 
but they were begun thirty years too late, and hence failed to 
save him from an early death, for surely that man dies early, 
who has his work but half done. He died of apoplexy, which 
is a haemorrhage of the brain, more blood having been forced 
into the blood vessels there, than they could contain, and there 
was a rupture, as in an over distended hose pipe ; the result is 
instantaneous and complete unconsciousness, and speedy death. 
To be hurried from the bosom of one's family, to make the end- 
less journey is terrible. It is the " thunder stroke," as the 
French term it. * .Napoleon particularly dreaded that form of 
death. It may be well to know its chief causes, as a means of 
its prevention ; among these, the first and most frequent are 
long and intense thought, and intemperance in eating and 
drinking. Each part of the body has its appropriate stimulus, 
and to stimulate a part, is to bring more blood there than is 
natural. The greater the stimulus, the greater will be the 

Sudden Death. 115 

amount of blood, and if excessive, destruction of the parts is 
the result. 

Thought is the stimulus of the brain, too much thought 
draws too much blood there, and tends to apoplexy in some, 
madness in others. Thought is the " work" of the brain, sleep 
is its rest. As thought carries the blood to the brain, sleep 
gives it vigor, and that passes the blood on, and the brain is 
rested, and ready for thought again. But if enough sleep is 
not given, the brain is not ready for work, it has not been suf- 
ficiently rested and cleared of its blood, while forced thought 
increases the quantity ; every unrested night adds to the sur- 
plus, and apoplexy, which is the sleep of death, or sleepless- 
ness, which is the first step to madness, if protracted, is the 
ordinary result. It was said of the great historian, that he 
had an alarm clock to measure the ending of his sleep, and he 
bounded from his bed at the first stroke. That is, he 
upon himself to say how much sleep his system required, in- 
stead of allowing nature to make the appointment, and died 
prematurely, as all will die who fight against nature. The 
true plan is to go to bed at a uniform early hour, and rise as 
soon as nature wakes you up. This simple rule will ordinari- 
ly, secure prompt, sound and refreshing sleep, if persisted in, 
and day sleep is not allowed. 

The habit of stimulating the brain to work, when it does 
not feel like working, is another cause of brain disease, and 
premature death, and explains why many public speakers die 
early. They feel under a necessity to speak at an appointed 
hour, and if they happen not to be " in trim," if the spirit is 
not upon them, they put the spirit in them, and they speak tea, 
coffee, opium, tobacco, brandy, "according to the circumstan- 
ces of the case." Such speaking it is clear, is not from the 
r natural man," but from the u spiritual," and is not likely to 
be the " pure milk of the word." 

It was the habit of the great Pitt, before " going to the 
House," to speak in his place, to eat heartily of substantial 
food, highly seasoned, and then to " swallow a bottle of 
wine in tumbler fulls," he died of apoplexy at the early age 
of forty-seven ; and those who goad the brain to high activities, 
whether by tea or tobacco, by coffee or cogniac, will probably 
meet a similar fate, or if not, a premature death, or worse still, a 
living death in a mad house. 

116 HalVs Journal of Health. 

It is well to note here, how easily a man may cheat himself 
out of half a life time. The model historian knew that bodily 
exercise was essential to health, and he took it largely, system- 
atically, on foot and horse, bat he did not remember that rest 
for the brain was quite as necessary to vigorous health as exer- 
cise to the body, for he loved to walk and ride alone, with his 
mind running on his favorite histories, and the brain had no 
rest, not even the rest of diversion, it was literally worked to 
death, it had not the power to pass off the blood which con- 
tinued thought brought there, and its cisterns were broken at 
the fountain. Let all students therefore remember that " bodily 
exercise profiteth little," if in the meanwhile, the brain is not 
rested by diversions, by exercises, as it were, which require no 
tension, by thoughts without effort. 

Newspaper reporters not unfrequently die prematurely. 
Pleasant is it to take up our favorite paper by a cozy lire of a 
winter's morning, and have our memories refreshed or our 
knowledge increased by reading the . report" of a lecture or 
sermon, or public meeting of the preceding evening, but it is 
too often the price of blood. Late hours, intense application, 
a goaded brain and then, in exhaustion, to retire at two or 
three in the morning, only to have the feverish sleep of over 
fatigue, the disturbed slumbers which the early noises of a 
busy city allow, these suffice, with other attendants, to wear 
out a splendid mind, and a vigorous body, in a very, very few 

Eating heartily, later than sundown is a frequent cause of 
apoplexy, Habitually cold feet occasion brain diseases, by 
forcing blood there, and keeping it too hot, while they them- 
selves, have not enough. Hence the wisdom of keeping the 
head cool, and the feet warm. Let it be remembered then, 
that the body is invigorated by exercise, the brain by rest, and 
that to goad the brain to action against its instinct, whether 
by tea, coffee, tobacco, opium or stimulating drinks of any de- 
scription, will, if persevered in, end in a premature, if not 

dishonorable death. 

■ ■ . . . i • 

Most Truthful.—" We too often have oceasion to observe 
that the moral character of an act depends, even in the view 
of good men, upon the question- — who performs it." 


Quenching Thirst. 117 


Nearly a hundred years ago, Dr. Lind suggested to Cap- 
tain Kennedy, that thirst might be quenched at sea, by dip- 
ping the clothing in salt water, and putting it on without 
wringing. Subsequently the Captain on being cast away, had 
an opportunity of making the experiment. With great diffi- 
culty, he succeeded in persuading a part of the men to follow 
his example, and they all survived ; while the four who refused 
and drank salt water, became delirious, and died. In addition' 
to putting on the clothes while wet, night and morning, they 
may be wetted while on, two or three times during the day. 
Captain K. goes on to say, " after these operations, we uni- 
formly found that the violent drought went off, and the parch- 
ed tongue was, cured in a few minutes after bathing and 
washing our clothes, while we found ourselves as much refresh- 
ed, as if we had received some actual nourishment." 

The bare possibility of the truth of the statement, makes it 
a humanity for any paper to give it a wide publicity, since 
there are few readers in any hundred, who may not go to sea 
and be shipwrecked. n { , 

- We personally know that wading in water quenches thirst, 
and very few readers can remember being thirsty while bath- 
ing at the sea shore, or while swimming in our rivers. When 
the fearful horrors of dying with thirst are remembered, and 
the more fearful madness which is the certain result of drink- 
ing sea water to allay thirst, it is certainly well to encourage 
individual experiment in this direction, and solicit an authen- 
ticated report of the same. - 

& ! ' ■ : 


Of soul, body and estate, how certain, soon and swift, the se- 
quence. K. M. Hartley, Esq., who for a full quarter of a cen- 
tury has been an untiring minister of good to the sick and poor, 
among us says .thatj. half of all the city charities are swallowed 
up in removing the ills occasioned by intemperance. 

We believe that if the sale of liquor of every name could be 
prevented, from sunset to sunrise, of every day, and for the 
whole of Sunday, it would be a direct annual saving of a mil- 
lion of dollars to the city treasury ; and that crime, from petty 

118 EalVs Journal of Health. 

theft to deliberate murder, would be prevented every year, 
aye, every month ! enough to make an angel weep for joy. 
All honor to the men who are giving their time, their influ- 
ence, their money, and more than all, their personal labor, 
to break up " The Sunday Liquor Traffic." It is a nobler effort 
than to win a battle, or found an empire, for it will be if suc- 
cessful, the saving of men enough to people an empire, every 


If men will drink alcohol in some shape, the least injurious 
time for it, is during a regular meal, or within a few minutes 
after, for then, the strength of the stimulus is expended on the 
digestive organs, and enables them to perform their work more 
thoroughly ; hence an amount of brandy which Would make 
one tipsy, on an empty stomach, would have no such effect if 
taken during dinner. But the amount taken, to be in any 
way beneficial, must be in proportion to the fat, butter or oils 
used at the same meals ; in this case, it aids the system to ap- 
propriate the fat to itself, in other words, brandy taken with 
fatty food, tends to fatten quickly, but it does not give strength, 
fat people are not strong. On the other hand, it is a conceded 
fact in physiology, that alcohol in every shape impedes the^ 
digestion of the albuminous portion of our food, that is, brandy 
makes no flesh, makes no muscle, gives no strength. The 
prize lighter does not want fat ; one main objeet in his training 
is to get rid of it and replace it with substantial muscle, with 
flesh, hence when in training, he never touches liquor. The 
advocates of brandy triumphantly point at a ruddy faced drink- 
er with his apparently well developed muscle and well filled 
skin, but fat is a disease, is a puff ; he has no agility of limb, 
no activity of body ; there is no power in his arm, no courage 
in his heart, for he knows, and we do too, that a lean stripling 
or a plow boy of twenty, who was never drunk in his life 
"could whip him all to pieces in five minutes." Away then 
with all the nonsense about brandy strengthening any body, it 
weakens the head, it cowers the heart, and wastes away the 
whole man. 

Dangers of Spring, 119 


About one fifth more persons die in New York city in May, 
than in November. After being pent np in the winter, it might 
be supposed that the ability to go out and exercise in the lus- 
cious air of spring time, would be productive of increased vi- 
gor and health of body, but this is simply not the case, as evi- 
denced by the ably prepared and valuable reports of City In- 
spector Morton. This difference of mortality between the last 
month of spring, and the last month of fall, arises from causes 
wmich are under the control of the people or beyond ; two of 
each will be mentioned. The natural causes are, 1st. The in- 
creased dampness of the asmospbere, proven by the fact that 
doors which shut easily in winter, do not do so in summer. 
2nd. Nature takes away the appetite for meals, for heat giving 
food, in order to prepare the body for the increased tempera- 
ture of summer. But two errors in practice at this time, in- 
terfere with wise nature's arrangements, and induce many and 
painful and dangerous diseases. First, the amount of clothing 
is diminished too soon. Second, the conveniences of fire in 
our dwellings are removed too early. All persons, especially 
children, old people, and those in delicate health, should not 
remove the thickest woolen flannel of mid-winter, nntil some- 
time in May, and then, it should be merely a change to a little 
thinner material. 

Furnaces should not be removed, nor fire places and grates 
cleaned for tho summer, until the first of June ; for a brisk 
fire in the grate is sometimes very comfortable in the last week 
in May ; that may be a rare occurrence, but as it does sometimes 
take place, it is better to be prepared for it, than to sit shiver- 
ing for half a day, with the risk to ourselves and children, of 
some violent attack of spring disease. By inattention to these 
things, four causes are in operation, to chill the body, and in- 
duce colds and fevers. 

First, The dampness of the atmosphere in May. 

Second, The striking falling off in appetite* for meats and 
other " heating" food. 

Third, The premature diminution of clothing. 

Fourth, The too early removal of the conveniences of fire. 

And when the very changing condition of the weather of 
May is taken into account, it is no wonder, that under the 

120 HalVs Journal of Health. 

influence of so many causes of diminution of the temperature 
of the body, many fall victims to disease. 

In November, the healthiest month in the year, we have 
put on our warmest clothing, we have kindled our daily fires, 
we have found a keen relish for substantial food, while the 
dampness of the atmosphere has been removed by the con- 
densation of increasing cold. The wise will remember these 
things for a lifetime, and teach them to their children. 

■' ! ! 1 1 - '• ;' ■ ': ■ , ; . [J 


It is no economy to use inferior food. It is a saving of 
money, arid time and health, to give a higher price for what 
we eat, if it be fresh and perfect, than to obtain it for less on 
account of its being wilted, or old, or partially decayed, , 

Some people prefer to make their meat tender by keeping, 
which means that decomposition is taking place ; in plainer 
phrase, it is rotting. Such meats require less chewing, and 
may appear very tender f but it is a physiological fact, that 
they are not digested as easily or as quickly as solid fresh meat'. 

When a vegetable begins to wilt, it is no longer that vege- 
table, because a change of particles has taken place, and in 
such proportion it is unnatural— it, is dead — and to eat it tends 
to death. * . 

One of the most horrible forms of disease is caused by eat- 
ing sausages which have been kept a long time ; more com- 
mon in Germany than elsewhere. S-carcely anything saddens 
us so much in passing through some of the bye streets and the 
more eastern avenues, as the sight of the long kept meats and 
shrivelled vegetables, which are. sold to the unfortunate poor 
at the corner Dutch groceries. 

But the poverty stricken are not the only sufferers, the richest 
men come in for their share, for themselves and for their fami- 
lies in proportion, as the mistresses .of their splendid mansions 
are incompetent or inattentive to those household duties, the 
proper performance or neglect of which makes all the differ- 
ence between a true wife and a contemptible doll. 

With all the high-sounding advantages of high sounding 
" Young Ladies' Boarding Schools," and "Institutes" and all 
that, with all the twaddle about learning French and G.erman, 
and music and aesthetics, how many of these paint-like girls 

Pure Food. 121 

are any more fit to take- charge of a man's household than to 
navigate a ship, or calculate a parallax. Does one in a mil- 
lion of them know the philosophy and uses ot that now indis- 
pensible article of household furniture, a refrigerator. If 
taken to Bartlett's, on Broadway, how many of them can tell 
why he places the ice on the top of his polar refrigerator, and 
by so placing gives the greatest cold to the articles below ; 
why it is there is no wood on the inside to become saturated 
with dampness and the fumes of butter and lard and milk and 
meats ; why it is that a particular kind of metal of a particula 1 ' 
shape, and by the aid of ten pounds of ice a day, will give a 
large family all the ice water needed, and will keep the bot- 
tom and sides and area of the refrigerator dry, by attracting 
all the dampness to a particular spot, and by an interior 
arrangement gives no dark corners for dirt, but makes the 
whole as light as day; and thus combining dryness, cool- 
ness and cleanliness every article is kept fresh and perfect for 
any reasonable time. The study of an article of a practical 
nature of this kind will give a u young lady" about to be mar- 
ried a better idea of the philosophy of things of this sort than 
she has learned from all the books skimmed over or learned by 
rote, or mere memory, through her whole "course" of study, 
and would save her husband more money than without that 
knowledge she is worth ; for the woman who does not know 
how, and does not make it her business, to take care of what 
her husband brings into the house, is not worth a button, even 
if she could smatter a dozen languages, dance every indecent 
polka ever devised, and play all the tunes in the music book. 

The study of milk, its nature, qualities and uses, might well 
be made a branch of education in every school for girls. 
Studied aright it is a fruitful and very extensive field of most 
interesting investigation ; i. e. The nature of swill milk and 
that of the pure article. The difference between that of the 
common cart and of the Rockland association. How long milk 
remains pure. What part of any vessel of milk is richest, and 
what part the most inferior, and why. "Why it is that warming 
milk or freezing it, decomposes it and changes its nature. 
How to keep it in its pure state for a long time together. The 
knowledge of these things on the part of our wives would save 
the money and promote the happiness and health of every 
family in the land. 

HaWs Jowrnal of Health. 


The stupidity of people as to some of the commonest things 
of life is. amazing, except to the few who are wise enough to 
have no amazement, having taken it for granted that not one 
man in a thousand has sense enough to see an inch beyond 
his own nose out of his immediate business. 

As there are more than twenty thousand post offices in the 
United States, it would seem that any man at a small remove 
from an idiot, would know that if he wrote a letter requiring 
an answer, it was of some consequence to state to what town 
and county and state it should be sent. But we are constantly 
receiving letters, with various amounts of money, either for 
advice or books, or information, without any direction explicit 
enough to warrant any reply. 

It is well known that youths from fifteen to twenty, and fools 
of all ages, are the smartest people in the world ; they know 
everything ; they never perform an act which is not perfectly 
just — in their own estimation, and no JSTero is so impatient and 
so savagely severe in punishment if anything is done contrary 
to their views of what ought to be done. 

Not long ago, a lawyer sent us some money, and we kept it, 
because there was no place named at the head of his letter to 
which we could send what he wanted. In due time another 
letter came in the same way, with the same amount of money, 
and we kept it. He stated that he had been practising law forty 
years in the town, and was so well known that if a reply had 
been sent he would have received it, but being of age he did 
not get mad, but concluded the first letter had miscarried, 

Later, a clergyman writes : the name of his town is plainly 

written, but no state, and there are seven such towns in the 

Union ; and not choosing to write seven letters, with the loss 

of their postage, paper and envelopes, in endeavoring to find 

out where to send a ten cent journal, we concluded to wait for 

another letter, and here it is, — no county or state named in the 

letter, or on the envelope, although it is the sworn duty of the 

post-master to place the name of the post office address, as to 

town and state on each letter or envelope. 

•' If you are disposed to treat this note with silent contempt, as you 
have its predecessor, then we will say you are entirely welcome to the 
Yankee shilling. Let the matter rest here and hereafter. So mote it 

Stupidity. 123 

Let such a letter, from such a source, teach our patrons this 
little lesson, — never blame anybody for not answering a letter 
until you are perfectly satisfied and know — 

First, That you have given explicit directions as to what 
place the answer is to be sent, or 

Second, That you sent an envelope, and your full address 
written thereon, with a stamp for return postage. ' 

Third, That your letter was not impertinent or unreasonable 
or discourteous, and even then have the charity to remember 
that your letters may have miscarried, or that the replies tp 
them may have miscarried, or that the person to whom you 
wrote may have been from home, or sick, or was so engaged 
that the reply could not be attended to without such a neglect 
of his own business as you would not yourself wish to have 

In short, reader, never make a fool of yourself by writing a 
letter while in a passion, to any body, however high or how- 
ever low. And even if under great provocation, take a noble 
pride in exhibiting the dignified courtesy of a gentleman, an^ 
the forbearance of a christian ; and remember, the more you 
gloat over the severity of what you have written, the more of 
an ass you will be for sending or publishing it. 

*T. 1 


Are alike in many points, both open the heart, wake up the 
affections, elevate our natures. Laughter ennobles, for it 
speaks forgiveness ; music does the same, by the purifying in- 
fluences which it exerts on the better feelings and sentiments 
of our being. Laughter banishes gloom; music — madness. 
It was the harp in the hands of the son of Jessee, which ex- 
orcised the evil spirit from royalty; and the heart that 
can laugh outright does not harbor treasons, stratagems and 

Cultivate music then, put no restraint upon a joyous nature, 
let it grow and expand by what it feeds upon, and thus stamp 
the countenance with the sunshine of gladness, and the heart 
with the impress of a diviner nature, by feeding it on that 
" concord of sweet sounds" which prevails in the habitations 
cf angels. 

124 HalVs Journal of Health. 


The Culprit Fay. A poem, by G. J. Rodman Drake, got up in 
most beautiful style, by Rudd & Carlton, New York, 1859. The 
idea was begotten just forty years ago, on a' midsummer's night, on 
the banks of the Hudson. It has been long pronounced by general 
consent to be one of the most beautiful poetic compositions in the 
English language. . ... . 

Two Ways to Wedlock, by the same enterprising house, 130 Grand 
street; Dedicabed to George P.- Morris, reprinted from the rich 
columns of the Home Journal. The language is pure, the style flow- 
ing, the sentiments .chaste and elevating, and #ie, moral unexception- 
able, while a wise and safe practical vein runs through the whole 
"boo"', closing thus, — "unspoiled by prosperity, their hearts are tender 
and true ; and she knows that if adversity should come it will be met 
as it has been before* bravely and cheerfully, looking ever forward to 
the light beyond." 

JBraithewaifs Retrospect, $2 per year ; is republished semi-annually 
by W. A. Townsend & Co., r 377 Broadway, New York, and contains 
the cream of medical progress during each preceding six months. 
The index of the first thirty-four parts makes Braithewaite an invalu- 
able adjunct to the library of the medical scholar. 

The Edinburgh Review for January,- $3 a year, contains articles of 
great interest on Life Assurance, Church Rate Question, Life and Or- 
ganization, &c, all 'written with the accustomed ability of that long 
established quarterly. Leonard Scott & Co., New York. * 

"Man and his Dwelling Place." Redfield, publisher, 891 'pp. 
$1 25. Anonymous. This is a book of great thoughts, and for those 
who think. It is far reaching, and seems to be the product of a logical 
mind. It is styled, an essay towards the interpretation of nature. Its 
preface is an Eastern parable on the infatuation* of the greed for gold; 
its last line, "It. would save you to believe, to believe in Christ Tufi 
Redeemer of the World." The chapter on Scepticism abounds with 
great striking thoughts; 

Why do I Live. Christian Association'. Obedience the Life of Mis- 
sions. Faith, the Principle of Missions, are. four volumes abounding 
in hints on practical religion. A vein of deep and true and humble 
piety, devoted and self-denying, runs through every page ; the first by 
the American Tract' Society, the last two by the Presbyterian Board 
of Education; all written by .that able and earnest man Thomas 
Smythe, D. D., of Charleston, S. C. 

The Evangelical Repository, — Monthly. Philadelphia. The organ 
of the United Presbyterian .Church of North America,, abounding in 
safe and instructive religious reading for families. Several pages of 
each number show the care of that excellent people for the "little 
ones," the lambs, of the. flock, and in this is wise above many. 

Blackwood, by Leonard Scott & Co., New York, $3 a year, main- 
tains its old-time character. 

The Happy Home, Boston, among other good articles, has " Lessons 
of the Street." 






■ ; 1 ■ 

We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] JUNE, 1859. [No. 6. 



In the beginning of June, "every body," except the most 
sensible few, and those who can afford to be independent and 
consult their own convenience in preference to fashion, begins 
to think of going somewhere ; theoretically for health, really, 
to make observations, to plan alliances, to see if something or 
other won't turn up ; or oftenest of all, in obedience to the be- 
hests of fashion. What an inexorable tyrant " every body does" 
is ! More autocratic than any despot on earth ; more remorse- 
less than any man, beast or monster known ; for there is no 
absurdity which it does not swallow ; it halts at no sacrifice ; at 
any moment, it is prepared to gulp down molten lead and 
swallow red hot shot, not only without wincing, but with a 
smirk or a grin, detestable tho' at best. 

To all we say, get, in the first place, the requisite funds, 
after having paid the newsman, the milkman, the butcher, the 
grocer, the tailor and the dress maker the very last cent due ; 
for summer is a hard time for them all, by reason of the gen- 
eral decrease of business, and how could you enjoy anything 
justly, with money which belongs to them ? 

"With the first " quarter" of the surplus, purchase Dinsmore's 
Traveller's Guide, corrected at the first of each month, giving 
you an account of the times of starting of every " train," boat, 
steamship and stage in the union ; the places to which they 
convey you ; the distance, the time, and the expense. This 
will save you more bother of enquiry, than a dozen times the 

j 26 HalV 8 Journal of Health. 

cost, to say nothing of the inconveniences arising from want 
of definiteness of information, and uncertainty of its reliabili- 
ty, with those provokmg mistakes which are certain to occur 
at a cost of hours and days of time, and of dollars besides. 

Determine next how long you can certainly be absent. 
Remove as far as possible all contingencies, which might re- 
quire an earlier return than is desirable. The purse and "guide" 
and leisure being arranged, the manner of the performance is 
to be attended to. 

If you are a " lone" man, under thirty, want a free and easy 
travel, and have a desire to see and learn a great deal, at the 
least possible expense of time, temper and money, have no 
baggage ; leave overcoat, umbrella, overshoes, shawl, valise, 
eveiy thing at home, take an extra shirt in one pocket, socks 
and handkerchief in the other, and go ahead, snapping your 
fingers at porters and hack drivers ; you looking on, while 
others are fuming and fretting for checks, or waiting for lug- 
gage, or bargaining for carriages, or quarreling with porters ; 
always in a hurry ; always in a fret, and always late ; coming 
in, half the time, at the last tingle of the bell, or the drawing 
of the gangway, in such a swelter of heat, sweat and worry- 
ment, as to be the pity or the mirth of every looker on. The 
fact is, a large source of the amusement of travel, is the 
being able to witness the innumerable predicaments which the 
untravelled place themselves in, by their inexperience, 
thoughtlessness, or want of forecast. Having travelled in 
two hemispheres, we know whereof we affirm. Those who 
have traveled a great deal, and have learned very" little, can 
testify that the disquietude about the baggage just before start- 
ing from one place, and just before, and on their arrival at 
another, absorbs a considerable part of their waking existence. 
We have repeatedty gone a hundred or two miles away, yes, 
a thousand, and as many more back, in the manner named 
above, and by a little management and attention, secured 
cleanliness and tidiness of dress all the time, by the interven- 
tion of rainy days and Sundays. It will pay in comfort, with- 
out much loss of money, if pressed for time, to throw away a 
soiled handkerchief, or collar, or sock, or drawer, and buy 
others, besides the fact that the gift of them to poor persons, 
would be quite a god-send. 


Summer Excursions, 127 

If it is in contemplation to spend several days at a time in 
hotels in cities, or small towns, or to be a good deal in steam- 
boats ; to do so with the largest amount of comfort and com- 
placence, in consequence of having the best things and the 
best places, the first and best and promptest attention from 
landlords, clerks, and servants, travel with a handsome woman. 
There is nothing like it. No fairy wand will " transmogrify" 
things so. Beauty " rules the roast" everywhere. It commands 
every body from hostler to host. You may yourself be a no- 
body ; you may have a pug nose, a red head : you may 
be a perfect " cluck" of a man ; so short and fat, that you can't 
make even a respectable waddle ; your face may be pock 
marked ; your back may be humped ; your shank a perfect 
spindle, and your leg, a bow — only have a magnificent woman 
along, and for her sake, you will be treated " all your journey 
through" as menials treat a master, as courtiers treat their 
king. We have tried it reader, in earlier years and later, and 
know its delights ; not bothering ourselves with any over nice 
discriminations ; comfort is comfort, whatever may be the 
motive from which it springs. A diamond is a diamond, al- 
though washed from the mud by a blackamoor 

Our wives and daughters lose three-fourths of the pleasures 
of summer travel, by the inexcusable, the execrable perver- 
sion of true taste and common sense, in dressing for a rail car 
or a steamboat, as if they were going to a court reception. It 
does seem that they have no more sense of the fitness of things 
than idiots. Cannot some few gentlemen have their own way 
for once, and thereby set the fashion by dressing their families 
for a summer travel in plain, substantial garments, allowing 
no member any thing beyond what a small carpet bag would 
contain, and which should be the sole article which each one 
was to take care of. Let us all " put ourselves upon our be- 
havior," and not on our dress. The fact is, the clerks and 
proprietors of hotels, the captains of steamboats, and the con- 
ductors of railroads, see at the very first glance, the real status 
of a traveller ; the dullest chambermaid, the most stupid cabin 
boy, and the laziest waiter, are neither dull, nor stupid nor 
lazy, nor erring either, in the estimate they make of people, 
as if by intuition. At "first sight," they don't see the daz- 
zling watch chain ; the fancy vest ; the shiney hat ; the point 

128 Hairs Journal of Health. 

lace veil.; the embroidered -handkerchief ; the cashmere shawl; 
the thousand dollar dress, and boundless crinoline ; it is that 
presence which the face and features and countenance diffuse 
around, sustained by a gait, and manner, and modulation of 
voice, which the brightest of them could never describe, but 
which the meanest intellect of them all, cannot help but see 
and feel, at the instant of a first glance. 


Like pent up steam is all the better and safer for being " let 
off." If a little boy " stumps his toe," he grits his teeth, hiss- 
es out a malediction, gives the offending stone a savage kick, 
and straitway feels better. A groan is Jhe healthful vent, the 
anodyne of pain ; and tears relieve and save the almost break- 
ing heart. It is he who cannot cry, who dies with sorrow. 
There is neither sense nor safety in uncomplaining suffering, 
as to the repression of its instinctive exhibition. There is no 
pain where there is no nerve. The more nerve, the greater 
the susceptibility to suffering. The nervous influence, as it is 
called, is a fluid, just as blood is a fluid ; and as the blood 
flowing along the blood vessels gives life, so the nervous influ- 
ence flowing along the nerve channels gives sensation. If the 
blood has no outlet, we become diseased in a few hours. If 
a wound is inflicted, it will get well ordinarily the sooner, 
if blood flows or is taken. So in the infliction of pain, it is re- 
lieved instantly, if the nervous influence has vent. That 
vent, that scapement, that water-way, is in every movement 
of a muscle, in every wink of the eye, in every crook of the 
finger, in every thought we think ; for we can no more think, 
or move, or feel, without the expenditure of nervous influence, 
than would a telegraphic record be made without the expendi- 
ture of electricity, or the locomotive would move an inch 
without the consumption of an amount of steam. 

If then pain is inflicted as to mind or body, the sooner we 
can give an outlet to the nervous influence, the more imme- 
diate will be the relief; therefore nature in her philosophy, 
has implanted an instinct which complains on the very instant 
that harm is done", hence the groan, the cry, the shriek, and 

Bottled Wrath. 129 

these before second thoughts have time to come and whispe r 
it is not dignified to cry, or shriek or groa^n ; and many an one 
has exclaimed in mortification, at the supposed weakness of so 
doing:, " what a fool to have made such a racket !" So it does 
seem that at almost every turn of life, we attempt to thwart 
wise nature,' and hedge her up by bald reason, in her attempt 
to soothe and save. To | put all this in plainer phrase, the 
louder you groan in sickness and suffering, the sooner will you 
get well. Hence to a certain extent, when a person complains 
a great deal, we have fallen into the habit of saying, oh ! there's 
not much the matter with him, he is more scared than hurt. 
We have insensibly fallen into the habit of drawing such con- 
clusions, because we r have noticed that persons who complain 
a great deal, complain a long time, they don't die, and very 
often get well in a few days. 

And here let us make an earnest appeal for infancy and 
early childhood. When a child is hurt, never hush it up ; it 
is an inexcusable barbarity ; it is fighting against nature ; it 
is repressing her instincts ; and for the same reason, if physical 
punishment is inflicted on a child, never repress its crying ; it 
is a perfect brutality ; cases are on record where children have 
been thrown into convulsions in their efforts to silence; and 
very little less hurtful is it to hire them to silence. A thou- 
sand fold better is it to soothe by kindly words, and acts ; and 
divert the mind by telling stories, or by explaining pictures, or 
by providing with new toys. We have many a time in our 
professional experience as to sick children, found more bene- 
fit to be derived from a beautiful or interesting toy, than from 
a dose of physic. The greatest humanity a mother can exhi- 
bit in respect to her sick child is to divert it, divert it, DI- 
VERT IT, in all the pi easing ways possible, as we ourselves, who 
are larger children, feel some times really sick, when a cheerful 
faced and much loved friend has come in, and before we knew 
it, we had forgotten that anything was the matter with us. 

We have sadly wandered from what we intended, when the 
heading of this article was written, and not to detain the 
reader longer, we will sum up as concisely as possible, that if 
any man has a fretful wife, one who does not fail to greet him 
on his return from the business of the day, by pouring out her 
complaints with overwhelming volubility, who never sits 

130 HalVs Journal of Health, 

down to a family meal without some wiiine or doggish growl, 
let him adopt the following plan for letting out the "bottled 
wrath," before he comes in gun shot of home. 

Let one of the servants be very little, very lazy, very fat, 
and very stupid, in fact pretty much of a fool. Such a girl 
can no more be excited into a passion than she could be 
stimulated to hurt herself by hard work, and she will bear a, 
great deal of verbal pummelling. You can't make her saucy. 
She is too lazy to give "warning," and too wise to get mad, for 
there is no fool but has some redeeming quality ; she will 
stand the fire of verbal abuse by the hour, for she knows words 
don't hurt. So, while the boy kicks the stone, let the wife 
blaze away at the lump of dough, and all the amunition being 
expended before you get home, the steam being exhausted, 
" re-action" takes place, and the hyena of high noon will be a 
lamb at sun down, at the tea table, at the parlor fire, and at 
bed time. 


To make water almost ice cold, keep it in an earthen pitcher, 
unglazed, wrapped around with several folds of coarse linen, 
or cotton cloth, kept wet all the time. The evaporation from 
the cloth abstracts the heat from within, and leaves the water 
as cold as it ought to be drank in summer, consistent with 
safety and health. 

Cooling rooms : the least troublesome plan is to hoist the 
windows and open the doors at daylight, and at eight or nine 
o'clock, close them, especially the external windows and shut- 
ters, if there be any, except to admit barely necessary light. 

Churches may be kept delightfully cool in the same way, 
and thus greatly add to the comfort of public worship, leaving 
the windows open, but the lattice shutters closed, on the north 
side of the house, which will secure a thorough ventilation. 

Still greater coolness may be produced by having a large 
heavy cotton or linen sheet hung near each open window or 
door, and kept constantly wet, the evaporation produces a va- 
cuum, and a continual draft of air is the result. In India and 
other eastern countries, common matting is used ; long grass 

Coolings. 131 

plaited answers a good purpose. In Germany, a broad vessel 
or pan is kept in the room, nearly filled with water, the pan, 
not the room, the surface of the water being covered with 
green leaves. 

To have delightfully hard butter in summer, without ice, 
the plan recommended by that excellent and useful publica- 
tion the Scientific American, a year ago, is a good one. Put 
a trivet or any open flat thing with legs, in a saiitfer ; put on 
this trivet, the plate of butter, and fill the saucer with water ; 
turn a common flower pot upside down over the butter, so that 
its edge shall be within the saucer, and under the water. Plug 
„the hole of the flower pot with a cork, then drench the flower 
pot with water, set it in a cool place until morning ; or if done 
at breakfast, the butter will be very hard by supper time. 
How many of our city boarding school girls, who have been 
learning philosophy, astronomy, syntax and prosody for years, 
can, of their ownselves, Write us an explanation, within a 

To keep the body cool in summer, it is best to eat no meat^ 
or flesh, or fish, at least not often er than once a day, and that 
in the cool of the morning ; making a breakfast dessert of 
berries of some kind. Dinner, light soup with bread ; then 
vegetables, rice, samp, corn, cracked wheat ; dinner dessert of 
fruits and berries, in their natural state, fresh, ripe and perfect. 
Touch nothing later than dinner ; taking nothing at all at sup- 
per, but a piece of cold bread and butter, and a single cup of 
some hot drink, or in place of these, a saucer of ripe berries ; , 
without sugar, milk, cream or any thing else, not even a glass 
of water, or any other liquid, for an hour after. 

To keep the head cool, especially of those who live by their 
wits, such as lawyers, doctors, editors, authors, and other gen- 
tlemen of industry, it is best to rise early enough to be dress- 
ed and ready for study, as soon as it is sufficiently light to use 
the eyes easily without artificial aid, having retired the eve- 
ning before, early enough to have allowed full seven hours for 
sonnd sleep ; then study for about two hours ; next make a 
breakfclst of a piece of cold bread and butter, an egg, and a 
cup of hot drink, nothing more ; then resume study until ten, 
not to be renewed until next morning; allowing no interrup- 
tion whatever, until the time for study ceases, except to have 

132 UalVs Journal of Health. 

the breakfast brought in. The reason, of this is, the brain is 
recuperated by sleep ; hence its energies are greatest, freshest, 
purest, in all men, without exception, immediatel y after a 
night' ssleep, and every moment of thought, diminishes the 
amount of brain power, as certainly as an open spiggot di- 
minishes the amount of liquid within. Nature may be thwart- 
ed, and her plans wrested from her ; and habit or stimula- 
tion may n*ake it more agreeable to some to do their studying 
at night, but it is a perversion of the natural order of things, 
and such persons will be either prematurely disabled, or their 
writings will be contrary to the right and the true. As the 
brain is more vigorous in the morning, so is the body, and 
vigor of both must give vigor of thought and expression, that 
is, if the head has any thing inside. 


Is seeing the seeming, as if it were real and acting according- 
ly ; hence the fanatical merit our pity, instead of receiving 
our sneers, and our severer reprobation. In a radical sense, a 
fanatic is one who treats a phantom, a fancy, an apparition, a 
figment, as if it were a fact ; and giving a wider scope, it is 
the exaggeration of a fact, or principle, or practice. It is on 
this latter that the success of many of the greatest enterprises 
of all ages have succeeded. A kind of fanaticism seems es- 
sential to any great success. It is a quality belonging to the 
ardent, to the highly imaginative, to the hopeful. But it 
may be well questioned, whether the world would not have 
made a steadier, a safer, and a farther progress, without the 
aid of this mental characteristic, with the advantage of having 
prevented the wasting of energies in a wrong direction, the 
blasting of highly cherished but unauthorized hopes, the utter 
ruin and wreck of many a fine intellect, the breaking of many 
a warm and noble heart. 

In truth, fanaticism is a mental weakness ; it arises from an 
unbalancing of the faculties ; an exaggeration of some, a defi- 
cit in others. Now and then the fanatical succeed ; but often- 
er, or at least more happily, do they succeed, who have what 
is called "well balanced minds. Such do not accomplish 

Fanaticism. 133 

things as rapidly, but they do it with greater certainty, with 
greater durability, and with far less waste of power. In this 
equable adjustment of the high qualities, the English is a rep- 
resentative nation, while we find the type of the fanatical in 
the Frenchman ; the American is between the two. 

As far as health and disease are concerned, we have in- 
structive examples of the practical failure of fanaticism in the 
lives of Preisnitz, of Shew, of Graham, and Alcot. As citi- 
zens, all of them as far as we know were good men, honest, 
well meaning, benevolent and humane ; but when we look for 
the practical good. effect of their theories, as exhibited in their 
own persons, and we may well suppose under the very highest 
advantages of correct, intelligent, and thorough application, 
there is confessedly a sad failure. Dr. Shew, the American 
champion of Hydropathy, died a comparatively young man/ 
Preisnitz did not live to be old. Graham who gave name to 
the famous " Graham bread," died at the age of fifty, and 
Alcot, only completed his three score years ; all of them frit- 
tered away their lives, in attempting to foist their crude no- 
tions upon public acceptance, with loud assurances of a 
serene and healthful old age. They exhibited great goodness 
of heart in their self denials, and their severe sacrifices, in at- 
tempting to prove the truth of their vagaries ; but this does not 
sanctify their own destruction, and the destruction of multi- 
tudes of weaker minded persons, who took hold of their half 
facts, and ran them into the ground, to their own undoing. 
Their sincerity, their honest belief in the truth of their theories, 
did not extend their own lives to an encouraging limit ; while 
on the other hand, there is reason to suppose, they shortened 
them by their ill-advised experiments. Alcot drank no water 
for a. whole year, and lived many years on fruits and vegeta- 
bles ; never tasting meat, or milk, or butter, or yeasted bread, 
only to die at a time when both body and mind ought to have 
been in their highest prime. 

Let these melancholy results learn us who still live, the true 
wisdom of avoiding extremes, remembering that a kind Provi- 
dence has given us all things richly to enjoy, only enjoining 
to be temperate in the use of them, and in this, is enduring 
health, an effective life, a serene and happy old age. 


134 IlalVs Journal of Health. 


It is inconsiderate to eat when you don't feel like it. Sleep- 
less nature calls for food when it is needed. 

It is inconsiderate to eat to " make it even/' to swallow a 
thing, not because you want it, but because you do not want it 
wasted by being left on the plate, and thrown into a slop tub ; 
but then it would have gone to fattening the pigs or feeding 
the cows, whereas it goes into your stomach when not needed, 
only to gorge and oppress and sicken. 

It is inconsiderate to enter a public vehicle and open a win- 
dow or door, without the express permission of each of the 
several persons nearest 

It is inconsiderate to ask persons nearest to a window or 
door of a public conveyance to open the same, for you there- 
by tax their courtesy to grant a request for your gratification, 
at the expense of their own preferences, and thus show your- 
self to have the selfishness of a little mind, and the manners 
of a boor ; for you have no claim on the self denial of a stranger, 
nor should you put such to the risk of injury to health for 
your mere gratification. You may be incommoded by a 
closed vehicle, the person who sits beside you may lose 
health and life itself by the draft which an open window would 
involve. The most that can happen from a too close vehicle 
is a fainting fit, which kills nobody and which would rectify 
itself in five minutes if simply let alone ; but an open window 
in a conveyance has originated pleurises, inflammation of the 
lungs, sore throat, colds, peritonital inflammations and the like, 
which have hurried multitudes from health to the grave with- 
in a week. The openness of a travelling conveyance has killed 
a hundred, where closeness has killed one. 

It is inconsiderate to be waked up in the morning as a habit, 
it is an interference with nature, whose unerring instinct ap- 
portions the amount of sleep to the needs of the body, nor 
will she allow that habitual interference with impunity, under 
any •circumstances. 

It is inconsiderate to crowd the doors or vestibules of pub- 
lic assemblies, whether of worship or of pleasure ; they are 
for purposes of ingress or egress, and to stand in them to lounge 
orgaze about to the incommoding of a dozen or more persons 
within any five minutes, is not only impolite, but it is imperti- 

Inoomiderations. 135 

It is inconsiderate in passing, out of a public assembly to 
stop an instant for purposes of salutation or conversation, to 
the detention of a dozen, or a hundred, or a thousand who are 
behind you ; for some of them, especially in a large city, have 
important business on hand, and every moment is of value. 

It is inconsiderate to keep a caller waiting in a cold or dark 
or cheerless parlor, for two, ten, twenty minutes, to his risk of 
health or loss of time, merely for the purpose of showing a 
style of dress or personal adornment not habitual, or of making 
an impression of some kind foreign to the facts of the ease. 
If it be a friend, his time is consumed for your benefit, his 
health is : risked that you may make a show. If it is your 
minister, time is wasted as to him which might have been ex- 
pended, and would have been, in helping up the fallen, in 
cheering the despondent, in encouraging the despairing, in 
solacing the sorrowful, and for your vanity, or foolish pride, 
and those like you, precious moments of consolation and cheer 
are necessarily deducted from hearts to which they are almost 
the only sources of gladness left, money gone, friends departed, 
kindred dead, health lost — will you take from them their 
last, their dearest, their highest prized treasure I Cruel incon- 
eideration that. 

It is inconsiderate to take a medicine, simply because it had 
cured some one else who had an ailment similar to your own. 
The bestowal of five dollars on a sick pauper may infuse a 
health giving hope, and waken him up to a new life, but it 
would have no such effect on a sick prince. Of two donkeys 
on the verge of utter exhaustion and prostration, the one laden 
with salt was greatly refreshed and had his burden largely 
lightened by swimming a river, the other with a sack of wool 
by the same operation doubled the weight of his load, and 


To a very great extent, our life is in our own hands, although 
it is the prevailing fashion of the times, to regard death, espe- 
cially if it is premature, or if the person dying of any age, 
occupies a position of influence and usefulness, as a " myste- 

136 RalVs Journal of Health. 

rious dispensation of Providence," when in reality, " Provi- 
dence" had nothing to do with it ; had no direct agency in the 
matter; only indirectly, in having founded the jaws of our 
being. When men-die short of eighty or an hundred years, 
it is the result of violated law, and almost always on their 
own part. 

. If a sedentary man eats a hearty meal late in the day, or a 
laborious man does, the same thing after long fasting and pro- 
tracted exertion, ending in great bodily fatigue, and is attack- 
ed in the night with cramps, cholic, or cholera morbus, or 
other form of looseness of bowels, ending in death next morn- 
ing, there is no "mystery" in that. The man is his own de- 
stroyer, and in that destruction, his Maker had no agency. 

A man in the prime of life enters a crowded omnibus, 
after a long or rapid walk, which has induced free perspira- 
tion, the air appears alone to him almost suffocating, and with 
an insanity, resulting from detached scraps of knowledge about 
the advantages of pure air, he opens the window, and the 
breeze is delicious; but before he is aware of it he finds him- 
self chilled, and wakes up in the morning with acute throat 
disease, or inflammation of the lungs or violent fever ; or the 
magazine of impending consumption has been fired, and he 
wilts, and wastes and dies— by his own hand, from ignorance 
of the fact, that no air of any coach, or conveyance, or crowd- 
ed room, is a thousandth part as injurious or dangerous to a 
new comer, as. the purest air that was ever breathed, if it 
comes with a draft upon one who is perspiring and remains in 
a still position. 

The most talented and useful clergyman in the land, whose 
influence is widening and deepening every day for good, carry- 
ing all before him by the power of his eloquence, but after 
an unusual effort in which the heart, as well as brain and body, 
all have been brought into an exhausting requisition, all heat 
ed, and perspiring and debilitated, he feels it his duty to attend 
some urgent call, and hastes away into the cold raw damp air, 
the bleak wind whistling fiercely by, and in a week, in the 
midst of his usefulness, he is laid in the grave, by peritoneal 
(abdominal) inflammation, or quinsy, or pleurisy — his own de- 
stroyer, for he acted as if he were made of iron, instead of flesh 
and blood. He threw his life away, in an indistinct impression, 

Longevity Promoted. 137 

that as he was doing a good work, a miracle would be wrought 
for his protection; and because the laws of nature were allowed 
to take their usual course, it is deemed a " wonderful and mys- 
terious dispensation of Providence," and we cry " His ways 
are past finding out." 

A woman holds on her lap a lovely child. It was born per- 
fect, fair and beautiful, but the aristocratic mother has not the 
stamina to feed it, for the natural fountain is short of a full sup- 
ply, and ale and beer, and the universal milk punch are swill- 
ed by the pint and quart a day, to "make milk." But just 
in proportion as it is alcoholic, it is innutritive, it creates an 
appearance of flesh, and strength, and thrift, but all as un- 
real and transient as Jonas' gourd, and the child, by the ex- 
citement thrown to the head, dies of water On the brain ; or if 
by virtue of the -father's more robust and vigorous constitution 
and temperament, infancy and youth are survived, the instinct 
for excitement planted in the first year, wakes up again at 
maturity, and the young lady wastes her intellect in the stim- 
ulus of novel reading, or the young man destroys intellect and 
body too, in yielding to the fires of liquor and of license ; and 
suddenly as the bank deposit of a spendthrift heir gives out, 
so suddenly is exhausted the vital force and he dies at his 
toilet, in his chair, at the table or on the street, of Heart Dis- 
ease, the coroner's jury reports ; a " mysterious dispensation 
of Providence" is the response from another direction. The 
true verdict is, " died by a mother's folly, committed twenty 
years agone!" 

Great men are gentle. God is love. His way of removing 
his children from their lower home, is in tenderness, for he has 
appointed that in the habitual exercise of moderation, all the 
parts of the human machine shall wear out equally, one not 
faster than another; one no sooner than another ; all gradu- 
ally cease ; all fail at the same instant ; one worn out function 
does not cease its operation, while another, in its full vigor, 
strives to go on without it ; hence the universally observed 
fact is, that the very old die gently, without a struggle, and 
scarce a pang ; die as an infant falls to sleep amid its mother's 
lullaby ; " like as a shock of corn cometh in his season." 

" So fades a summer cloud away, 

So sinks the gale when storms arc o'er; 
# So gently shuts the eye of day, 

So dies a wave along the shore." 

138 HalVs Journal of Health. 

■ .. ' 


In health no one ought to drink ice water, for it has occa- 
sioned fatal inflammations of the stomach and bowels, and 
sometimes sudden death. The temptation to drink it is very 
great in summer; to use it at all with any safety the person 
should take but a single swallow at a time, take the glass from 
the lips for half a minute, and then another swallow, and so 
on. It will be found that in this way it becomes disagreeable 
after a few mouthfuls. 

On the other hand, ice itself may be taken as freely as pos- 
sible, not only without injury but with the most striking ad- 
vantage in dangerous forms of disease. If broken in sizes of 
a pea or bean, and swallowed as freely as practicable, without 
much chewing or crushing between the teeth, it will often be 
efficient in checking various kinds of diarrhoea, and has cured 
violent cases of Asiatic cholera. 

A kind of cushion of powdered ice kept to the entire scalp, 
has allayed violent inflammations of the brain, and arrested 
fearful convulsions induced by too much blood there. 

"Water, as cold as ice can make it, applied freely to the 
throat, neck and chest with a sponge or cloth, very often af- 
fords an almost miraculous relief. Croup, if followed by 
drinking copiously of the same ice cold element, the wetted 
parts wiped dry and the child be wrapped up well in the bed 
clothes, it falls into a delightful and life-giving slumber. 

All inflammations, internal or external, are promptly sub- 
dued by the application of ice or ice water, because it is eon- 
verted into steam and rapidly conveys away the extra he«at, 
and also diminishes the quantity of blood in the vessels of the 

A piece of ice laid on the wrist will often arrest violent 
bleeding of the nose. 

To drink any ice-cold liquid at meals retards digestion, chills 
the body, and has been known to induce the most dangerous 
internal congestions. 

Refrigerators, constructed on the plan of Bartlett's, are as 
philosophical as they are healthful, for the ice does not come 
in contact with the water or other contents, yet keeps thera all 
perfectly cool.- 

Town and Country, 139 

If ice is put in milk or on butter and these are not used at 
the time, they lose their freshness and become sour and stale, 
for the essential nature of both is changed, when once frozen 
and then thawed. 


Passing down Broadway at high noon of a midsummer's 
day, the sign of the " Polar Refrigerator," brings with it asso- 
ciations most delightfully refreshing. We think at once of 
eternal snows and arctic ice, and before we come to ourselves 
are peering inside, in imagination ; and the mouth waters at 
the rich yellow grass butter and the farm house milk not ten 
hours old of the Rockland company, their buttermilk and 
their cream;. with dishes piled heaping high, with luscious 
strawberries ; why this is nothing short of living in the coun- 
try, with its inconveniences left out; its noonday rides in 
scorching suns and dusty roads ; its morning walks through 
dripping grass ; its worms on your pillow, its bugs in your bed ; 
to say nothing of the hours from eleven till four, spent in swel- 
tering and panting under roofs all guiltless of a single shade 
tree. In fact, boarding at " farm houses" is only in name ; the 
reality is in New York City, in any house within gun shot of 
Union Square, where the breezes come fresh from the sea, 
right across from the bosom of the broad Atlantic, only a do- 
zen miles away. It is not the most pleasant thing in the world 
to exchange the cool and roomy and clean apartments of your 
own dwelling, for a single, so-so room, of a " farm house," in 
which single room, entire families must pass a large part of 
the twenty-four hours, the principal occupation being in sur- 
mises as to what will be for the next meal ; what is the reason 
that u splendid" cows never give any fresh milk ; that magni- 
cent hens never lay any fresh eggs ; and that fresh butter and 
spring chickens are never seen on the table of the fine old 
" farm house." The fact is a " farm house" within fifty miles 
of a large city, is no farm house at all ; it is a country tavern, 
no more, no less ; its doors are open to Tom, Dick and Harry ; 
" first come, first served," and where decent quiet people are 
made to make acquaintance with every body, with Miss Jemi- 

140 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

ma Smith, the brewer's daughter, and John Jones, the rich dis- 
tiller's heir, and various other "people," who, when you come 
to town, intrude themselves upon you by virtue of a boarding- 
house acquaintance, and refuse to be shaken off. A cut askew 
and a cut direct are no cuts at all. They are so tremendously 
forbearing, that even a kick is apologized for as a "mistake." 
They praise you up to every body, as " friends of ours." They 
leave cards an acre broad, and a whole salver full in no time. 
And although you are never "at home," as to them, they do 
not take it amiss, but construe it to the extensiveness of your 
acquaintance, which leaves you but little time for any 
thing else but visiting them. Every card they leave is an oc- 
casion for " bringing you in" to those of their own circle, by 
remarking " the last time I called on Mr. and Mrs. Prince, of 
the Avenue, they were not in, which 1 much regretted, as I 
esteem them highly, and have known them for some time," 

To children and young people, spending the summer in the 
country may be made highly advantageous ; but it is ques- 
tionable whether those who have passed forty-five, are not 
better off in their own homes in the city, enjoying their undis- 
turbed routine, and the quiet comfort which attaches to same- 
ness at the change to the down hill of life. To such, an ex- 
cursion for a day or two has its advantages; but beyond that, 
it is for the most part, ordinarily, a penance and a bore, unless, 
in the few cases where a " home" in town, can be exchanged 
for a " home" in the country. 

— - — i — i 1 — • 


" I have seen persons who gather for the parlor their choic- 
est flowers, just as they begin to open into full bloom and fra- 
grance, lest some passer-by should tear them from the bush and 
destroy them. Does not God sometimes gather into heaven 
young and innocent children for the same reason-— lest some 
rude hand may despoil them of their beauty." 

Some weak brother has been trying his hand to see what a 
beautifully sounding sentence he could make out of a whopper. 
The reason why children die is because they are not taken 
care of. From day of birth they are stuffed with food, choked 
with physic, sloshed with water, suffocated in hot rooms, 


Why Children Die. 141 

steamed in bed clothes. So much for in doors. When permit- 
ted to breathe a breath of pure air once a week in summer, and 
once or twice during the colder months, only the nose is per- 
mitted to peer into daylight. A little later they are sent out 
with no clothing at all, as to the parts of the body which most 
need protection. Bare legs, bare arms, bare necks ; girted 
middles, with an inverted umbrella to collect the air, and 
chill the other parts of the body. A stout strong man goes 
out on a cold day with gloves and overcoats, woolen stockings 
and thick double soled boots with cork between and rubbers 
over. The same day, a child of three years old, an infant in 
flesh and blood, and bone and constitution, goes out with soles 
as thin as paper, cotton socks, legs uncovered to the knees, 
arms naked, necks bare; an exposure which would disable 
the nurse, kill the mother outright in a fortnight, and make 
the father an invalid for weeks. And why ? To harden them 
to a mode of dress which they never are expected to practice. 
To accustom them to exposure, which a dozen years later 
would be considered downright foolery. To rear children thus 
for the slaughter pen, and then lay it on the Lord, is too bad. 
"We don't think that the Almighty has any hand in it. And 
to draw comfort from the presumption that he has any agency 
in the death of a child, in the manner of the quoted article, is 
a presumption and a profanation. 


Music, like painting and statuar}^, refines, and elevates, and 
sanctifies. Song is the language of gladness, and it is the utter- 
ance of devotion. But coming lower down, it is physically 
beneficial; it rouses the circulation, wakes up the bodily ener- 
gies, and diffuses life and animation around. Does a lazy man 
ever sing? Does a milk-and-water character ever strike a 
stirring note ? Never. Song is the outlet of mental and phy- 
sical activity, and increases both by its exercise. No child 
has completed a religious education who has not been taught 
to sing the songs of Zion. No part of our religious worship is 
sweeter than this. In David's day it was a practice and a 

142 Haffis Journal of Health, , 

So wrote we a year or two ago, and with a long lost pa- 
ternity, the paragraph has been going the round of the press 
ever since, showing that its truthfulness strikes the. people. 
The most refreshing notes come from the human voice, and 
yet, skill in vocal music is the want of our nation; but good 
men and philanthrophic are waking up the attention of the 
people to this interesting subject, and it is becoming a regular 
exercise in our Sabbath and public schools. 

On the admirable principles that what is worth doing at all, 
is worth doing well, and that to do anything well, one thing 
must be done at a time, we are glad to know that an Acade- 
my of Music has been in successful operation for ten years at 
Salem, Connecticut, under the presidency of the Hon. Orra- 
mel "Whittlesey. Names high in the nation testify that it has 
been well and successfully conducted, and such being the case, 
it ought to overflow with pupils ; and colonies like it should 
be established by its graduates in every state in the Union, and 
patronized by every family. With civil and religious liberty, 
with inherent material wealth beyond any nation on the globe, 
and a moral prestige equal to that of the highest, ours ought to 
be literally a nation of song ; and gladness, and gratitude, and 
music, and mirth should daily make every habitation vocal 
with the concord of sweet sounds. A time so blessed, cannot 
come a day too soon. 


By generating merriment, banishing " blues," and provok- 
ing laughter weekly in New York, at ten cents hebdomi- 
nally, one dollar a year, is not a theoretical, but a practical hy- 
genian, the most efficient health promoter in our present me- 
mory, our own pet Journal excepted. "We beg however, with 
all due respect to inquire if it is poking fun at us, our wisdom, 
or our practice by the following perpetration in a recent num- 
ber ? Meanwhile we will pause for a reply. 

How to Doctor a Prima Donna. — Dr. Hall of this city, is the subject 
of a good story. Dr. H. is one of those gentlemen who can see a long way 
into a millstone. He is a gentleman whose reparation is established, and 
does only what is called an | office practice." By this is meant time his pa- 
tients came to him instead of him going to them. Some days ago — we 
don't care to be more specific — a certain opera company was performing in 

Occupations of Great Men. 143 

tliis city. The "Bohemian Girl" was advertised, when the manager re- 
ceived a note from the prima donna, stating that she was sick, and could 
not possibly appear. This announcement came down like a cold water 
douche in January. The manager exclaimed ; 

" Don't believe it ! An infernal lie fabricated to annoy me." 
Manager called upon prima donna, and found her lying on a sofa. Man- 
ager forced an amiable look, and suggested a doctor. Prima donna allowed 
she had no objection. Manager rushed out and sent for Dr. H. He came 
about an hour afterwards, and found prima donna alone. Dr. H. felt pri- 
ma donna's pulse, looked at prima donna's tongue, and allowed that prima 
donna was a foo-foo. Dr. H. ordered up an inkstand and wrote something on 
a slip of paper. Dr. H. handed paper to prima donna, and requested her to 
give it to manager. Prima donna spoke very little English, but with the 
assistance of her maid managed to comprehend the message. Just as Dr. 
H. had gone, manager came in rubbing his hands and smiling like a bunch 
of hollyhocks. 

" Well, madam, what did Dr. H. say ?" 

Prima dcnna languidly pointed to the supposed prescription, which read : 
"To deprive a prima donna of her health, neglect to pay her salary for a 
week. To restore it, settle up, and add flattery to atone for the neglect." 
It remains only to say that Dr. H. hit the nail on the head. The mana- 
ger was in arrears to prima donna. Manager saw how matters stood and 
rushed out. He returned in half an hour minus his watch and diamond 
ring, which he had u spouted" in order to raise the necessary funds. The 
result was exactly as Dr. H. had predicted. Having placed the money in 
a, gold-gilt porte monnaie, prima donna rallied, and in ten minutes after- 
ward was on manager's arm, going to rehearsal. It is rather a pity to add 
that manager's watch and ring are still iu chancery. 


Teotjsseatt, one of the most able and eminent of living phy- 
sicians says, he brought on an asthma by measuring oats one 
night, to see whether his coachman stole them. How could 
one of the greatest medical minds of the age find time to 
measure oats for the purpose of " diagnosing" the honesty of 
his carriage driver ; it reminds us of Our drawing " our 
four" in a dollar slide through Irving Place last winter. How 
they delighted to be spilt out in the snow. A day oi r two 
earlier, there passed our window, one of the oldest and most 
eminent and respected divines of our city eating a piece of 
veritable ginger cake with the most don't care look possible. 

It is said that Napoleon the first was found by one of his 
ministers of state crawling on all fours, with his child riding 
on his back, endeavoring now and then to brush him off by 
going under the table. These cases show that great men have 
no notion of being always on stilts ; they get tired of living 
in the clouds, and come down now and then for recreation, to 
measure oats, sleigh ride children, and munch gingerbread ; 
and why not, if they chose to do so ! 

144: HalVs Journal of Health. 

• . ' . 


Some look old at less than forty, others beyond threescore 
have the vivacity, the sprightliness, and the spring of youth. 
One of the most active politicians of the times is now in his 
seventy-fifth year, and yet goes by the name of "the ever 
youthful Palmerston." who with the weight of nations on his 
shoulders, would find time to take a rapid ride on horseback 
every day, from ten to twenty miles. '' The heavy cares and 
severe labors of the Earl of Malmesbury average eleven hours 
a day," and yet at the age of " fifty years, is scarcely above 
forty in appearance." It is by no means an uncommon thing 
to read the deaths of men and women of the English nobility 
at eighty and ninety years, to be accounted for in the fact of 
their taking time to do things, and thereby doubling the time 
for doing them. The British are a dignified people, manly, 
mature ;. a deliberative people, with the result of being as a 
nation, the most solid, the most substantial, and the greatest 
on the globe. They are worthy of that greatness, and we 
above all the peoples should be proud of it. Americana on the 
other hand are a hasty race ; their habitual hurries and anx- 
ieties eat out the very essence of life before half that life is 
done, and all bloodless, fidgetty, skinny and thin, we are but 
" a vapor that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth 



At this season many persons contemplate travelling ; to do 
so with the largest amount of comfort and advantage, physi- 
cal, social and mental, the following suggestions are made : 

Take one-fourth more money than your actual estimated ex- 

Acquaint yourself with the geography of the route and re- 
gion of travel. 

Have a good supply of small change, and have no bill or 
piece higher than ten dollars, that you may not take counter- 
feit change. 

So arrange as to have but a single article of luggage to look 

Seasonable Hints. 145 

Dress substantially ; better to be too hot for two or three 
hours at noon, than to be too cool for, the remainder of the 

Arrange under all circumstances, to be at the place of start- 
ing fifteen or twenty minutes before the time, thus allowing 
for unavoidable or unanticipated detention on the way, 

Do not commence a day's travel before breakfast, even if 
that has to be eaten at. daylight. Dinner or supper, or both 
can be more healthfully dispensed with, than a good warm 

Put your purse and watch in your vest pocket, and all un- 
der your pillow, and you will not be likely to leave either. 

The most secure fastening of your chamber door is 
a common bolt on the inside; if there is none, lock the 
door, turn the key so that it can be drawn partly out, and put 
the wash basin under it; thus, any attempt to use a jimmy 
or put in another key, will push it out, and cause a racket 
among the crockery, which will be pretty certain to rouse the 
sleeper and rout the robber. 

A sixpenny sandwich eaten leisurely in the cars, is better 
for you than a dollar dinner, bolted at a " station." 

Take with you a month's supply of patience, and always 
think thirteen times before you reply once to any supposed 
rudeness or insult, or inattention. 

Do not suppose yourself specially and designedly neglected, 
if waiters at hotels do not bring what you call for in double 
quick time, nothing so distinctly marks the well bred man as 
a quiet waiting on such occasions ; passion proves the puppy. 

Do not allow yourself to converse in a tone loud enough to 
be heard by a person at two or three seats from you, it is the 
mark of a boor if in a man, and of want of refinement and 
lady-like delicacy, if in a woman. A gentleman is not noisy ; 
ladies are serene. 

Comply cheerfully and gracefully with the customs of the 
conveyances in which you travel, and of the places where you 

Respect yourself by exhibiting the manners of a gentleman 
and a lady, if you wish to be treated as such, and then you 
will receive the respect of others. 

Travel is a great leveller, take the position which others as- 
sign you from your conduct rather than from your pretenisons 


146 HaTTs Journal of Health. 


To build up a good constitution, we must take good care of 
what we have, and add to it, by pretty hard work and moderate 
thought, until the age of forty -five ; then, there should be less 
work and more thought. 

Bodily labor consolidates the constitution up to forty-five ; 
then, mental labor preserves it, keeps it good to the verge of 
fourscore years, if the bodily activities are very moderate. 
As witness Humboldt, who was a great traveller in early life ; 
but from fifty to ninety a great student. Many similar instan- 
ces will occur to intelligent minds. The general idea is of 
great practical importance. Work hard until forty-five \ think 
hard after, and all the while, be "temperate in all things." 
This is to live long. 


On a mid October day, 1858, a little girl aged four years 
took a small shining hard black bean between her fingers, and 
put it to her nose to smell, it disappeared. She said it 
was in her nose; a surgeon was called who upon examination, 
declared that it could not be there. The mother was quieted, 
the child soothed, and ran about as if nothing had happened, 
maintaining her high and vigorous health. On the afternoon 
of the eight of May following, it was discharged from her 
nose, by the slight blow a child can make, into a handker- 
chief; the moment she saw it, she cried the bean ! the bean ! 
and ran with great glee to show it to her parents; it was now 
dingy, soft, shrivelled, and we found on measuring that it was 
two-eighths of an inch thick, four-eighths broad, and five 
eighths long. During these seven months the child never 
complained of any thing in the direction of the accident, ex- 
cept an occasional smarting of the eyes. On the previous 
evening, she had been soused head and ears under water in a 
bath tub, and the struggles incident to an operation of that 
kind, most likely dislodged it, for in the middle of the night 
she waked up with a startle and a cry, and after some throw- 
ing herself about, went to sleep in an hour, but was fretful 
all next day until the discharge of the bean, when her accus- 
tomed joyousness returned. Lesson — Don't give beans to 
children for playthings. 

Summer Sours. 147 


Physiological research has fully established the fact that 
acids promote the separation of the bile from the blood, which 
is then passed from the system, thus preventing fevers, the 
prevailing diseases of summer. All fevers are " billious," 
that is, the bile is in the blood. Whatever is antagonistic of 
fever, is cooling. It is a common saying that fruits are " cool- 
ing," and' also berries of every description ; it is because the 
acidity which they contain aids in separating the bile from the 
blood, that is, aids in purifying the blood. Hence the great 
yearning for greens and lettuce, and salads in the early spring, 
these being eaten with vinegar ; hence also the taste, for some- 
thing sour, for lemonades, on an attack of fever. 

But this being the case, it is easy to see, that we nullify the 
good effects of fruits and berries, in proportion as we eat them 
with sugar, or even sweet milk, or cream. If we eat them in 
their natural state, fresh, ripe, perfect, it is almost impossible 
to eat too many, to eat enough to hurt us, especially if we eat 
them alone, not taking any liquid with them whatever. 
Hence also is buttermilk or even common sour milk promo- 
tive of health in summer time. Sweet milk tends to bilious- 
ness in sedentary people, sour milk is antagonistic. The 
Greeks and Turks are passionately fond of sour milk. The 
shepherds use rennet, and the milk dealers alum to make it 
sour the sooner. Buttermilk acts like watermelons on the sys- 


"When a simpleton wants to get well, he buys something 
" to take," a philosopher gets something " to do ;" and it is 
owing to this circumstance, that the latter has been in a minor- 
ity almost undistinguishable in all nations and ages, that doc- 
tors are princes, instead of paupers; live like gentlemen, in- 
stead of cracking rocks for the turnpike. 

14.-8 HaWs Journal of Health. 


Blackwood? s Magazine. $3 a, year, re-published by Leonard Scott 
& Co., New York, abounds this month with ably written articles. 
The four Reviews, with this, are furnished at ten dollars a year : to wit, 
Edinburgh, Westminister, North British and London. The Edin- 
burgh for April is of great value. 

The Fireside Monthly %\ 50 a year, single numbers ten cents, 
H. B. Price, publisher, New York, 32 pp. 8vo., is the only publication 
of its kind in the civilized world ; for, not professedly religious, it is 
never against religion, wholly original, and excludes fiction ; in these 
respects, we know of no monthly periodical like it, in any land. True 
men, good and great of every name are invited to write for it, on any 
practical subject, not sectarian or sectional or partisan, and not over 
two foolscap manuscript pages atone time. 

The Boston Medical and SurgicalJournal, $3 a year, continues to 
be the favorite periodical with the educated of the medical profession 
in New England, circulating also, largely out side of it. 

The Medico Chirurgical Review, re-published from England, by the 
Messrs. Wood, of 389 Broadway, is the standard organ of medical 
literature for England, America and the continent. Quarterly, $3 a 

The Scientific American, $2 a year, New York, is the most valua- 
ble scientific publication in this country, and always abounds in arti- 
cles reliable and practical. 

The Microscopic 's Companion, with the glossary of the principle 
terms used in microscopical science, by John M. King, M. D., Cinci- 
nnati, Ohio, is announced ; we hope to receive an early copy, as the 
whole subject is of increasing importance in art and science. 

Alice Carey, a name beautiful by itself, without suffix or affix, as 
that of Henry Clay is great alone, has written, another book " Pictures 
or Country Life," characterized by that truthful, life like picturing, 
which has already placed her name so high in the literary world. 
There is one character out of place^ and we hope that in the subse- 
quent additions which will undoubtedly be called for, it will be modi- 
fied or re-touched. To represent a minister of the gospel as unfeel- 
ing, hard-hearted, unsympathising, is as if a woman was thus repre- 
sented, and to stand for her sex. Let us all stand by the " ministry 
of reconciliation," for only by them, as to their teachings can any na- 
tion stand, and let woman especially, who owes so much of her exalta- 
tion to christian teachings, think, and write, and speak of a clergyman 
as she would have him be. 

" I consider your Journal of Health, as among the reliable things of 
the day, universally quoted, aud although often attacking popular fal- 
lacies, carrying conviction, and commending itself to the common 
sense of every intelligent man. I think the article on " colds" worth 
more than money, and would suggest the propeiety of a re-insertion 
in the fall." — A Correspondent. 

" Physical Degeneracy" from the Tribune office, Chicago. Twelve 
cents ; ought to be read and re-read, and pondered on, by every parent 
who has a child at school. It is an invaluable paper. 





We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] JULY, 1859. [No. 7. 

■ - 


If wheat is pounded or ground very fine, it produces- flour, 
which is composed of two familiar ingredients, starch and 
glue. In each hundred pounds of fine flour there are ten 
pounds of this vegetable glue, and seventy pounds of starch. 
Tapioca, sago, arrowroot, maizena, corn starch, potatoe starch, 
are all the same thing, only made out of a different- material ; 
as sugar is sugar, whether made of cane or sorghum, or beets, 
or maple tree water ; as alcohol, is alcohol whether made of 
rye, corn grapes, or anything else. 

If flour is made up into a lump with water, it is called dough ; 
if then this dough is worked with the hands while water is 
poured on it, this water is whitened, and if allowed to run into 
a vessel and settle, a fine powder falls to the bottom, that is 
the starch ; what is left behind, a soft tough substance, is the 
glue, or gluten. The starch is that which keeps us warm ; the 
gluten nourishes us, gives us flesh. Thus it is, that bread is 
the staff of life ; it strengthens and warms us. 

To convert dough into bread, it must have heat applied, 
which is called baking, or hardening. But for taste and con- 
venience, various plans have been devised to lessen the amount 
of hardening and solidity, both of which imply heaviness, and 
in proportion as this heaviness is removed, it is called " light" 
bread. The lighter it is, the better it is generally considered, 
although in proportion as it is lighter than that made by sim- 
ple flour, water and heat, it is at a greater remove from being 

pure bread. No additions to the simple substances of the 

150 UaWs Journal of Health, 

whole product of wheat grains mixed with water and baked 
by fire, can make bread "better," as far as its nutritiousness 
and wholesomeness are concerned. But here, art interferes to 
pamper the appetite and make a curse, of what was intended 
to be a blessing. 

Bread is made light, by a mixture of yeast, .cream of tartar, 
saleratus, soda, fee.', &c, all of which materials lighten bread 
in the same way, that is, by producing in the dough, an in- 
visible substance called carbonic acid gas. 

If a spark of fire is applied to a grain of powder, it explodes, 
and there is a product which occupies a much larger space 
than the grain of powder did. So in a lump of dough, when 
a particle of cream of tartar touches a particle of soda, and 
warmth is applied, a volume of carbonic acid gas is the result ; 
and as it is light, it tends to rise, like smoke or steam ; but it 
is in the midst of a particle of dough ; it makes an effort to 
rise ; it swells out, and the particle of dough yields a little, but 
not much, because there is not warmth enough ; just as a par- 
tially filled air bladder, it distends, it swells out a little, if a 
little heat is applied, but it does not burst, because there is 
not heat enough. This distention results from the philosophi- 
cal fact, that heat causes bodies to expand, air and gasses es- 

A cup of coffee will dissolve a certain amount of sugar and 
no more ; all in addition to that goes to the bottom of the cup, 
and makes the coffee no sweeter. 

So in the use of cream of tartar and soda in making bread, 
a certain quantity of them will mix and give out carbonic 
acid, and if there be a surplus, that surplus remains in the 
bread as cream of tartar or soda. One item of skilfulness then \ 
in making good bread, is to put in the exact amount of the 
articles named ; for in proportion as either is in excess, there is 
laid the foundation of disease and death. 

How many servants or bread bakers in a million will bother 
themselves with any exactitude as to these points? Hence 
if the sharp, distinct issue is made, ought these things to be 
used in bread making? the answer must be a decided and un- 
equivocal no ! But how shall We know the proportions of 
each ? That oft abused individual " Science," will answer : 
If there is too much soda, the bread will be yellow, and the 

Bread. 151 

natural acid which is in the gastric juice will be neutralized by 
it, and it is no longer gastric juice, and as gastric juice is neces- 
sary to digestion, digestion is not performed, and the body is 
harmed. The proper proportion is one ounce of soda and two 
and a half ounces of cream of tartar ; this mixture makes Bo- 
chelle salts, half an ounce of which is a cathartic, in the prac- 
tice of medicine, and enough to make forty ordinary biscuits ; 
so that any person using the soda biscuit of the kitchen, may 
calculate how many doses of salts he is taking in a year, " for 
the pleasure of the thing." 

Soda and saleratus are made out of. ashes. Soda is made of 
the ashes of vegetation on the sea ; saleratus, of vegetation on 
the land ; both contain carbonic acid, which is let loose when 
cream of tartar is mixed with them, and heat is applied in ba- 
king. If there was no glue in the flour, this carbonic acid would 
nearly all escape, but this glue being tough, yields a little, and 
a bubble is made, but the bubble does not burst. This bubble 
takes up room, although it is nothing but thin air, in a sense ; 
hence a loaf of bread is literally a puff ; it appears to be more 
than it is ; just like some people. One half of a loaf of bread, 
as to bulk, is air. As to weight, very near one half is water. 
In a hundred pounds of common light bread there are forty 
pounds of water; even if bread is several days old, it has almost 
as much water in it as when first baked, so that " stale bread" 
is no drier than fresh bread, for if put in a closed tin vessel, and 
then placed in a heated oven, it becomes as soft as when first 
baked. In what manner or condition the water is concealed 
in the bread, chemistry has not yet found out. 

Yeast answers the same purpose as cream of tartar and 
soda, for these last have the acid and potash and carbonic acid. 
Yeast alone has all these. As soon as the dough in which 
these articles have been mixed is placed in a heat of from 
seventy to ninety degrees, it begins to " rise," that is, it be- 
gins to be puffed up by the globules of carbonic acid which 
are let loose; we call it fermentation ; it is decomposition; 
it is the first step towards destruction or putrefaction, or 
rotting ; all of which would take place in time, if this mode- 
rate heat were not put a stop to by the greater heat of the 
oven which " sets" the bread ; that is, arrests the throwing off 
of carbonic acid; the hard crust on the outside of the loaf 
keeping it within the loaf in spite of the greater heat. 

152 RaWs Journal of Health. 

"Whenever bread is sour, .it is because the fermentation had 
continued too long, or the heat was too great, great enough to 
burst the little vesicles which contained the carbonic acid gas ; 
and on their bursting, the bread particles closed in upon the 
space left, and instead of " lightness" there is solidity, and we 
call it " heavy," " sodden." 

The "leaven" of scripture is the yeast of our own day. 
" A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump." A very little 
yeast makes a large lump of dough to rise, because it diffuses 
itself through the whole mass of dough with wonderful ra- 
pidity ; as wonderful as Jonah's gourd, or the mushroom of a 
night. Had we time to brush up our memories as to Hebrew 
" roots," we might find out, or fancy, that a gourd and a toad- 
stool were of the same derivation ; at all events, they grow in 
a night, and perish with a breath. In fact, science goes on to 
say that toadstools, mushrooms, the green mould on sour 
paste, spoiled preserves and- yeast, are identically of the same 
nature ; a species of vegetation that multiples upon itself ; 
feeds upon itself, and also upon what it attaches itself to ; and 
that each atom of mould, as soon as it is detached, is in the 
nature of a seed, anol begins instantly to fructify wherever 
it lights, if there be only adequate warmth and moisture. 
The pollen of a flower or tree has lighted on ships far out at 
sea, and yet these are six times larger than an atom or seed 
of mould or mildew, so that when warmth and moisture and 
stillness of atmosphere all favor, it is no wonder that mildew 
begins to pervade every cranny of space ; and if not arrested 
by greater heat, or cold, or dryness, universal decay and death 
would be the sad ending. So, familiar yeast, like familiar fire 
and water, is an enemy or friend according as kept under 

Perhaps after all, the reason why the eating: of ship biscuit 
is an almost indispensible aid in the cure of certain forms of 
aggravated dyspepsia, is the patient lives on pure bread, and 
does not fill his stomach with acids and alkalies ; with cream 
of tartar and Rochelle salts; with toadstools, mushrooms, 
white mildew, green moulds and the like things, the very 
thought of which is nauseating. 

If men were not disposed to, abuse their liberties ; and if it 
had not been found that in the temperance reformation an 

Bread, 153 

occasional dram was fatal to the whole thing ; and if our cooks 
had intelligence enough to use the various kinds of " risings" 
judiciously ; and if we would eat our nice warm biscuits slow- 
ly, and in moderation, say two or three at a meal, we would 
say that an occasional indulgence of "hot cakes," the "bis- 
cuits" of old times, at a winter's breakfast, or on emergency, 
once or twice a week, might be allowable, and that no appreci- 
able injury would result from such indulgence in the course 
of a lifetime, where the person thus indulging was in pretty 
good health. To others, the common ship biscuit is the best 
for a stand-by. There are few forms of bread really better, if 
just before being used, boiling water is poured on them and 
they are covered over a few minutes in such a way as to keep 
the steam in. 

Some bakers use an ounce of alum in a hundred pounds of 
flour; in such proportion it lightens and whitens the bread, 
and which the baker very well knows, enables a loaf to retain 
more water, so he gets more money and his customers less 
bread. . 

Lime-water is sometimes used to improve bad flour — about 
four gallons to a hundred pounds of flour — that is about four 
grains of lime in a pound of flour, or about three grains in a 
loaf of bread claiming to weigh a pound. 

Homoepathy claims that the more extensively an atom of me- 
dicine is diluted or comminuted in water, the more powerful 
it is. If the same holds good as to flour, we may say that the 
amount of either alum or lime in bread, as above, is enough 
to have a tremendous effect on everybody, and the reason that 
everybody is not dead long before now is simply that every- 
body is all the time eating " incompatible" things, which nul- 
lify infinitesimals, and the result is that people are just 
about in the same condition as if they had not taken lime, 
alum, soda, saleratus, cream of tartar, mushrooms, yeast, 
mildew, and toadstools, and therefore none of these things have 
hurt anybody, as far as bread eating is concerned. Homoe- 
pathy therefore contains a grand truth or a most tremendous 
absurdity ; meanwhile we will luxuriate in the middle track, 
and believe that Homoepathy allows some people to get 
well, and that saleratus has not killed everybody. 

One item as to bread making should not be forgotten. ' The 

154: HalVs Journal of Health, 

French make the best bread in the world ; this has been at- 
tributed to their regulating the heat of their ovens by a ther- 
mometer ; too little heat makes the bread sodden and sour ; 
too much burns the outside while the inner pait is not cooked ; 
the intensity and duration must be found in observation and 


Most of the charitable institutions of New York are filled 
with the poor and maimed, and sick. A large apartment of the 
city prison is crowded with drunken women, and three-fourths 
of the prisoners are mere boys ; one half at least are under 
twenty-one years of age, and very few are ever reclaimed. 
"When a boy (or girl) is once u put in jail," as the expression 
is, his prestige among his companions is lost ; he feels mean 
before them ; his morale is gone, and reckless desperation 
makes him lost for life. 

Then there is a large class of older persons, who have no 
home beyond a cold and cheerless boarding place ; others 
have no kindred, no associations, and out of the hours of 
active employment, do not know what to do with themselves. 
Not a few, for a variety of causes, are not happy at home. 
As to all these persons, time hangs heavy at night and on Sun- 
days, and they lounge in public places, according to their 
status ; some in the sitting rooms of the first hotels, down to 
the corner groggery, the theatre and the dance house ; next 
the hospital, the poor house and then the potters' field. 

We may mould the rising generation for a different destiny, 
but for the hopeless and homeless above fifteen, what shall 
we do ? Hunt out good places for them ? find work at good 
wages % That is not the speediest nor most practicable method 
of relief. We know very well that this is the general view of 
philanthropists, but men enough and money enough cannot be 
found to give every unoccupied male and female a plenty of 
work at even moderate wages, in any large city on the globe. 
Observant persons know very well, that the way to make a 
man of any body is to make him help himself ; and that the 
inability to do that, oftener arises from the indisposition to do 
so, than from the impossibility of doing it. Show a man how, 

Death and Crime, 155 

make him feel that he ought to take care of himself, and in nine 
cases out of ten he will go and do it. We must then appeal to the 
consciences of men, and we think the best way to do that is by 
what is called the "regularly appointed means of grace," by 
getting them to listen to the preaching of the gospel, to the 
reading of the scriptures, to the voice of prayer, and the songs 
of praise in public worship. 

"We believe the money spent on the vicious, and the sick 
poor of this city in one year, would build enough places of 
public worship to accommodate the whole of them. Each 
church should be plain, airy, with two large doors for exit in 
each wall, and opening outward. Each building should be 
large enough to have five thousand seats, rented at a dollar a 
year, in advance. Each pew should consist of three arm chairs, 
6ide by side, making each seat easily accessible, and prevent- 
ing the loss of room by the thoughtless ; nine out of ten will 
take the seat next the aisle, and make a barricade against the 
six, eight, or ten seats the other side of them. These five 
thousand seats would yield a revenue sufficient to keep the 
building in order, pay a sexton, and amply sustain the mi- 

The very fact of a person owning the seat he occupies gives 
him a status in his own estimation, which of itself is elevating, 
encouraging and energizing. 

Next, let it be arranged, that at proper times, the people be 
called on to deposite something for the general term of f be- 
nevolence," as they pass out of the house, after service. The 
very thought of a man, that he has done something for the poor* 
and distressed, humanizes his own heart, makes him feel that 
there are others beneath him, increases his self-respect and ap- 
preciation, and he becomes by degrees familiarized with 
heaven born charity, loves it and performs it as a matter of 
course; and thus he becomes liberal without an effort, and 
that is true charity — that is a high bred generosity — it is be- 
ing a Samaritan from principle, and he is saved for all time. 
For with self-respect and self-appreciation, there soon follow, 
as in a train, order, system, cleanliness, forethought and in- 
dustry ; while lovingness towards those still lower, crowns the 

But how get them to go to church in the first place ? Four 

156 Halite Journal of Health. 

words tell the whole story, not original with us, " go," and say 
" come." # " Go ye into the highways and hedges, and compel 
them to come in." Must you get oh a stump or store box, 
and with Bible in hand, " preach" ? No! You would not 
thus reach one in ten. But go up to a man, and cheerfully 
and courteously invite him to church. Do it aside, without 
any show of shame or secrecy. It is perfectly amazing how 
easily a man may be led to do even a disagreeable thing when 
approached in the right way. Get such an one to come once, 
but do not lose sight of him, encourage him to come again, by 
calling round to his place of occupation and saying a cheerful, 
respectful word or two about matters and things in general, 
and before you know it he will be interested, and will have 
his dollar for his " pew rent." 

This is not all imagination and moonshine, manufactured 
in a doctor's office, on a bright spring morning, for this very 
moment we look out on a most dreary, drizzly, cold, «raw Feb- 
ruary afternoon, everybody and everything dull and heavy as 
lead, except ourseif. 

There are difficulties in the way of all this. To be sure 
there are. Nothing of any account was ever accomplished 
without difficulty. But here is the master's command, " go" 
— " say come"—" compel them to come in." These words 
mean just what they say, and in a connection similar to the 
one under consideration. 

"The great awakening" has swept across two continents; 
there is reason to believe that it originated in a line of con- 
duct such as has been recommended, opportunely favored 
perhaps by the influences of the commercial disasters of" fifty 
seven." In the spring of that year we were in an upper room 
in Fifth Avenue, with some four hundred others, listening to a 
gentleman who was engaged in enlisting the churches to per- 
sonal specific effort to induce a more general attendance on 
religious worship. The plan of operation was in effect as fol- 
lows : to divide a certain area around a church building into 
districts, making, say, the four sides of a square or block of 
buildings one district, every dwelling in which was to be 
visited by a person volunteering such labor, with a view to 
ask each resident personally, to attend some religious services 
on Sundays, if in no regular attendance anywhere. The plan 

Death and Crime. 157 

had been adopted in a number of churches, and had worked 
well. Two or three things were developed worthy of mention : 
a rebuff was of very rare occurrence and hurt nobody. 

Persons were found living in some of the most elegant 
houses, and in splendid style ; and in one case there had been 
a five year's residence without ever having attended church. 
The occupant, a stranger in a strange city, was affected to 
tears on learning that some one in a million felt interest enough 
to give the invitation to go to the house of God. 

A minister rose in his pulpit one day and said, "I see the 
representatives of near forty (we believe it was forty-seven) 
families here to day, who were never observed here before." 
It was the result of this district invitation. This system of 
things, this gentleman, whose name we do not remember, was 
engaged in carrying out all over ISTew York, Brooklyn and 
other suburbs, and who shall say that this was not the leaven 
that began to diffuse its influences through the community, 
commencing in September following. Bring people into the 
sanctuary, let the gospel be dispensed to them, and the Al- 
mighty Spirit will take care of the rest ; and we believe that, 
as to similar efforts elsewhere, or kept up here, it may be 
written up in due time " so shall my word be that goeth forth 
out of my mouth : it shall not return unto me void, but it shall 
accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the 
thing whereto I sent it." 

"When it is taken into account that strangers are constantly 
moving into large cities, such a district visitation twice a year 
might do good ; and once a year as to all other churches in 
town and country. Yery likely there is not a house of worship 
in the land, which has not within a mile of it, some person or 
family that has never been invited, courteously, kindly > con- 
siderately, to come in. JSTobocly felt any interest in them, the 
consciousness of which has hurt the feelings and wounded the 
spirit of many a worthy, but too retiring person. Surely one 
of the great wants of the age is a sincere, kindly, unobtrusive 
interest in those around us, not in our own immediate con- 

What we hafe written is proposed, not so much as a model, 
but as a neucleus about which thought and action may centre 

with a large libertyfor modification, according to greatly va- 

153 HalVs Journal of Health. 

rying circumstances. Two things should however pervado 
every plan. 

First — personal solicitation to attend religious worship. 

Second — rigid advance payment of a small sum annually 
for each seat. 

There are many considerations as to the good policy of this 
last, which will suggest themselves to these who best under- 
stand the human heart. Ownership elevates. Even casual 
association with well-dressed and cleanly persons elevates. 
The consciousness of a right above another, elevates. If a man 
gets into the habit of going to church, he after a while begins 
to feel " put out" when he does not attend. A man can hear 
better and more satisfactorily ^ when he occupies the same seat 
all the time, and if by any means he loses it, he is incommoded. 
If a man owns a seat for a year by purchase, there is more or 
less of the feeling "I'll get the worth of my money out of it 
any how." Besides, one is very apt to " strike up" a " speak- 
ing acquaintance" with the person next to whom he sits from 
time to time, and as the circle of any one's acquaintance ex- 
tends with orderly, quiet persons, or those of substance and 
position, there are restraints upon his conduct, he is put more 
and more on his good behavior ; and all this, while there are 
the dewy influences always falling, of the prayers and songs and 
word ot grace which are peculiar to the house of God. We 
trust that the religious press will take up this subject, having 
a care not to spend time in arguing with people who talk about 
" laying a tax on religion," " freely ye have received, freely 
give." Address only those who believe the Bible, who be- 
lieve that the world is to be regenerated by human agencies, 
by an active, aggressive Christianity, which as much requires 
money, as a national warfare against invading foes, as sha- 
dowed forth in the Master's injunction in his farewell dis- 
course — " He that hath a purse let him take it, and likewise 
his scrip, and he that hath no sword (no means ; — GEd.) let him 
sell his garment and buy one." 


Is called " Phthisis" in scientific books, pronounced by some in 
this country as if written Teesis. We heard some oi die Na- 

Consumption. 159 

poleons of medicine in England, some fifteen or twenty years 
ago, call it Thysis. Now if " Thysis" is Phthisis, and Phthi- 
sis is consumption, it may be well to know clearly what is the 
nature of it, inasmuch as about one person out of every six is 
destined to die of it. 

A French writer in December, 1858, defined it thus : — 

"Phthisis is a. diathesis, depending on the want or undue 
waste of the oxydisable phosphorus normally existing in the 
animal economy." 

Another says, "phthisis is the oxydation of the exudation 

These definitions are perfectly plain to those who made 
them — perhaps. 

The latter means, that in consumption, the blood is squeezed 
or exudes through the coats of the blood vessels, then turns 
into a small, hard, roundish body, which is called a tubercle ; 
if this tubercle is formed in the lungs, it ends in consumption ; 
if in the joints, it becomes white swelling, thus giving a name 
to the disease which it occasions, according to the locality. 
As to the lungs, the tubercle begins to soften, that is, it is oxy- 
dized, is burnt up, and as the tubercle is supplied by the blood, 
the essential parts of the blood are used up, burned, and the 
man has no blood scarcely ; he looks as pale as a sheet, and 
with the failure of blood, there is a failure of strength, and 
flesh, and life, and with the tubercle, the lungs themselves are 

The other definition is more resplendent still, and the prac- 
tical conclusion resplendenter. It is, that consumption is a dis- 
ease of the whole man, which is very true, as it includes soul, 
body, and estate. The mind is diseased, because the consump- 
tive is usually the very last person to be convinced that he has 
the malady, coming to his senses however a few days before 
death. That the whole of the body is diseased, is wasting away, 
is painfully evident to all ; and that the estate is also wasting, 
very many have a feeling sense of the truth of this same, for 
it requires " considerable" money to purchase everything that 
every body advises, the almost invariable inducements thereto 
being, " it can do no harm, if it does no good, and it cured 
Mr. Smith, who was a great deal worse off than you," and he 
would have been living yet if he hadn't died so soon." 

160 HalVs Journal of Health. 

' . i.i ■ 

The Frenchman goes on to say, that not only is the whole 

man diseased in consumption, but the disease is owing to the 
fact, that either the man has not enough phosphorus in him, 
or it burns up too fast. A general observer might reply, " I'm 
not so certain about that, for there could be no bones without 
phosphorus, and a consumptive has more bone than any thing 
else; in fact he is too bony; so full of bones sometimes, 
that the skin is worn through in holding them." Hence an 
English great name says, it is a mistake, for the phosphorus in 
a man, instead of burning up too fast, won't burn at all. So 
that John Bull, has the better of " boney" this time. 

The Frenchman, like old Kough and Beady, not knowing him- 
self beaten, goes on to say, that consumption being the undue 
waste or want of phosphorus, the cure of it consists in giving 
the body more phosphorus. That being the case, all that a 
consumptive has to do, is to turn politician, and swallow every 
" locofoco" he comes across. There's hope for whiggery yet, 
for. they have only to go to Florida, and the " sunny south" 
any December, and enlist all the consumptives, and just turn 
them loose among the thickest of the " unterrified." 

But to use a plainer form of speech, the locofoco above 
spoken of, is a "match," the better kind of match, made of 
phosphorus, not having the objectional brimstone odor. This 
form of phosphorus, however, the Frenchman does not advise ; 
for as bones contain phosphorus, the idea is not to swallow lo- 
co focos, but to burn up the bones of the dead, powder them, 
and swallow them down thrice a day, as much as may be taken 
upon a dime. 

After the Frenchman printed his book, druggists scattered 
themselves all over the country, to gather up the bones of the 
dead, whether of cat, dog, or human, is of no consequence, for 
bone is bone, always and everywhere ; for if bone be not bone, 
what is bone? It must be something else, and consequently 
is not bone at all. There must be some mistake about it some- 
where, for the Frenchman has failed to cure his consumptives, 
either because the real, identical, original bone was not given ; 
or bone, the " hypophosphite" is no remedy. As we were say- 
ing, on the publication of the first edition of M. Churchill's 
book, its main position was denied, and before he issued a 
second edition, he concluded to wait until he could be " able 

Consumption. 161 

to settle the question of the existence or non-existence in the 
human body, of phosphorus in a burnable condition." Rea- 
sonable people would have thought that it would have been 
better to have settled that question first. Pie thinks he will suc- 
ceed. Suppose he does succeed in proving that consumptives 
need phosphorus, that will not prove that an artificial supply of 
it will cure consumption. All disease consists in a defect of 
some element. Medical research has found out, in many cases, 
what that element is. Many for example need iron ; a forlorn 
few need brass ; but of the millions who have failed to be bene- 
fited by taking iron rust, finely powdered, any eminent phy- 
sician may testify. 

Every element of the human body is found in the food 
which nature prepares for man ; our food is the vehicle through 
which that element is supplied, and that is the natural mode of 
supply. Thus it is, that in many remembered cases, sick per- 
sons became possessed of an appetite for a particular kind of 
food, and on eating it got well, because, as it were, nature 
knew that the body needed the element which that kind of 
food most largely abounded in. Very beautiful instances of 
this are recorded in medical works ; see the back volumes of 
HalVs Journal of Health, under the head of " Instinct." 

As then, all admit that consumption is a general disease, 
involving the whole body, it would seem that every element 
was needed, and that to get a full supply of every element in- ' 
a natural way, in a safe way, and in due proportion, the best 
plan is to get up a good appetite and a good digestion ; then 
eat, and drink, and breathe the best of every thing, meat, 
bread, water, air. "That this has proved happily efficient in 
multitudes of cases, there is various proof, strong as of any 
fact in nature, but the folly of man is such, that in nine cases 
out of ten, he will " take" any thing else, every thing else, how 
horrible soever it 'may be, sooner than meat, and bread, and 
water, and air. 

The ignorance or the perversity of the human mind is such, 
that in consumptive diseases, the intelligent physician has to 
ransack all nature to find arguments to induce his patient to 
expose himself sufficiently to out door air. In nine cases out of 
ten, there is such an insane dread of " taking cold," that the pa- 
tient hugs the stove, and — death at the same time, or hurries off 

162 Hairs Journal of Health. 

to a southern climate, where the atmosphere is loaded with 
dampness, and the more deadly miasm, the emanations from 
rotting leaves and wood which cover every inch of soil, instead 
of going where the air is too cold for decay or for holding 
moisture, hence must be the purest, and most nutritious in all 

There must be something in consumptive disease which in- 
fatuates the mind with error, or warps it by delusions. It 
would seem that any man at a small remove from idiocy, 
might know that pure air was the best for breathing, in all 
forms of sickness ; and yet within two or three years, a large 
number of newspaper editors lent themselves to the advocacy 
of "medicated inhalation" for the cure of consumption, and 
other diseases of the lungs and throat ; the convincing argu- 
ment on the part of the Herald, Tribune, and Times, being ad- 
vertisements, at the rate of two or three hundred dollars a 
piece. Against printing a mere advertisement, we say no- 
thing ; but we do reprobate the recklessness and the folly of 
any editor who lends himself to be the tool of design or igno- 
rance. Even so staid and respectable a paper as the Commer- 
cial Advertiser, lent itself to the propagation of the delusion 
by certificates and otherwise, of the wonderful efficacy of med- 
icated inhalation in diseases of the throat and lungs ; the re- 
sult was, to send their confiding readers in crowds, to breathe 
impure air, at the rate of twenty-five dollars a month for the 
privilege. Day after day, and week after week, the city was 
flooded with advertisements in the penny press, five columns 
long, in laudations of the treatment, until " every body went 
there for every thing ;" and finally, as we personally know, 
some men were set to breathing medicated air for diarrhoea 
and dvsentery. And what is the history of to-day? The 
Boanerges of inhalation has long since left the city. The very 
name of " medicated inhalation" had become such a stench in 
the nostrils of the people, that for sometime previous to his de- 
parture, the silver sign had been removed from the door, and 
the occasional advertisement of five lines long, instead of five 
columns, never mentioned the once cabalistic words. 

Let it be remembered in conclusion, that "consumption," in 
the usual acceptation of the term, is a destruction of the sub- 
stance of the lungs, and in proportion as they are destroyed, is 
less air consumed, hence the great need, that what air is 

Summer Resorts. 163 

breathed, should be the purest possible ; just as if a man has 
less food given him than the system needs, the most certain 
plan of protracting life, is for him to arrange that the food 
which he does consume, should be of the most nutritious kind 
that can be had. 

— — . .....: ...... 1 



In order to derive the highest advantages as to health, from 
summer recreations, several considerations ought to be kept in 

Children who are teething, should be taken without an hour's 
delay, to the sea shore. The effect is, in multitudes of cases, 
instantaneous, radical, and almost miraculous. Physicians of 
observation in large cities will testify, that children in their 
second summer, in an almost dying condition, begin to improve 
on their journey to the coast, and within three hours after 
leaving the heated and sultry atmosphere of the city in mid- 

There is something in the salt air of the sea, which has a 
renovating and life-giving power, to all whose brains have 
been overtaxed ; and to many whose nervous systems have 
been impaired by intense excitements, whether arising from 
business anxieties, or domestic calamities. There is also a 
moral effect for good, in the ruar of the ocean, and in the 
sense of vastness which comes over the mind, as the eye gazes 
upon it, bottomless, and without a shore beyond ; thus causing 
heart troubles to be swept away in their insignificance. 

To persons whose lungs are impaired, or whose throats are 
in a diseased condition, the air of the seashore is almost al- 
ways poisonous, sometimes deadly. 

To merchants, clerks, lawyers ; to all who follow sedentary 
occupations, who are kept within four walls for a large porjpm 
of every twenty-four hours, no better advice can be given, 
than to go off among the mountains ; climb to their tops ; de- 
scend into their valleys ; penetrate their recesses ; on foot, on 
horse, in every conceivable mode of locomotion ; and they 
should consider every hour of daylight lost, which does not 
find them in interested motion, in the ooen air. 

164- HalVs Journal fo Health. 

The general rule is, to effect a change of air. Any 
change is more or less beneficial. There is no locality in any 
dozen miles apart, whose atmosphere has not ingredients differ- 
ing in some. respects from that of other localities, and the human 
system greedily drinks in those new or strange ingredients, just 
as one takes in, with unwonted delight and benefit, the food of a 
table a few miles from his own home. Both mind and body, 
the world over,, yearn for variety, for change. So that a man 
living for years in the purest atmosphere on earth, will be bene- 
fitted by a change to one which, although relatively less pure, 
has either different ingredients, or the same in different pro- 
portions. To all who can, we say, go somewhere, go anywhere, 
rather than remain at home all the time. Gro with as light a 
heart as possible ; go determined to get good, and do good, 
and you will seldom fail of both. But in going, leave all 
H airs," and mocks, and pretences, and shams behind. Assume 
nothing; exact nothing ; claim nothing beyond what is spon- 
taneously offered by those, with whom you may come in con- 
tact. In all situations, be courteous, and respect yourself, and 
you will have courtesy and respect shown you. Acting thus, 
you will return home healthier, happier, wiser and better, 
than when you went away. 


Of all the assigned causes of lunacy in the Pennsylvania 
Asylum, nearly one out of every four, arose from " domestic 
trouble," the women numbering one-third more than the 

This ought not to be, for the nearest approach to human hap- 
piness, other things being equal, is in having a family, and a 
home, where affection, love, and sympathy find daily food, and 
gijfcv and expand in buds and blossoms, and luscious fruit. The 
family fireside, the family table, these make the earthly hea- 
ven of us all ; these yield the oil which calms the troubled 
waters of business life ; the springs whose crystal draughts 
allay the feverish excitements, and the burning thirst created 
by. worldly turmoil ; these are they which send off sweet per- 
fumes, which purify the moral atmosphere, and feed the dear- 
est affections of our nature. 

Lunacy. ' 1C5 

Why sliould a road ever end in a mad house,, which ought 
always to terminate in an earthly paradise ? Surely an asy- 
lum is not the natural finale of the marriage ceremony;; but 
that it is becoming oftener so than in past years, seems to be a 
conceded fact. That marriage does not of itself tend to mad- 
ness, appears to derive confirmation in the fact, that there are 
more single, than married persons in our lunatic asylums. 
The difference however is a mere fraction, it ought to be wide 
as the poles asunder. Why then are there so many more 
married persons in our mad houses than, there, ought to be, 
considering the greater number of resources for happiness 
which belong to the married \ 

If a married man becomes deranged, we will venture the 
assertion, without any undue prejudice against women, 
that in numerous cases, it largely is the fault of his wife ; al- 
though we are free to confess, that a man cannot be at. a great 
remove from daftness, who will go crazy from any of the ordi- 
nary causes of domestic disquietude; yet a man, or woman 
either, may so nurse a very insignificant matter, by broo.ding 
over it, as to make it enlarge to such an extent, that it will 
literally shut out from the vision, the universe besides, and 
then, the mind is a blank. 

The prevailing weakness of the women of our time, espe- 
cially in cities, is their passion for dress and climbing. It is 
useless to spend time and paper, in proving this, the observant 
are conscious of the fact. In reference to their wives, men are 
weak. The sternest philosophy of the office and the counting 
room, is demolished at a stroke, at " the house." Most men 
love to see their wives and daughters well dressed, however 
slouchy they may go themselves, and between this pride and 
'the desire to gratify their families, as well as to save the trou- 
ble of a firm resistance, and the inevitable consequences of 
that resistance, the fortress is surrendered ; involvements foj-, 
low, struggles succeed, and failure, despondency and despair*,' 
come on apace, and the grave or grated door, shut out the sun 
light of life forever. 

Isext to this, is the passion for climbing; that jackal of unrest, 
that will have food, even if it be dead men's bones and car- 
cases, only if it afford the aliment of better appearances, the ca- 
pability of taking another step higher, in order to reach a " set" 

166 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

beyond. Men are too much absorbed in business, to care 
about such things; their minds are taken up with more tangi- 
ble matters; with the necessities of house, and food, and 
clothing, and for the reasons named as to dress, yield, When 
they ought not to ; yield for the sake of peace. 

On the other hand, the wife at home, not having the mind 
carried off to more imperative callings, and being more at lei- 
sure to cherish trifles^ allows herself to reflect on her position, 
and the more elevated one of others, who are, may be, not as 
good as she is, and are really, in many instances, not as deserv- 
ing. This causes at length a disquiet, a dissatisfaction, an irri- 
tation, a settled annoyance, which is daily fed by the many 
little causes of fretfulness which are incident to every house- 
hold, in the carelessness of domestics, their ignorance, their 
utter want of interest in the concerns of their employers, and 
their great destitution of moral principle ; these are the things 
which wear out the lives of many excellent women, and waste 
them into the grave, long before their prime, or shut them in 
a cell. 

Is there a remedy for these sad things ? and if so, what is it ? 
or if more than one, what are they ? 

Our daughters must be educated differently. They inust 
be made better acquainted with the real world around them, 
by being made to live in the midst of fact, rather than to lux- 
urate in the realms of fiction. They must be induced to read 
the Bible more, and the newspaper and the novel less. They 
must be taught to feel that they are neither puppets nor band- 
boxes, nor dolls. That there are stern duties to be performed 
in life, and that they are to perform them. That there is a 
space between a wish and its gratification. That efforts are 
to be made; self denials are to be practised; appetites to be 
curbed; passions subdued ; desires mortified, and feelings 
restrained. They must be made to know they are not always 
to be served; that the time will come when they must serve 
others ; that they must care, and work, and toil for others, as 
others have cared, and worked and toiled for them; that 
this is a world of reciprocities, and that those who practice 
them most assiduously,will be the happiest, the most loved, and 
the most admired. Let them grow up to feel that the best 
type of a true womanhood, is not in the cut of the dress, the 

Kill or Cure. 167 

style of the bonnet, the softness of the hands, the beauty of the 
face, the depth of the intellect, the extent of the acquisitions, 
whether as to music, or languages, or step, or position ; not in 
one or all of these is there a true womanhood, but rather in 
the purity of the heart, in the warmth of the affections, in the 
abnegation of self, in the consciousness of just purposes, and 
in the possession of that personal dignity, which is inseparable 
frdm the qualities named. 

And both as to sons and daughters, we must sedulously edu- 
cate them, and that right early, in the practice and apprecia- 
tion of industry, of economy, self reliance, by learning them 
to help themselves; in that feeling of independence, and 
personal self-respect, which never fails to wait on a man or 
woman, who has been trained to rely on their own resources, 
to never attempt to accomplish for themselves individually, 
what they cannot do without the aid of other's work, or other's 
wealth, or without unwise risks. 


Neck or nothing, are favorite saws with some people, and 
with other some, a little more daft, there is a still more dearly 
hugged comforter, " so simple," that it can't do any harm, if 
it does no good ; and armed with that philosophy, multitudes 
daily swallow poisons to an incredible amount, with the re- 
sult of losing the last remnant of health, if not life itself. They 
start out on the assumed fact, that what is " simple" can't in- 
jure. If this is applied to men, we think it rather unfortunate, 
for there are " simple" men and women in myriads, who are 
doing hourly more harm to themselves, their friends, their 
neighbors, their children, than any arithmetic can compute ; 
so simple in eating, in dress, in opinion, in conversation, in 
judgment, in conduct, that often the expression escapes them- 
selves in reviewing the past, " what a fool I am !" 

But this is a moral simplicity. The simplicity of remedial 
agents is the subject more immediately in hand. The people 
who are so marvellously fond of what they call " simple" 
things, start out on the unwarrantable supposition, that what 
is " simple" is synonymous with the fact that they are " fa- 

168 HalVs Journal of Health. * 

miliar" with it. Whiskey for example, is a familiar, and we 
might say, a very familiar article with some people ; verily it 
is with them an old acquaintance, a bosom friend, an insepar- 
able companion; their testimony is uniformly that it is good 
for the " insides" and good for the out ; that it not only never 
did them any harm, but always did them good ; they " always 
felt better after taking it." 

"We are very well acquainted with tobacco. Look at the 
Virginian for example : he talks of tobacco, he dreams about 
it, he eats it, he smells of it; the very dollar in his pocket is 
redolent with its hateful fumes; it is wedged in under his 
finger nails, it spots his shirt bosom, it stains his vest, its juice 
is scattered over his pants, it cakes at the corners of his mouth ? 
and the long streaks of colored saliva dribble from his lip, 
and stripe his cheeks. As he uses it more, the necessity for 
its use is greater, until finally he goes to sleep with a lump of 
it in his mouth. Next he begins to dry up, his flesh shrinks 
away, his face is gaunt, his body slab-like, his legs spindles, 
his gait is tottering and unsteady, and head and fingers and 
arms shake like the palsied or the agued. Next comes the 
wasting of the life powers ; digestion ceases, appetite fails, the 
nervous energies are exhausted, and dullness and stupor and 
the sleep of death come on. 

Coffee and tea are very " simple," very familiar things, and 
have been used for a life time by multitudes without any no- 
ticeably injurious effects which could be fairly and conclu- 
sively attributed to them ; but " simple" as they are, their 
injudicious use has made many an one miserably nervous and 
dyspeptic for life. " Simple" would it seem to rub a little 
candle grease on a trifling pimple, and yet death followed 
from the poisonous corrosion of the brass candlestick. 

Then again, what may be "simple" and safe for one, may 
not be simple and safe for another. The tired donkey found 
his oppressive load of salt lightened, and himself greatly re- 
freshed by swimming a swollen stream ; but his brother don- 
key, loaded with a huge sack of wool, was delighted at the 
instant relief afforded to him by the same means, but it was a 
transcient and deceitful remedy, for no sooner did he begin to 
emerge from the stream, than the increased weight of wool 
and water crushed him hopelessly. 

Kill or Cure. ' 169 

A newspaper writer, as green as the grass he treads upon, 
recommends what he considers a very " simple" remedy — Ice. 
Hear him : — 

" Attacked with pneumonia, salivated, broken down in con- 
stitution, subject to haemorrhages from the lungs, digestion to- 
tally deranged, and rheumatic neuralgia, he tried in vain the 
remedies prescribed by American physicians, the effects of 
foreign travel, the most rigid diet, and the most careful and 
systematic habits of life. The most learned physicians of Lon- 
don, Paris, Genoa, Milan, Florence, Pisa and Pome could do 
no good." 

In this condition he began " the use of ice, first melted in 
water, and then applied it in the solid cake to the person." 
At first he " took a sponge bath in a bowl of water, in which 
was dissolving a piece of ice the size of a walnut ; from day to 
day larger lumps were used, and applied directly to his body, 
until finally he dissolved five or six pounds of ice upon his 
person every morning." 

In a time not stated, the following changes occurred: — 

" He gained sixty -five pounds of flesh, was restored not only 
to perfect health but to a state of vigorous energy, physical 
strength, vital power, unwasting glow of feeling and an ability 
to endure any amount of fatigue and exposure with apparent 
impunity. His description of hi3 present condition is ravish- 
ing. Unbroken sleep, perfect control of his nervous system, 
mind always serene and cheerful, muscles firm and hard, no 
consciousness of the existence of his internal organs, ability to 
do with half the sleep he formerly required, appetite always 
good, digestion perfect, no taste whatever for unhealthy food ; 
in short a supernatural state of mind and body, in which 
" every moment of his waking existence seems to be con- 
sciousness of physical, intellectual, moral and social happiness." 

With the wisdom of his brother named above, he declares 
that to numerous pale, lean, sallow, dj^speptic, tobacco using, 
excess indulging authors,, teachers, editors, clergymen, &c, 
this same remedy will bring unwonted power of mind and 
body, constant cheerfulness, a power of moral control, " a 
blessed clearness of thought," absence of all nervousness ; in 
fine an ability to " walk further, stand up longer, work harder, 
and do everything better than he could do it before." " Exis- 
tence will grow brighter, and the flame of life will burn with 

170 * HalVs Journal of Health. 

more calmness, serenity, glow and splendor than you ever 
dreamed of." 

He attributes these wonderful transformations to the action 
ot H certain chemical properties and the electrical heat which 
the ice contains," which explanation of the modus operandi 
of the matter is as philosophical and as lucid as could be given 
by an — ignoramus. 

"We would not advise the application of solid ice to old peo- 
ple or infants, or to any person of a frail constitution, without 
consulting a physician, for it would with great certainty hur- 
ry many to their graves. To have made the communication 
practically valuable, the writer should have stated the time it 
required to give him an increase of sixty-five pounds in weight ; 
what he did in addition to the ice applications ; what he did 
to place him in the deplorable condition described, and what 
bad practices he abandoned. Meanwhile, let the reader re- 
member that applications or remedies which benefit one man 
may be reasonably expected to benefit another one, in pro- 
portion as the conditions of the two are alike, not merely in 
eifect, but as to cause. No wise man would experiment on his 
own body and health and life on the loose statements of ano- 
nymous newspaper writers. 

After all, when a reasonable allowance has been made for 
the evident exaggerations of the writer, there is not much that 
is unusual or remarkable in the changes. We have never 
known a man to gain sixty-five pounds in weight on ice, in a 
short time ; but there are a good many who have " in the course 
of time" gained that much on vulgar beer. Salivated people 
have before now got well, by letting themselves alone ; dyspep- 
tic and lean folks, by simply ceasing to be pigs ; and many a 
" bilious" man, as yellow as a pumpkin, has become as " hearty 
as a buck," by being simply compelled to go to work and 
make an honest living, which, by the way, is more health pro- 
moting, than the icebergs of a thousand poles. The trial 
will demonstrate this to almost any. reader. 

A man man may eat and drink heartily all day, and sit and 
lounge about, " doing nothing," in one sense of the word, but 

The Human Manufactory. 171 

his body must keep hard at work all the time, or it will die. 
Suppose the stomach refuses to work within ten minutes after 
a hearty dinner, the man would die in convulsions in a few 
hours, or cholera or cramp colic would rack and wreck him. 
Suppose the " pores" of the skin, meaning thereby the gland- 
ular apparatus with which they are connected, should go on 
a "strike," we would in an hour be burning up with fever, 
or " oppression" would weigh- down the system, and soon be- 
come insupportable. Suppose the liver became " mulish," 
appetite would be annihilated, food would be loathed, tortur- 
ing pains would invade the " small of the back," and the head 
would ache to " bursting." Suppose the kidneys " shut up 
shop," and dangers more imminent, sufferings more unbear- 
able, and death more certain would, be the speedy and inevi- 
table results. If the little workshops of the eye should "close," 
in an hour we could not shut or open them without physical 
force, and in another we would be blind ; or of the tongue, 
and it would become as dry as a bone and as stiff as steel. To 
keep such a complication of machineries in working order for 
a life time, is a miracle of wisdom, but to " work them" by 
the pleasures of eating and drinking, is a miracle of beni- 


This unseemly act arises from the want of interest in the 
services. The most effectual physical preventative is to take 
a short nap just before going to church. All know what a 
painful effort it requires to excite to wakefulness ; that very ef- 
fort prevents all efficient attention to the discourse. Of ihe two 
evils, sleeping at home, and sleeping at church, the former is 
the less, and is valuable, because it is a certain remedy, and 
will allow a wholesome, wakeful attention to a discourse of 
very moderate interest 


The first, most essential and most efficient step towards a 
cure in all cases, is that which instinct prompts ; to wit : per- 
fect quietude ol body ; next take nothing but rice parched like 
coffee ; then boil, and eat in the usual way. 

172 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Medical and Literary Weekly, $2 a year, Atlanta, Georgia, edited by 
Taliaferro & Thomas, we heartily commend to public patronage. It 
is very much like the Journal of Health in its objects, and is conduct- 
ed with judgment and ability. . 

"A Bachelor's Story" by Oliver Bunce, $1, New York, published 
by the enterprising house of Rudd -& Carlton, the mechanical getting 
up of whose publications is worthy of praise. The book itself abounds 
in lessons useful and true ; its sentiments are sound and practical, arid 
can be read and re-read with interest and proiit. 

Blackwood's Magazine and the four Quarterlies, re-published for ten 
dollars a year, by Leonard, Scott & Co., New York, afford to educated 
minds a large amount of most valuable reading for one year, at a 
very small cost. 

Scalpel Quarterly, $1 a year, by Edward Dixon, M.D., is the most 
racy and instructive periodical of the times, as to the health, and man- 
ners, and habits of the people. 

The Fireside Monthly, $1 50 a year, edited by W. W. Hall, 42 
Irving Place, New York, is devoted to Science, Literature, Art, and 
practical life \ it is original, excludes fiction, and although not pro- 
fessedly a religious publication, is never, by any possibility , against 
evangelical religion. There is no similar publication in the world, 
and in the language of the Religious Herald of Richmond, Virginia, 
it is " a really useful work, deserving a place in every household." 
Are there enough religious, solid, conservative and reflecting men in 
the land, to support from principle, an experiment for supplying a 
% monthly periodical for their families, which excludes all fiction, and 
deals in practical facts % We shall see. 

Challen's Monthly, $1 a year, is one. of the cheapest and most in- 
structive publications for christian families, among our exchanges. 

Merry's Museum, $1 a year, New York, continues to be as useful 
as it is popular, among its multitudes of child-readers. 

Mother's Magazine, New York, $1 a year, is worthy of an extensive 

We see with pleasure, frequent quotations from the " Happy Rome" 
Boston, $2 a year. 

The Home Monthly, Buffalo, $1 50 a year, is creditable to the 
judgment and ability of its lady editors, Mrs. Arey and Gildersleeve. 

Godey's Lady's Book, $3 a year, Philadelphia, has not in its twenty 
eight years' history, given a more interesting frontispiece than that for 
the July number, " Home and the Homeless," while — 

The Ladies' Home Magazine, so long enriched by Arthur's pen, is as 
usual, always safe for family reading, and always instructive. 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, $3 a year, is the veteran of 
New England medicals. 





We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
conies, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] AUGUST, 1859. [No. 8. 


"We have occasionally noticed some sharp contradictions of 
our views in some points, in papers which are in the main 
conducted with ability. Our .readers are advised in all such 
cases to think for themselves, and to inquire if the person who 
calls a statement in question, is likely to have special means 
of information in regard to it. Persons sometimes think they 
know a thing is not so, from their not knowing that the oppo- 
site of it is true. A man who has lived from infancy on a small 
island, and has never seen any other land, may feel quite sure 
in his own mind, that it is the only land in the world, simply 
because he has never seen any other land. It is unwise to as- 
sert any thing to be true, until we know that its opposite is 
not true. 

: ., 

On one occasion, a correspondent of a water-cure journal 
inquired if a statement of ours was true, that washing the 
teeth with pure white soap had a tendency to prevent the col- 
lection of tartar on the teeth. The editor replied simply, " It 
is all fudge." He, perhaps, could not conceive how such a 
thing as common soft soap could keep the teeth clear of tartar 
accretions, which were so hard that a steel instrument is em- 
ployed by dentists to remove them. He evidently did not 
know that recent chemical and microscopical investigations, 
carefully conducted with all the aids of dental science, had 
demonstrated that this tartar was the product of a living in- 

174 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sect, uponVhich neither vinegar nor tobacco jnice had any ef- 
fect whatever, but .which was instantly destroyed by soap- 
suds ; and following up this fact, persons have kept their teeth 
perfectly clear of re-accumulations of tartar, by simply wash- 
ing them with white soap and brush, night and morning. Now 
and then it will fail, because some tartar is made by an insect 
which is but little affected by soapsuds. 


On another occasion we stated that persons had been poi- 
soned by occupying rooms covered with green paper. Shortly 
after a City paper contained a column, or two attempting to 
throw ridicule on the statement, giving facts, as so stated, 
where persons had lived and slept in green-papered rooms for 
years in good health. .Now we will giye a fact which is indis- 
putable : 

In the Fall of 1858, a youth was laboring under symptoms 
of poisoning by arsenic. In spite of all treatment, the symp- 
toms increased in severity for two months,, when the patient 

was sent to the country, where he was speedily restored to 


On returning home, he occupied the same apartment ; and 
in a month was worse than before. Thinking that a cistern 
near a wall of the room might occasion the ailment, he was 
removed to another room for two weeks to afford an opportu- 
nity for making the necessary alterations, when he was re- 
turned to his old room, in apparent health. In three or four 
weeks the same symptoms returned, but with an aggravated 
degree of severity. It was then suggested that it might be 
the green paper on the wall which caused the illness. It was 
removed; paper of a different color was put on ; and still oc- 
cupying the same room, the patient recovered his health, and 
remained well. 

It was from facts like these, reported in standard medical 
publications, we founded our article. It will readily occur to 
the reader, that paper may have so little green in it, that any 
ill effect on the health may not be appreciable for weeks, or 
months, or years : and then again, some constitutions are less 
amenable to the influences of green paper than others. We 
cannot undertake to hedge our Journal with provisos, and au- 

Unhealthful Habitations. 175 

thorities and nice distinctions, else we should make it as dry 
as a bone and heavy as lead, and it would lose largely of its 
practicality. "We prefer to present broad facts, with their 
general inferences. Those who are hypercritical and are fond 
of nice distinctions, had better procure a different kind of 

If green paper, under any circumstances, poisons the human 
system, it is better to lay it down as a broad fact for practical 
purposes, that green paper ought not to be put on the walls of 
rooms. If any one is disposed to experiment as to how much 
green in any given pattern can be used with impunity, we 
certainly have no objection ; but for the general good, it is bet- 
ter to lay down the clear statement, " rooms ought not to be 
covered with green paper." 

If the paper is well glazed, comparatively little injury may 
result, for then there is less fuz to fly about the room ; but 
where the pattern is not glazed but is velvetty, and the figure 
standing out from the paper, it is impossible to escape the poi- 
sonous effects. A single hour's sitting in such a room has 
been known to nauseate a whole company. From one foot 
square of one of those tufted or flock green papers, thirty 
grains of the powder was scraped off and sent to a chemist ; 
and the amount of solid arsenic in it was eleven grains — over 


A New York merchant noticed in the course of years that 
every book-keeper that came to him got sick, however healthy 
he appeared on his arrival. One day it occurred to him all at 
once, that the room occupied was on the first floor, and was 
so situated that the sun never shone in it. He at once changed 
it for an upper story apartment, which freely admitted the sun 
light, with the result of healthy book-keepers ever after. 


A New Yorker built for himself a few years ago a splendid 
mansion. Not long after he moved into it several members 
of the family became sick ; this continuing for months, it was 
remembered that the house had been built over an old drain, 
on a damp marshy spot, the emanations from which constantly 
rose through the cellar and passed up into every room of the 

17fi HalVs Journal of Health. 

building. He changed his residence, and his family regained 
their usual health. 

The practical inference to be derived from these statements 
is, that considering it is impossible to cure any disease as long 
as the causes of that disease are in operation, if on moving 
into a room or house, or neighborhood, a person becomes sick, 
and remains more or less so, in spite of the remedies used, it 
would be wise to change to another room in the building, or 
to another house in the neighbourhood, or exposure ; there are 
physical obstacles, and it is useless to contend against natural 

But a family may occupy a dwelling for a number of years 
in the enjoyment of general good health, when a change may 
occur, and one or more members, or all of them, may begin 
to complain, and may continue to be ailing, whatever may be 
done for restoration to health. Such changes are never with- 
out a sufficient cause. The rule should be in all cases where 
several members of a family are attacked with similar symp- 
toms of sickness, to look about for a cause. Let the mind re- 
cur to any changes of any description. The last barrel of flour 
may have been largely adulterated with a heavy mineral sub- 
stance, only to be detected by chloroform ; a mill-pond may 
have been formed within a mile or two ; or one may have 
been drained, and its former bottom exposed to a hot sun ; a 
piece of swamp land may have been cle'ared ; or a field may 
have been allowed to grow up with timber ; or a belt of trees 
between the house and standing water or a sluggish stream 
may have been cut down, and thus the miasm which they ab- 
sorbed is carried directly into the house ; the well may have 
become foul ; or a new well or spring way have been brought 
into use ; any one of these, or of many other changes, is alone 
sufficient to make a whole family sickly. The first best step in 
all changes as to the health of a family for the worse, is to find 
out what changes have occurred of a physical character, and 
then seek to apply an appropriate remedy. 


The following directions, issued by the National Life Boat 
Institution of England, should be in the pocket book of every 

Drowning. Yll 

traveller, for the purpose of applying them for the restoration 
of persons, apparently drowned. 

1. Treat the patient instantly, on the spot, in the open air — 
exposing the face and chest to the breeze, except in severe 

2. To clear the Throat— -Place the patient gently, face 
downwards, with one wrist under the forehead, in which po- 
sition all fluids will escape by the mouth, and the tongue itself 
will fall forward, leaving the entrance into the windpipe free. 
Assist this operation by wiping and cleansing the month. If 
there be breathing— wait and watch; if not, or if it fail, then, 

2. To Lxcite Respiration — Turn the patient well and in- 
stantly on the side, and 

4. Excite the nostrils with snuff, hartshorn, volatile salts, or 
the throat with a feather, &c, and "dash cold water on -the face, 
previously rubbed warm. If there be no success, lose not an 
instant, but begin 

5. To Imitate Respiration— Replace the patient on the 
face, raising and supporting the chest on a folded coat or other 
article of dress. 

6. Turn 'the body very gently on the side and a little beyond, 
and then briskly on the face, altern ately, repeating these mo- 
tions deliberately, efficiently and perseveringly, about fifteen 
times in the minute, or every four seconds, occasionlly varying 
the side. 

'7. On each occasion that the body is replaced on the face, 
make uniform but efficient pressure, with brisk movement on 
the back between and below the shoulder blades on each 
side, removing the pressure immediately before turning the 
body on the side. The result is respiration or natural breath- 
ing, and if not too late, life. 

8. After respiration has been restored, promote the warmth 
of the body by the application of hot flannels, bottles or blad- 
ders of warm water, heated bricks, &c, to the pit of the 
stomach, the arm pits, between the thighs and to the soles of 
the feet. 

9. To Induce Circulation and Warmth. — During the whole 
time do not cease to rub the limbs upwards, with firm, grasp- 
ing pressure, and with energy, using handkerchiefs, flannels, 

178 Salts Journal of Health, 

10. Let the limbs be thus warmed and dried, and then cloth- 
ed, the bystanders furnishing the requisite garments. 

Cautions. — 1. Send quickly for medical assistance, and dry 

2. Avoid all rough usage and turning the body on the back. 

3. Under no circumstances hold up the body by the feet. 

4. Wot roll the body on casks. 

5. Nor rub the body with salts or spirits. 

6. Nor inject tobacco smoke or infusion of tobacco. 

7. Avoid the continuous warm bath. 

8. Be particularly careful to prevent persons crowding 
around the body. 

General Observations. — On the restoration of life a teaspoon- 
ful of warm water should be given, and. then, if the power of 
swallowing have returned, small quantities or wine, or brandy 
and water, or coffee. The patient should be kept in bed, and 
a disposition to sleep encouraged. 

The treatment recommended should be persisted in for a 
considerable time, as it is an erroneous opinion that persons are 
irrecoverable because life does not soon make its appearance, 
cases having been successfuly treated after persevering sever- 
al hours. 

Study carefully the above rules, and lay them by for future 
reference, and some person may have occasion to thank you 
for preserving his life by your preserving them. 


It is said that exposure to the rain or being drenched with 
buckets of water, seem to have some agency in restoring per- 
sons to life who have been prostrated by lightning. 

It is better to take some precautions against the lightning, 
which will be the more easily remembered, and the better ap- 
plied if some explanations are given as to the nature of light- 

There is a stillness in the atmosphere When all parts of it 
are of equal temperature, whether cold or hot, for the air is 
then in equilibrium. But if one part be hot, and the other 
be cold, as in two adjoining rooms, the moment the door be- 

Lightning Stroke. .179 

tween is opened there is a commotion, and the cold air rushes 
into the warmer room. 

If two vessels of water adjoin and are connected by a hol- 
low tube under the surface, both bodies of water are still, if 
each vessel is filled to an equal height. But if one vessel has 
a greater depth of water than the other, there is a commotion 
until an equilibrium is secured. 

When the atmosphere about us is uniformly filled or satu- 
rated with electricity, there is quiet, safety, equilibrium. But 
if a layer either side has more or less electricity than the one 
about us, there is a passing of the electricity from one to the 
other, until each body of air is alike filled or equally saturat- 
ed. But with this passing there is noise, as the passing of air 
makes the noise of wind, and the passage of water causes 
roaring, so the noise made by the passage of electricity is call- 
ed thunder; the force of it is the lightning, as the force of 
wind or moving water carries us away, according to its rapidi- 
ty ; but lightning, like a cannon ball, moves so swiftly that 
the body which it strikes has not time to have motion impart- 
ed to it, and it is shivered or perforated ; the comparison how- 
does not hold good at all points. 

But the electricity of the fuller section or body of air gets 
to the other which has less, with greater or less facility accord- 
ing to what is between* them, or connects them. If a pointed 
piece of metal, gold, silver or iron connects these bodies of dif- 
ferent fullness of electricity, the communication or stream is 
conducted so constantly and steadily, that there is no noise or 
commotion, there is no obstruction. But if wood is used, it 
does not conduct the electricity quick enough ; hence wood is 
not as good a conductor as iron. Hence where there is more 
electricity above us than on the earth, it comes down quietly 
and unnoticed if there are a great many iron communications or 
conductors, such as lightning rods; but if trees only, extend 
from one to the other, or tall chimneys, there is noise and de- 
struction. Hence it is best to keep away from chimneys and 
trees, or tall objects in thunderstorms in warm weather; there- 
fore if in the house, keep as near the centre of the room as 

But the course or direction of the lightning is always from 
the fuller air to that which is less full, as water runs from the 

180 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

fuller vessel towards the other. Hence if the air in the clouds 
has most electricity, the " stroke" comes from above ; if how- 
ever th.e air on the surface is fuller of electricity then the stroke 
is upwards ; this is the reason in many cases, why men and 
animals are killed by lightning in the open fields, or on prai- 

But these unequally filled bodies of air may be parallel with 
each other, and if a house is between them, it will be a con- 
ductor, and a person sitting at an open window will be killed: 
if the window had been down, he might have been saved, for 
glass repels lightning ; that is, it can keep it from passing ; 
hence if a- man stands on the ground and takes hold of an 
electrical wire, the electricity will pass freely through his body 
into the earth ; but if he stands on a glass block, the electri- 
city does not go through, but collects in the man himself; he 
gets full^of it, and "fire flies" out of him every time you 
touch him. 

Lightning or electricity has a love, so to speak, for metals, 
has an affinity for them, or seeks for them, hence the less 
of iron, or steel, or other metals, you have about your person 
during a thunder storm in summer, the safer you are. 



When a youth is about determining what he shall follow 
for a living, the first rule is to select the employment which 
he likes best ; one which he can follow con amore, that is, with 
the most satisfaction to his inclinations, tastes or desires ; al- 
ways pre-supposing, that it is not merely an allowable calling, 
but one that is useful and honorable. 

The second inquiry should be, will health admit of it ? 
Sickly, or even merely feeble persons should not think for a 
moment, of any indoor occupation. It is worse than suicidal, 
because, besides the risk of destroying their own lives, there 
are chances of this being done not soon enough to prevent the 
introduction of a diseased progeny, to be life long miserables 
themselves, and to be a burden to others. Of the in-door occu- 
pations, some of the most trying to the human constitution 
are working in cotton, hemp, paints, dyeing furs, tobacco, Luci- 
fer matches, manufacturer's trimmings, and the like, involving 
the filling of the air with minute particles. 

Squatter Sovereignty. ISi 

Blondes, that is, persons with light hair, fair skin, and blue 
eves ; as also those having sandy or reddish hair, should, by 
all means, select some active, out-door vocation. 

Brunettes, persons having a dark skin, indicating the bilious 
temperament, accompanied usually with black hair, and dark 
eyes, should select a calling which, whether indoor or out, will 
require them to be' on their feet, moving about nearly all the 
time, in order to " work off" the constantly accumulating 

The mixed temperaments can best bear sedentary in-door 
occupation ;< such as a combination of the bilious and nervous. 
Spare persons, not having much flesh, but enough of the ner- 
vous and sanguine temperament to give them a wiriness of 
constitution, these can bear in-door occupations best ; their ac- 
tivity arising from the nervous temperament keeping them in 
motion, (the tongue any how, if women,) while their hopeful- 
ness, arising from the sanguine temperament, keeps up their 
spirits, which is an element as essential to success, as it is to 

But of all human occupations which do not render a man 
amenable to the laws of his country, the most universally and 
invariably destructive to the health of the body, as well as 
that of the mind and heart, and yet coveted by many, although 
it is the hardest work in the world, is that of having nothing 
to do. 

i •*■.'■ 

■ ' | . | . 


Bight much tickled was our national pride, when once upon 
a time, some live Yankee, concocted a fib, in order to pass the 
customs, or for some other reason, by telling the wondering 
listener that in America, all were sovereigns. 

There is a party of ragamuffins in our land, who are al- 
ways contending for the "largest liberty;" the liberty of 
free love for example ; the liberty of short measure, scant 
weight, and the like ; the liberty of cheating your neighbor 
" in the way of trade ;" among others, there are not a few con- 
tending for the liberty of locating their lazy bones on any un- 
claimed vacant land of the general government, asserting the 

182 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

right thereby, of becoming the lawful owners of the same. 
So there are a good many squatters and a good many sovereigns 
in these most free, and most enlightened " states" of North 
America. There is, however, another class increasingly large, 
which are both squatters and sovereigns; but a peculiarity about 
them is, that they assert the right, and practice the same, only 
on Sundays; most numerous in high places. Go to any Congre- 
gational or Presbyterian church in or about Union Square, 
Fifth Avenue, or Fourteenth street on any fine Sunday ; take 
position in the gallery ; and for the time, the hour of prayer ; 
see well dressed, stalwart, lazy men, firmly seated, forehead 
resting on the pew back in front, an arm for a pillow ; with 
elbows to match, stretched along for a yard ! How much of 
the prayer does any of these gentry hear of a hot summer's 
day, in a position so sleep inviting ? Or if " wide awake," in 
devising some stock jobbing plan for next day, what a cosy 
attitude for profound thought, for laying pipes and traps to 
perfection ! Out upon it, ye lazy brood! pity itis that there 
is not another with a good bundle of cords, to whip you out 
of the "Father's House." 

The Episcopal service, more decent and more wise, exacts 
a frequent change of position, thus preventing that stagnation 
of blood which induces sleep. Our women, with their present 
constitutions and habits, are physically incapacitated in most 
cases for standing still beyond a very few minutes ; but they 
are of a more wakeful, of a more devotional nature, and have 
greater self control as to the proprieties of life ; hence to them, 
sitting in time of prayer, is more allowable; but that any 
one pretending to be a man, should spraddle his great hulk 
and bottom "just so," is a disgrace and an abomination. 


- Pure air contains one part of oxygen and four parts of ni- 
trogen, and the habitual breathing of an impure atmosphere, 
one which has not its due supply of oxygen, is a very common 
cause of consumption of the lungs. But while the want of 
oxygen in the air originates consumption, it is quite as true, 
that an atmosphere which has one fourth less oxygen, is cura- 

Caring Consumption. 183 

tive of consumption, for it is found that mountaineers, living 
at an elevation of twelve thousand feet, are almost exempt 
from this disease ; such an elevation involving a less amount 
of oxygen in a given amount of air, by one fourth, than is 
found at the ordinary level. 

That " consumption decidedly diminishes in elevated situa- 
tions," is an indisputable fact; so that certain physical con- 
ditions may cause consumption, and also may cure it. Yet our 
announcement several years ago, that whatever might be the 
effects of " tight lacing" in causing consumption, it had a ten- 
to arrest and cure it, made some nierry, and other some mad. 
How such a statement should have had such opposite effects 
on persons who were equally daft, we shall not stop to inquire. 
But the rationale of a rarified atmosphere and of tight lacing 
as a means of arresting and curing consumption, is the same, 
and is beautifully philosophical. They both cause quicker 
breathing, " more labored breathing, producing an increas- 
ed expansion of the lung, agreeing perfectly with the fact^ 
that the summit of the lung is principally, or almost solely 
the seat of tubercles, and with the probability, that is the re- 
sult of the less degree of dilatation, which precisely this part 
of the lungs must experience in consequence of the conical 
shape of the chest." 

Now this quotation, which is worthy of being written in let- 
ters of diamonds bright, is taken from the pages of Messrs. 
Wood's re-print of the British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgi- 
cal .Review, No. 45, the soundest and ablest medical periodi- 
cal in the English language, within our knowledge. 

It means simply this, that tubercles are found almost exclu- 
sively at the top of the lungs, immediately under the collar 
bones, and that is the spot where consumption begins to cause 
the lungs to decay, in almost every instance. 

The reason that tubercles are prone to form there is, the 
bony case which surrounds the lungs there, prevents the full 
expansion of the air cells ; but lower down, near the edges of 
the ribs, tubercles are almost never found, even in the last 
stages of consumption, because the ribs there, are distensible 
at each inspiration, and that enables the air cells, the lungs 
themselves, to distend to their utmost, habitually, which 
habitual distension is utterly incompatible with the existence 
of tubercle and consequent consumption. 

184 HalVs * Journal of Health. 

Hence, the mountaineers, by their quicker and " more la- 
bored breathing," attain a structure of chest so broad at the 
top, as to be remarkable, and their lungs are so highly devel- 
oped, as to present an extraordinary appearance. 

A stranger once came to us to ascertain our manner of treat- 
ing consumption, as he thought he had cured himself of it, 
and was curious to know if his principles and ours were simi- 
lar. They were, and both involved this '* labored breathing," 
by artificial means. 

In the second edition of our dollar work on consumption, just 
issued, these things are referred to at length. Go then to the 
cold, rarified mountain-air to cure you of consumption, and 
not to the hot Savannahs of the south, where every breath you 
take is loaded with steaming moisture and disease engender- 
ing miasm, oppressing the system, taking away- the strength, 
and corrupting the blood at every inspiration. 


Facts make no man wise. To be profited by them, we 
must not only see to it that they are-- whole facts, but w*e 
must have intelligence enough to be able to make a good use 
of them. At what an immense remove must they be from 
wisdom, who have neither facts nor common sense ! 

Some New Orleans savan or sapient, contended over his own 
signature, a very few years ago, that the prevalence of the epi- 
demic was not fairly attributable to the then existing filthy 
condition of the streets; that if any thing, the more filthy 
parts of the city were the most lightly stricken. 

Many otherwise sensible persons in passing along the street or 
public road, and seeing ruddy looking children clad in rags 
and begrimed with dirt, have jumped at th,e conclusion that 
playing in the dirt, was a means of health. It might just as 
well be argued that it is healthy to drink gin three times a day, 
because we find men at the age of four or five score,, who from 
youth had kept up the habit, and lived in spite of it. 

According to the most reliable accounts, more of the in- 
habitants ot the Faroe Islands die between eighty and ninety 
years, than during any other decade of existence; and yet, 
travellers tell us, that around nearly every house, is a blapk 

.Philosophy of Life. 185 

feted sewer; the houses themselves being small and stifling, 
while the adjacent rill is defiled with the washing of clothes,. 
and the eviscerations of fish. In all these cases, it would seem 
to be the ejaculation of common sense, how much longer these 
persons might have lived, in the observance of better habits of 
life. It would be about as wise as to contend that the extrav- 
agance of a spendthrift heir was ameans of enriching, because 
he died rich, in spite of his extravagance. The tendency to 
argue in this manner has, in many directions, retarded the ad- 
vance of wiser and better habits of life, Men may live long 
in spite of some pernicious habit, but without it, they would 
have lived longer. Incorrect reasonings in this regard have 
often ruined health, and shortened life ; and will, in multitudes 
of instances, do it again. 

The inhabitants of Iceland, and the distant Faroe Islands, 
lived long in the midst of the described filth, in part because 
the cold is so great there, that such filth was never heated to 
a degree which would make it unhealthful but for a very 
few days in the year ; and this was at a season when they went 
on their annual fishing and hunting excursions, and consequent- 
ly avoided exposure to hurtful exhalations, besides, hard ne- 
cessity kept them from the excesses of civilized life. 

" Hardening the constitution" is a most pernicious phrase, 
when taken in connection with the popular notion as to how 
it is to be hardened ; to wit, by exposures and severe toil. The 
true idea is to give it lastingness. To do this wisely, we must 
treat the constitution as we would a new garment, take care 
of it ; and they who begin to do this soonest, and continue to 
do so with the greatest steadiness, live the longest. All severe 
exposures, all severe efforts, in proportion as they. are violent 
or protracted, so far from hardening the constitution, sap its 
strength. All shocks impair the constitution ; the first one 
not perceptibly, it may be, but it most certainly does its work. 
The first stroke upon a huge rock with a tiny hammer, may 
make no visible impression, but the same stroke repeated, will 
in time, break the mass asunder. The first stroke had an 
equal effect in reality with the last. 

186 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The hod carrier is a hard worker, but he does not live long. 
A mere out-door laborer, although in the pure open air all 
the time, does not live long. fifor is the farmer, with all the 
supposed advantages of a farming life, the longest liver among 
men. But hunters are, in spite of hunger, and privation, and 
the irregularities of their eating and sleeping, and activity and 
rest. Students, who have brains, who have sense enough to 
pay some attention to the laws of their being, have a better 
chance for along life than out-door laborers or farmers ; while 
the nobility of England, with their failure of labor, their 
drinking habits, with their customs of night dinners and mid- 
night carousals, give more frequent examples, as almost any 
" steamer's news" will show, of extreme age, than either la- 
borer or farmer, or wise student. 

Without some first principles to guide him, the reader may 
regard this as an inextricable tangle ; but with first princi- 
ples, well founded, there is a beautiful and wise harmony, as 
there never fails, in any work of Him, who is the loving Fa- 
ther of us all. 

To lay the foundation for a long life, both body and mind 
must practice industrious activities. The hod carrier works 
the body hard, the brain almost none; the power of one is 
used up, that of the other is not used at all, and he dies of 
some speedily fatal disease. The mere student exhausts the 
brain ; the body is not worked at all, and he too dies early, 
witli some acute malady. The farmer works his body hard ; 
is in the open air all the time ; eats plain food ; retires early ; 
rises with the sun ; and indulges in no irregular habits ; but 
his mind, beyond a certain routine, which soon becomes me- 
chanical, as to prices, crops and weather, has no waking-up 
activities, and he too dies before his time, or vegetates in an 

But the hunter, without the advantages of the regularity 
and abundance and comfort of a farmer's home, in spite of 
sleeping on the ground, and going whole days without food ; 
in spite of winter's snows, and summer's suns, and the cold, 
raw rains of spring and fall, lives to the utmost verge of man's 
allotted time, and why? His bodily activities are steady, 
but they are moderate in the main, while the almost incessant 
look-out for game, and the multitudes of devices necessary 

Philosophy of Life. 187 

to out-manoeuvre the instincts of the animal creation, keep 
his wits alive, and they all become as keen and agile as his 
own restless and piercing eye. 

The agencies of long life to the nobility of Great Britain, are 
their love of travel, and hunting, and the saddle in earlier 
years ; while in later life, they avoid exposures and loss of rest 
and sleep and food ; they, in the fullest sense of the phrase, 
u take things easy." They know that they are provided for, 
beyond a peradventure, and quietly and securely pass along the 
stream of life, until it empties into eternity's ocean. 

As to great scholars and thinkers, such as ISTewton, of a 
past age, and Humboldt of the present, their love for study 
so took away their love of eating, that it was nearer a mecha- 
nical necessity than an animal delight ; so they ate but little, 
and in such proportion had less need for exercise ; while it is 
a physiological law, that mental labor increases our hold on 
life by its developing, enlarging (as all physicalities enlarge 
by exercise) the capacities of the brain. 

Up to forty-five, the bodily constitution is knit, is built up, 
is consolidated by wise labors, if the mind also is kept in the 
exercise of healthful activities. The same hard labor after 
forty -five, so far from building up, destroys : but while that 
is the case, mental toil builds up the body, its effect is to in- 
crease the capability of living. Hence a man who works 
his body pretty hard and his mind rather more moderately up 
to forty-five, has done most towards securing a lasting con- 
stitution ; and if then he begins to work the body less, and 
the mind more, he adds to that lastiogness, and bids fairest to 
live to eighty or an hundred years. This article merits the 
mature reflection of every reader, for it is true literally that 
u out of it are the issues of life.'* 


First keep your premises clean, light, airy ; next, according 
to our own experiments, the plan which is safest, and at the 
same time effective, is to get some strong-scented cheese, break 
it in small pieces, and mix it well with finely pulverized 
squills ; we followed this up for several nights in succession, 
to the end of a happy deliverance. The most that a teaspoon 

188 HaWs Journal of Health. 

or two of squills could do to a person -would be to occasion a 
wholesome vomiting, while it either kills the rats or drives 
them away. 

Make a paste of flour, a few sweet almonds and molasses, 
with a few drops of aniseed, for several nights in succession, 
not more than they will eat up clean, then add a tea spoon ml 
of carbonate of barytes to about a pound .of the paste. None 
of these ingredients are hurtful to people, in any reasonable 

Rats are passionately fond of fresh fish ; feed them on it for 
several nights in succession, then strew a little arsenic on the 
fish. But arsenic ought not to be brought into a dwelling ex- 
cept by a physician, and even then no more should be left 
than is presently taken. < 

Strychnine is the speediest and most effectual. But not 
more than one in a million could be trusted with it we fear. 
To that one we say, obtain two or three grains of strychnine, 
empty the paper containing it on two or three table spoons of 
meal or sugar or cheese, or minced meat, which has been 
strewn on a muddy piece of board, dried, stir and mix with a 
stick, and throw it in the fire on the spot, put the "board in the 
centre of the room, lock all the doors, put the keys in your 
pocket, the next morning the dead rats will be found on the 
floor, having been killed before they could reach their holes. 
Burn the block instantly, its having been soiled or made mud- 
dy would make it less likely to be touched by children. After 
mixing the poison and after burning the blocks wash the hands 
thoroughly in warm water with soap. 

■ :. ... 

< ■ 


Using round numbers, of the four hundred thousand persons 
who died in England during 1856, fifty thousand died of con- 
sumption, most of the victims being young women. Nearly 
another fifty thousand died equally, from inflammation of the 
lungs, and bronchitis. Thus in England, one person out of 
every four, dies of diseases of the lungs. 

Another clear fifty thousand, one out of every eight, died 
of diseases of the brain and nerves. 

One out of every sixteen, died of diseases of. the digestive 

Populaiory Calculations. 189 

It thus appears that ailments of the lungs first ; next of the 
brain and nerves : next of the stomach, are the great destroy- 
ers of the people in civilized life, in the most cultivated nation 
on the globe. 

About the same results are observed in the United States. 
Another classification might be made, carrying with it very 
instructive and admonitory suggestions. 

The diseases of the breathing organs arise from physical 
causes ; those from the brain and nerves are of a mental cha- 
racter ; while those from the stomach are merely animal. But 
whether these three great slayers of the race, the physical, 
the mental, the animal, are not controllable to a great extent, 
who can doubt ? Q 



If the United States maintains the rate of population of the 
last fifteen years, the- number of inhabitants for the year of 
grace nineteen hundred, will amount to one hundred and ten 
millions. If our country was as thickly settled as Russia, it 

would have 80,000,000 

As New England, ......... 123,000,000 

Middle States, . 170,000,000 

Prance, . . .... . . . . . . . . . . 500,000,000 

Great Britain, 660,000,000 

Belgium,. . ■ . . . 1,150,000,000 

But there are only a thousand million of people in the 
world now, hence there is room enough in the United States 
for all mankind ; and then it would not be as thickly settled 
as some countries in the old world. 

Reasoning from probabilities, it is not likely that any such 
rate of population will ever obtain on the surface of the earth, 
as all created material things, have within them, the elements 
of decay, to say nothing of war, famine, pestilence, and 

But there is a general calculation of the universal prevalence 
of the christian religion. The natural result of a true Christi- 
anity, is thrift ; and the physical result of thrift, is a decrease 
of population. So that we need not take the trouble, nor sub- 
ject ourselves to that most grievous of all self denials, of shaker- 

190 HalVs Journal of Health, 

ism, that is, to abstain from marriage. The slaves of our own 
country, (like the Israelites in bondage) are more prolific than 
their ".well-to-do" masters. Hard work promotes population ; 
besides, the offspring of the laboring classes are more likely 
to live, than of those who do not labor much. Few people, 
comparatively speaking, who work but moderately, raise more 
than three or four children. In short, the statistics of all 
countries, and of all times, show this broad fact, that personal 
ease does not promote population, as much as severe labor. 

One of the richest of Russian nobles was sent to Siberia 
many years ago ; his wife was allowed the great favor of ac- 
companying him ; they were childless, and had been married 
for years. Hard as their taskmasters w$re in that dreary 
waste of ice and snow, the wife soon became a mother, and 
finally had six healthy children. This is an isolated fact, illus- 
trating a great principle, that the less people have to work, 
the fewer children they will have ; and as Christianity promotes 
thrift, and moderations of views, the effect will be to counter- 
act any over-peopling ; in other words, the Almighty has con- 
stituted such a system of checks and balances in the govern- 
ment of the physical and moral universe, that there never can 
be a collision of interests, but universal harmony will prevail 
for unending ages. 

u • 



Sydenham, one of the most eminent physicians within three 
hundred years, says that on rising, he drank a cup or two of 
tea, then rode in his carriage until noon ; took meat in great 
moderation % for dinner, and wine after, then rode in his coach ; 
ate no supper, but drank beer instead, and in getting into bed 
drank wine. He died at the comparatively early age of sixty- 
five, having suffered from the gout for a quarter of a century. 

Sydenham practised medicine from observation, rather than 
books, and by his success, became the most eminent physician 
in England ; and yet, he was not observant enough as to him- 
self, to keep him from being a confirmed invalid, nor wise 
enough to know, that breakfasting on tea, and supping on beer, 
and bedding on wine, (and these alone) with a plentiful sup- 

Death Bate. 191 

ply of the latter for dinner also, was quite enough to give him, 
or any lx>dy else, the gout, and curtail human life. Had he 
lived on plain substantial food, eating twice a flay, and spent 
the hours of forenoon and afternoon on horseback, instead of 
riding at his ease in a carriage, he would, with great proba- 
bility, have lived in good health to the age of eighty years, 
without the tea, and wine and beer. 


Is the term given to the proportion of persons dying in one 
year, in a given number. The lowest death rate ascertained 
with any certainty in the world, is in the isolated islands of 
Earoe, where fifteen persons die annually out of every thou- 
sand. In New York, one of the most, if not the most sickly 
city in the world, the last reported year of 1857, gave twenty- 
three thousand three hundred and thirty-three deaths. Thus, 
at the usually estimated population of that year, thirty-one 
persons died out of every thousand ; more than double the 
mortality of the ignorant, thriftless and degraded Faroes. In 
the most notorious districts of England, the highest rate of 
mortality is thirty-six persons out of a thousand in one year. 
Whatever number of persons over fifteen die out of a thousand 
in a year, that is a mortality greater than ought to be. It 
therefore follows, that in New York city, which is more favor- 
ably situated for good drainage and cleanliness and ventilation 
than any other large city on the globe, two persons die where 
there ought to be only one ; and where there would be but one, 
if paid and sworn officials did their duty, and private people 
lived wisely. 


Much has been written on this subject of late, with less of 
fact than fiction. Some adulterations are positively beneficial, 
and the greater the adulteration the greater the benefit. — 
When a druggist puts twenty-five per cent; of flour, which 
costs three cents a pound, into his morphia, which sells at six- 
teen dollars a pound, not only he is benefitted by the adulter- 

192 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ation, but the person who swallows it ; on the principle, that 
the less medicine a man takes the better. • 

When a milkman puts one-eighth the nominal per centage 
of the pure Croton in each gallon of his swill stuff, who does 
not see that both seller and purchaser are benefitted. 

When the distiller adulterates his liquors with strychnine, 
and coculus indicus, and arsenic, with other poisons too tedious 
to mention, he is benefitted pecuniarily ; society morally ; and 
the drinker's friends and family socially ; for a drunkard is of 
no account, and the sooner he is killed off, the fewer sins he 
will have to answer for, and the sooner will society have a 
happy deliverance of the burden. 

The art of adulterating food is daily becoming more and 
more of a science in London ; and yet in London the average 
duration of human life is steadily increasing. These are the 
simple facts of the case, and we account for them in the good- 
ness and wisdom of that Power which made the world ; and 
destined man, his child, to live upon, and occupy, and conquer 
it. The human body is so contrived, that it can wonderfully 
adapt itself to the conditions under which it is placed, and be- 
comes in time capable of rendering itself invulnerable by nox- 
ious agencies. A large proportion of all the .medicines used 
lose their power, and become inert, by continued exhibition. 
Hence the expression employed millions of times, " it seemed 
to do me good at first." 

On the other hand, adulterations of food are most generally 
made with harmless articles, or those which are coarser. Milk 
is not. made injurious as food by having water mixed with it, 
nor coffee with having chickory. 

Therefore we invite our readers not to be particularly 
alarmed by statements made in the papers on the subject of 
the adulteration of food, more with a view of raising a sensa- 
tion and " the wind," at the same time. A great parade of 
learning and of scientific research is sometimes made with very 
little profit, yet as hurtful ingredients are sometimes mixed 
with our food and our drinks, we counsel those who are fond 
of being always on the safe side to bake their own bread and 
brew their own beer, and then they will have the satisfaction 
of knowing that they are eating bread made of flour instead of 

Food Adulterations, 193 

alum and saleratus; and drinking wine made of the pure juice 
of the grape, instead of boiled logwood. 

A still greater advance would be made in promoting the 
general health of the people, by the simplification of dishes. 
Let every dish be composed of a single article of food ; if it be 
of potatoes, let it be of potatoes and nothing else ; let rice be 
rice, and soup soup ; let every meat be fresh ; let every vege- 
table be perfect, ripe, recent; let every thing of the fish kind, 
especially in summer, be seen " a kicking" within the halt 
hour of cooking ; and let three articles of food, at any one 
meal, be the largest allowable variety ; for it is variety of food 
at each meal, which is the great tempter to excess in quantity ; 
the great founder of that dyspepsia which is the torment, 
greater or less, of half the people of any civilized nation. 

It will be a difficult matter for any person in ordinary good 
health to eat too much at a single meal made of two or three 
articles of food. It is worth trying. 

: _ ! 

• . . I j 


The men who worked in the Thames Tannel "suffered se- 
verely" by emaciation, low fevers, and even death, from 
breathing the deleterious gas of the place ; when, by the most 
critical chemical tests there was but one part of bad air to a 
hundred thousand. No wonder then, that the atmosphere of 
a celebrated hotel, several years ago, caused so much sickness 
and suffering and death, when it was proven that when the 
witness went into one of the privies under the same roof, the 
filth under the floor spirted up through the cracks, upon the 
ordinary pressure of the foot. This was one of the diseases, 
the very essence of which was filth ; and would never have 
had a place or a name, had there not been a putrifying air, 
and water, and more solid matter, to have given rise to it. A 
handful of charcoal, ignited in a small close room, will destroy 
the sleeper's life before morning. An atmosphere containing 
only two parts of carbonic acid gas in a hundred of common 
air, killed a puppy in two minutes and a half; and a dog, 
which breathed an atmosphere containing only a quarter of 
one per cent, of the same gas, died in ten hours. 

194: HalVs Journal of Health. 

Dull indeed must be the intellect which is not convinced 
by these facts/of the absolute necessity to health, of making 
it a constant study to secure the breathing of a pure atmos- 
phere during the hours of sleep and of quietude in the house 
during day light. 

The fire place should be always kept as open as possible in 
a sleeping room, both winter and summer. In winter, be- 
cause the carbonic acid gas which comes from the lungs du- 
ring respiration, and so small a proportion of which, as just 
shown, is destructive of animal life, is made heavy by the cold, 
and seeks the floor, when a slight draft from the cracks of the 
doors and windows, carries it up the chimney. 

The fireplace ought to be kept open in summer, because, 
while the colder air of the night without falls down the chim- 
ney by its greater weight, the rarified and impure air of the 
interior of the house is constantly rising and escaping. Thus 
it is, that in any chimney, where there is no fire, two cur- 
rents of air, in opposite states, are constantly passing, one up 
the other down. 

One of the best means of ventilating a sick chamber, where 
it may be considered not advisable to raise a window, is to 
open an inner door, and kindle a chip fire on the hearth for a 
few minutes in summer, or simply open the door, if it is fire- 
time of year. 


Nature every w T here abounds with remedial agents, but it 
often requires years, ages, centuries, for us to ascertain their 
aptitude, and the best mode of application. 

There are some persons who have so little life in them, so 
little recuperative power, that it requires a long time for the 
scratch of a pin to heal. Others have sores, which become 
80 sluggish, that they never heal over, but slowly increase, to 
the end of life ; this is frequently the case with the " sore leg" 
of old people. 

A French surgeon has been making experiments upon sores 
■and wounds of persons- of frail constitutions, and when every 
form of remedies failed, internal and external, the most en- 
couraging success has been found in causing a common hand 

Deadly Emanations. 195 

bellows to act on the part for fifteen minutes at a time, four 
times a day. The immediate effect was a feeling of refreshing 
coolness at the spot ; pain was moderated ; and the surface 
became paler, less angry, and by the next day, a crust began 
to form, ending in a cure. As there are cases where persons 
cannot bear internal medicines, while external applications are 
not unattended with danger, it may be well enough to know a 
mild, safe, efficient remedy always at hand, costing nothing. 


Persons descending wells, or caves,. or vaults, die speedily, 
not from any poisonous effect in the atmosphere of those 
places, they die because there is little or no oxygen in it, no 
nutriment for the lungs and blood ; it is upon the same princi- 
ple that a candle dies out if let down into such an atmosphere, 
the flame getting less and less bright, " burning blue" in pro- 
portion as the supply of oxygen is in course of exhaustion. 
It is in this connection, that vulgar minds have associated 
ghosts, and apparitions, and death, with a blue flame, whether 
in the candle, or in the fire place. 

Whether there is this innutritous air in a well, or cave, or 
vault, should be always previously determined, either by let- 
ting a candle down, or setting paper,; or shavings on fire, and 
throwing them in. 

If from neglecting these precautions a person faints away, 
the first best thing to do, while preparations are being made 
for removal, is to dash down buckets of cold water, this carries 
some oxygen, some pure air with it ; it also absorbs some of 
the deadly gas, and in the third place, by cooling the locality, 
the heaviest and most destructive gas condenses and falls to 
the surface, rests on the ground, thus allowing a purer air to 
take its place. < 


As the Fourth Avenue cars were carrying their four o'clock 
freight from Wall Street to the " regal region" about Union 
Square and Irving Place, a stranger next us, inquired with a 
foreign accent, the meaning of a funeral procession just pass- 

196 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ing ; "Death of Humboldt," replied a citizen. "Death- -of 
Humbug," solilloquized the stranger. Humbug dead in New 
York — Glory, Halleluyer !" But as if the news were too good 
to be true, and to assure himself, he made up to the keen- 
est looking man in the car, and with evident interest and sin- 
cerity inquired, \ Is that Humbug — Humbug dead ?" " Yes," 
said Jacob Little, (the gentleman addressed,) in a commisse- 
rating tone, with a look out of that twinkler not to match, 


To stand in the front door of a city car, while all dusty, per- 
spiring and begrimed, with the fumes of the filthy carcass 
blowing full in the faces of the thirty passengers in the rear. 

To open the window next you in a rail car, without con- 
sulting the convenience of the passenger behind you. 

To stop for conversation in the aisle or doorway of a church 
or other building, thus preventing the passage of dozens of 


Scientific American, New York, $2 a year, is the only publication 
of its kind which has ever succeeded in this country, and that success 
is such that its publishers have enlarged and otherwise improved it, 
at a cost of eight thousand dollars, without any increase of the sub- 
scription price. It is considered authority on what pertains to science 
and mechanics, and w r ell deserves it. 

Fruitless Preserves are said to be made by boiling a pint of mo- 
lasses about half an hour, then stir in rapidly three eggs, previously 
well beaten ; boil a few minutes longer, and season with lemon or 
nutmeg. ' 

UlackwoocTs Magazine, and the Four Quarterlies, WTitten for by 
the first scholars of Great Britain, are reprinted by Leonard Scott & 
Co.. 54 Gold Street, New York, at the low rate of $10 a year for the 

The Scalpel, for July, was not received, but is no doubt equal to 
any of its predecessors. $1 a year, quarterly, New York. 

Cool Nights begin to come in August, when persons living in chill 
and fever localities should sleep with the outer windows and doors 
closed, and not expose themselves to the early morning air untU 
breakfast has been taken. 

' ■ . 





• i ; — ! ! 

We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VL] SEPTEMBER, 1859. [No.. 9. 


Hugh Miller, one of the brightest lights of the nineteenth 
century, perished by his own hand. He ought to have lived 
for many years to come, to have enlightened and pleased the 
world by his writings. Having worked in the stone quarries 
for fifteen years as a common laborer, a strength of constitution 
and a capability of endurance were secured to him, which of 
themselves tended to a long life. In addition, his bodily frame 
was made to last He was of medium height, and unusually 
broad shouldered. An immense head on a long body, with 
very short legs, gave him a most ungainly appearance, which 
was not improved by immense tufts of red hair, and queerly 
notched whiskers. He had so broad a brogue that many of 
his own countrymen were sometimes puzzled to understand 
him. But the great mind of Scotland went prematurely out. 
His life was a life of glory, but he went down to the grave in 
a cloud. Both continents, in the person of their men of learn- 
ing, science and religion, with one accord yielded a willing 
homage to the stone quarrier of Comarty. But notwithstand- 
ing all that, " he died as the fool dieth," not in the calmness of 
christian serenity, but in a kind of delirium tremens, in a 
storm of devils of his own imagining. 

If these things are done in the green tree, what shall he done 
in the dry f If men of might, of mind, and of strong religious 
principle, after a quarter of a century of active and notable 
usefulness, make their bed in such a hell of mind as Hugh 


198 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Miller did, what guarantee have you or I reader that we too 
may not meet so sad a fate ? 

This suicide has struck the civilized world with amazement ; 
let us 'turn so loud a lesson to some useful account. "What 
brought him to the verge of self-destruction ? What impelled 
him to leap into the fearful chasm ? If we can find out, then 
may we avoid the causes and escape the terrible end. ■ The 
only true biographer is God. He chronicles all the striking 
points with a sternly impartial pen. Hugh Miller will in 
time be glorified according to the prevailing fashion. J3ut let 
us gather passing facts for use while we may; else time will 
obliterate them, and the world lose the benefit of them. All 
whole facts are of large value. 

Mr. Miller entered on literary life in good health and with 
a rugged constitution ; he lost them both, and died inglori- 
ously — by large suppees and late hours — that tells the whole 
story. He ate much, exercised little, slept less. These things 
persevered in, will kill any man. " He always made his sup- 
per the principal meal of the day," is the record made of him. 
" lie sat up till the morning hours, straining his mental facul- 
ties to the highest possible point," and with a brain thus on 
fire, laid down, not to sleep, but to troubled dreams and hor- 
rid visions ot the night. The morning tound him unrefreshed, 
haggard and uneasy; and with such a mind and such a body, 
he girded himself for another day's work. Under such cir- 
cumstances, the body and the brain were thrown into a state 
of " irritation" medically speaking, in consequence of which, 
the body was not rested by repose, the mind not calmed by 
sleep, until at length the power of sleep was lost, when mad- 
ness came, and always will! 

In previous numbers of the Journal, we have repeatedly 
advised persons that inability to sleep was a state of great 
danger ; that it preceded insanity, and that it was imperative 
under the circumstances that every thing like business or study 
should be instantly abandoned, at whatever sacrifice. For six 
or seven years Mr. Miller had been conscious of the deleteri- 
ous effects which continued efforts and anxieties were exerting 
on his own mind ; that they left him only half a man ; and 
to use his own words, " he could do only half work with dou- 

Disease and Suicide. 19^ 

hie toil." "When he engaged in literary employments, he 
worked with laborious special preparation, with' throes which 
tortured him during the process and then left him exhausted, 
the victim of nervous depression and irritation. At one* time 
he would sink into the deepest despondency, at another he 
would be the subject of terrific apprehensions. A friend once 
found him on the street armed like a bandit, and came very near 
being shot down. He usually slept with a loaded revolver at 
his pillow and a broad-bladed dagger near by, while at the 
head of his bed stood a huge claymore. He lived in such dread 
of the midnight robber, that these apprehensions became fix- 
ed, day and night, asleep or awake ; and so vivid did they 
become, that on the last night of his existence, they drove him 
from his bed in horror, and after writing the following note to 
his wife, he sent a bullet through his heart. 

" Dearest Lydia. 

My brain burns. I must have wa'Uted ; and a fearful dream rises 
upon me. I cannot bear the horrible, thought. God and Father of 
the Lord Jesus Christ have mercy upon me. Dearest Lydia, dear 
children farewell. My brain burns as the recollections grow. My 
dear wife, farewell. 

Hugh Miller." 

"What made a wreck of this great mind ? ninety-nine and a 
half out of a hundred will say it was " hard study," "close 
application," "over mental effort," "'excessive working of the 
brain." This is the judgment of charity: and the cloak of 
pity and commisseration is thrown over the whole transaction. 
But for the sake of avoiding so terrific a fate ourselves, let us 
look into some of the facts of the case in the light of acknow- 
ledged physiological truths, sending mere theory to the winds. 

The change from a life of bodily labor to one that is seden- 
tary is always attended with danger, and is seldom made with 
impunity. Under circumstances of daily out-door toil, the 
appetite for food acquires a momentum which carries it into 
weeks and months of student life. That is, the appetite for 
food is greater than the actual wants of the system. The per- 
son has been eating every day, laying in a store of aliment to 
repair its wastes and meet the next day's labor ; but the next 
day's labor was left off, and this store was not used. Thus, 
for a succession of days, the supply exceeds the demand. The 
instincts of the body, more sleepless than any earthly watch- 

200 HalVs Journal of Health. 

man's eye, exert all the energies of the constitution to work 
off this surplus, precisely as the faithful engineer keeps the 
machinery in motion to work off accumulating steam, although 
the vessel has ceased to move, otherwise an explosion is inevi- 
table. But suppose fire and water were steadily added, and 
the engine still kept in motion, the machinery would eventu- 
ally wear out in the natural course of events, and perhaps 
sooner than if it worked to purpose. 

' Thus it is in feeding a healthy body for purposes of daily 
labor. But suddenly ceasing the labor, yet feeding the body 
still, to the same extent as before, the powers of the constitu- 
tion are exerted in working off the surplus nutriment .; and if 
kept at it, will as certainly wear out as in mechanics. 

In the case of the bodily powers wearing themselves out in. 
this useless labor, several interesting phenomena are present- 
ed. The changes are more or less gradual. The stomach first 
begins to give out, as the brunt of the labor falls first on it. — 
It is called to digest thrice a day much more than is needed ; 
for a While it does its work, but soon begins to flag ; that mo- 
ment its work is imperfectly done, the material which it sup- 
plies, out of which the blood is to be made, is imperfect, and 
hence imperfect blood is an inevitable result. This blood 
nourishes the brain, out of it the brain is repaired, out of it 
the brain grows, out of it the brain is made, and as inevitably 
must become imperfect, or as we say, " diseased" by which 
we mean that it is unnatural in size, in condition, in function; 
either larger or smaller in bulk or weight than it ought to be, 
or of constituents not common to it in a healthful state. The 
brain itself, the organ of thought, being diseased, the results of 
its operations, that is the thoughts and the actions of the man 
must be diseased. Hence we said in a previous number that 
a dyspeptic man was fit to do nothing right, or more correctly 
speaking, a dyspeptic is unfit for any thing, for any public 
station, whether the pulpit, press or bench. Doctors bav'nt 
time to become dyspeptic, or if they have time, they hav'nt 
any thing to get dyspeptic on ; besides, they have too much 
sense to precipitate themselves into a disease which make such 
fools of men., 

There is a delirium tremens of over eating as w T ell as of over 
drinking. A penalty is attached to gormandizing alike to that 

Disease and Suicide. 201 

of drunkenness, although public opinion fondles the glutton 
and throws around him mild charity's most capacious mantle. 
But nature, the impartial judge, inflicts on both a like penal- 
ty. The terrible feature in delirium tremens is a horror of 
imaginary foes, of serpents, dogs and devils pursuing with re- 
lentless fury, or torturing with remorseless hate. !Not much 
different is it with an over eater — a dyspeptic. Imaginary 
terrors seize hold of them, fearful, horrible thoughts invade 
them. A gentleman suffering from aggravated dyspepsia once 
said to. us " Doctor, I would he ashamed to tell what thoughts 
1 have sometimes. I con afraid of myself ." 

The day before his death, Mr. Miller said to his physician, 
"my brain is giving way. I have had a dreadful night of it. 
I cannot face another such* I was impressed with the idea 
that my museum was attacked by robbers, and that I had got 
up, put on my clothes, and gone out with a loaded pistol to 
shoot them ; when I awoke in the morning I was trembling 
all over." 

A kind of nightmare had for some nights rendered sleep 
most miserable. A sense of vague and intense horror, with a 
conviction of being abroad in the night wind and dragged 
through places as if by some invisible power ! "Last night I 
felt as if I had been ridden by a witch for .fifty miles, and rose 
far more weary in mind and body than when I lay down." 

Such terrible things were not peculiar to the night, when 
darkness adds new horrors to a sufferer. He was alone in the 
dining room in the day time, when a servant entered to spread 
the table. His face presented such a picture of horror that 
she shrunk in terror from the sight. He flung himself on the 
sofa and buried his head in it as if in an agony. 

' His suppers were the principal meal of the day !" " Hours 
after midnight the light was seen to glimmer through hisstudy 
window." These last two statements were made in the " Wit- 
ness^ of which Mr. Miller had been. the editor, a day or two 
after his death ; and are no doubt literally correct. Under 
such circumstances, it may be truthfully said of him — - 

" Died of hearty suppers and late hours" 
And let all public men learn a life-saving lesson from the sad 
fate of the gifted, lamented and immortal Hugh Miller. 

In remonstrating with public men against certain habits of 

202 Hall's Journal of Health. 

life, we have been often met with the reply, which to the ut- 
terer seemed perfectly conclusive—" I am obliged to. I can't 
help it." Clergymen often feel thus, and sincerely too. Their 
whole hearts are in their work, and their great anxiety to have 
things go on smoothly, without a jar, often throws them into 
positions which seem to make their exposure imperative ; po- 
sitions into which they never would have been thrown, had 
there not been slackness on the part of others. To such we 
say — you are of some use now at all events, what account will 
you be if you are dead I The church needs you now. " A 
living dog is tetter than a dead lion" The great Head of the 
Church is not so poorly off, that he needs the sacrifice of your 
life to carry on the interests of His kingdom. To our mind it 
borders on extreme vanity ; is not short of high presumption 
for any man to suppose that the Almighty calls upon him to 
run the imminent risk of his life, let alone its sacrifice, to pro- 
mote His. interests. It would be more becoming to feel " He 
can do better without me than with me." The best men often 
feel that they are nothing more than " cumber ers of the 
ground /" in other words, that they are more in the way than 
any thing else. 

There is an amount of ignorance, recklessness and presump- 
tion on the part of clergymen sometimes, which demands un- 
sparing rebuke, as the result is loss of life occasionally, and 
very often the loss of valuable time, of months, years, and 
even the remainder of a long life. Look at the list of invalided 
clergymen among all denominations, going from the high of- 
fice of ambassador from the King of Kings, down to vulgar 
money making by teaching school, editing a religious news- 
paper, traveling with some rich man's son as tutor, becoming 
land brokers, penny-a-liners, and all that. We mean no dis- 
respect to these callings, but w r e do mean to say that it is a 
degradation for one who has been a minister of the gospel to 
follow any other calling. We know that it is a necessity in 
some instances, a pecuniary necessity; ill health making it 
impracticable for them to pursue their more legitimate busi- 
ness ; but the point we aim at is simply this — how came they 
to be disabled by ill health % There is nothing in severe study 
of itself to engender disease ; as witness the fact that some of 
the most inveterate students in this and other countries have 

Disease and /Suicide. 203 

good health through it all. Multitudes of names could be 
given of the most voluminous authors, who, beyond the seven- 
ties, lived in comparative health, with remarkable vigor of 
body and mind; such as Humboldt, and N"ott, and Silliman, 
and Benton and others, whose names the intelligent reader 
will readily recall. We know that as to the private lives of 
these men, and their compeers in science and literature, and 
politics, and religion, they were marked by temperance, mo- 
deration, system in all things. 

Thousands of men of equal mind and genius and promise 
with those we have named, never lived to meet the expecta- 
tions of their friends and country ; they went to their graves 
under the forties, the victims of gluttony or drunkenness, be- 
nevolently styled in their obituaries, heart disease, dyspepsia, 
neuralgia, sore throat and the like. Or, if instead of the dys- 
pepsia, spending its force in sick head ache, or neuralgia, or 
gout, or sore throat, or chronic diarrhoea, it vents its violence 
on the brain, as in the case of Hugh Miller, and ends in sui- 
cide — partial friends and sympathising editors with one. con- 
sent begin to make excuse saying — (see New Fork Observer, 
of May, 1S56, in an article headed, " Self -hilling not self-mur- 
der," suppressing names, italics our own.) 

" Self-Killing Not Self-Murder. — The late death of — Esq., 

in New York, by his own hand, under a derangement produced by 
too severe and unrelieved mental labor, has elicited the following feel- 
ing tribute from his brother, Rev. Dr. — ■ -, who, at the same time, 

shows that self-killing is not suicide, or self-murder in this case, be- 
cause not done in a responsible state of mind. He also draws a mo- 
ral, with regard to severe mental labor, especially among the young, 
which is worthy of reflection : 
" To the Editors of the New York Observer : 

" 1 have a duty to perform to the memory of a deceased brother 
It is a sad tale that 1 have to relate of the dead, but it is instructive 
and admonitory to the living. He was a counsellor at law in the 
city of New York, and never followed any other business than his 
profession. In early life, he nearly fell a victim to intense menial ap- 
plication. He w r as considered by his teachers a prodigy of learning 
when a mere child ; and when he quitted Yale College, he had made 
varied and extensive acquisitions, such as is not common for young 
men at his age to make. He entered upon the practice of law w r ith 
the same thirst of knowledge, and became learned in his profession. 

" He was an elegant scholar of refined taste, and had a mind amply 
stored with varied knowledge. He loved the study of botany, and 
collected and classified almost all the plants of our country ; and he 
was devoted to music. But the cultivation of his taste was ever held 

204: lialVs Journal of Health. 

subject to the advancement in his profession. He was pure and irre- 
proachable in his character, blameless in his life, retiring in his habits, 
and free from any moral blemish. He lived respected and loved by 
all who knew him. But severe toil in his profession broke down his 
health. He scarcely took any relaxation for three years past. Enjoin- 
ed by his physician* he recently went to Florida and botanized near 
the Everglades. He returned a week since, not benefitted. His phy- 
sician feared that fatal disease was upon him. His brain was affected 
U was thought, with a malady which is incurable., and which 
induces paroxysms of mental horror, anguish and despair. At other 
times he could attend to his ordinary business. He was in ray house 
during several of those paroxysms before he went south, and which 
arose, it was apprehended, from a tendency to softening of the brain. 

" On Sabbath last there were visible unmistakable evidences of men- 
tal aberration. He ought not to have been left alone. In the night 
lie arose from his bed, and was heard hastily pacing the floor, and while 
in a paroxysm of his disease his eye lighted on a weapon which he had 
purchased for his journey into the wild woods of Florida, he seized 
it, and instantly terminated his own life. His physician, one of the 
most able in his profession in the city, has written me as follows : 
After narrating the means he had recommended for his benefit, he says, 
' the malady seeming to be evidently on the increase, it was intended 
to propose means for careful watching on any marked mental derange- 
ment. Such derangement appeared sooner than was anticipated ; and 
while under the influence of a paroxysm of such derangement, and 
evidently without its being premeditated, he was permitted by an 
inscrutable Providence to be the agent of his own destruction.' 

"A coroner's inquest hastily assembled, without any proper inquiry 
into the state of his mind, and, without summoning his attending phy- 
sician, or his friends, gave an inquest of ' suicide from a pistol 
shot.' And it is now published over the country and the world, that 
my brother committed suicide. What a strange misnomer ! ' Sui- 
cide is self-murder, the act of designedly destroying one's life.' 'To 
commit suicide' says Blackstone, 'one must be of years of discretion 
and sound mind.' This is the only definition of the term. My bro- 
ther, when he died, was not of sound mind. He never contemplated, 
nor committed suicide. His act had no attribute of this crime, be- 
cause it proceeded not from a sound mind, but one diseased and utter- 
ly unhinged from its responsibility. Self-killing is not self-murder. 
There was no act of a conscious and intelligent self involved in the 
case, if my brother had shot the whole family, it would not have 
been murder. In his state of mind he could do no responsible act; 
and he was not guilty of self-murder. As well might it be claimed 
that one is responsible for being struck with lightning ; or for killing 
himself by falling in a fit of epilepsy. The hand of God took away his 
reason, and that was the fatal blow. 

" While on my way to • , the place of sepulture, I read the 

newspaper accounts, and then felt that I had another duty to perform 
than merely commit my brother to the dust. His friends received 
his body at the depot, and bore it to the church, where funeral services 
were performed, and then to the cemetery. This is a lovely spot, on 

Disease and Suicide. 205 

the eminence by the church overlooking the river, and the site of the 
Palisade Fort, constructed more than two centuries ago. When the 
coffin had been lowered to its rest, I stood forth, chief mourner that I 
was, and thanked the assembly for their kind attention ; and then 
narrated to them the history of my brother's life, labors and melan- 
choly death. I told them that I felt it to be due to him, and to the 
memory of his ancestors, among whose graves we stood, to bear my 
testimony to his unblemished life, and irreproachable character. He 
had never disgraced his parentage, nor the place of his birth. He was 
to rest in a grave amid those who had lived and died without reproach. 
His dust was to mingle with that of the worthies whom his maternal 
ancestor, six generations ago, had as their pastor, led through the wil- 
derness to become the first settlers of that town and of the State. 
His lather had for forty-six years ministered in the gospel to this gen- 
eration, and had succeeded in the pulpit which his father had left va- 
cant. My brother was to be buried by their side. And I could not 
bear that the citizens of our native town, on retiring from that spot 
should be told in the public prints that they had done honor to one 
who is unworthy. I do that intelligent and kind people no injustice 
when I say, that every heart seemed to respond to the propriety of 
my remarks, and that if tears give any expression of sympathy, those 
tears were not withheld. 

" There are lessons of wisdom contained in this brief narrative, to 
parents, students, and men of professional life. Three of my brothers 
— one a physician, one a clergyman, and another a lawyer — have gone 
to the grave in the midst of their years, under the severe and unmi- 
tigated toil of their professions. It will not do to give the mind no pro- 
per relaxation ; like a bent bow, it will snap when least expected. Nor 
should children of precocious intellect be urged on to become prodi- 
gies of learning. They should rather be diverted from their studies. 
Parents are not often aware of the danger. The brother whose un- 
timely death I mourn, had read the Bible through and aloud to his 
mother, before he was six years old and he had completely mastered 
the common school arithmteic for advanced scholars at the age of 
eight. It was this intense application of his useful mind which laid 
the foundation for his final melancholy end. 

" It seems but a few short years since we were all young and in our 
father's house. We never knew any differences. What one brother 
possessed all enjoyed. We were thus educated. We would have 
laid down lives for each other. William was the youngest and the 
favorite. He was always of a filial disposition, the kindest of bro- 
thers, and the most studious and faithful of men. We called him lit- 
tle Willie when a child. He was his mother's companion during the 
wearisome years of infirmity which preceded her decease. He prefer- 
red, with a book in his hand, to remain in her company ; and no in- 
ticement could induce him to leave her for the society of the children 
of his age, and to engage in their sports. Pie would always pluck for 
her the finest peach in the garden, the prettiest flower which lie could 
gather. I think I see him now, as was his usual custom, seated in his 
little chair, his Bible laid on another chair before him, and reading 
aloud to his mother in her sick room. 1 see the eye of that parent 

206 HalV-s Journal of Health. 

beaming with delight in view of the bright prospect opening before 
her darling child. Could such filial piety, she thought, ever go unre- 
warded ? That kind mother has long ago passed away, and that loved 
child now sleeps by her side." 

The above letter is full of instruction and warning, and 
■ought not to perish with a newspaper. The editors of the 
Observer join with their distinguished correspondent, the Rev. 

Dr. , in the effort to show that if a man kill himself in 

a state of mind induced by " too severe mental labor" it is not 
suicide. They aim to shield the memory of their friend from 
the imputation of " suicide," because a blot attaches itself to 
such an act the world over, we instinctively shrink aw Ay from 
it. When Hugh Miller perished similarly,- the same paper, 
dated January 22d, 1857, in an article headed " Overworking 
of the Brain" page 26, says— 

" And so by his own hand, in an hour of delirium, one of the no- 
blest sons of genius and learning and religion has perished. In our 
regret that in the midst of his days he came to such a melancholy 
end, we forget every thing in his published writings that might be 
supposed to lessen our respect for the man, while we remember him 
as the champion and eloquent historian of religious liberty, the pious 
student of God's out-of-door world, and the friend of human kind. 

" We would take his death as a text from which to offer a word of 
exhortation to ourselves and our friends on the sin and danger of over- 
working the brain. Hugh Miller was a victim to this vice. What is 
it but a crime against God and society, and one's family and one's self, 
.to task and whip and drive the brain to madness? Such cruelty to 
the limbs we denounce in glowing periods, and seek to draw the scorn 
of men upon its perpetrators. But men of business will pursue the 
world with intensity and restlessness, bolting their food in hot haste, 
planning and pushing twelve, fifteen, twenty hours a day, leaving little 
time for sleep, none for repose, and so it comes to pass that paralysis, 
consumption, brain fever, derangement cut off so many at the very 
time of life when they thought to be prepared to rest. 

" It is so and worse with men in professional life. They work their 
brains and nothing else. Hard at it, and always at it, studying, writ- 
ing, speaking, dreaming of the labors of the day when dreaming at 
all, they make themselves martyrs to their profession and verily think 
they are pleasing God by their diligence, when they are murdering 
themselves. To take an infinitesimal pill of poison daily so as to 
.commit suicide in ten years they would shrink from as blood guilti- 
ness. But to strain the nervous system beyond its nature, and thus 
gradually to undermine and ruin it, is a crime they commit* in spite 
of their daily prayer ' So teach us to number our days that we may 
apply our hearts unto wisdom.' 

"This is their folly and their sin. It was a sin in Hugh Milter to 
make himself a madman by overwork. It is a sin in any man no 

Disease and Suicide. 207 

matter what is his business or pursuit, to devote so much time and 
thought to it as to interfere with the enjoyment of present and future 
health. The laws of nature are the laws of God. They cannot be 
violated by rational beings, without sin and punishment. We have 
examples to warn us, furnished constantly in the circle of our own ac- 
quaintance, in the records of our newspapers, and the statistics of our 
Asylums. ' Therefore let him that .thinketh he standeth, take heed 
lest he fall.' " 

The above sentiments are so just and true that they are 
heartily commended to the mature consideration of all reflect- 
ing men. 

What were the causes which wrought such a total change 
in the sentiments of the paper between May of one year, and 
the succeeding January, it is not important to inquire, let it 
be laid to the "door of progress. 

We trust that the points of this article will not be forgotten. 

First — Suicide, self-killing or " slaying one's self," which is 
the literal meaning, is a crime against God and man under all 
conceivable circumstances. 

Second — It is no extenuation that the victim is mad or cra- 
zy or insane at the time, if he brought that condition of mind 
on himself by any sort of intemperance or self-indulgence 



If a man eats himself mad, or drinks himself mad, or yields 
himself to any other self-indulgence until madness takes place, 
and in such madness he murders himself, or somebody else, 
the murder so committed is a sin against humanity, and he 
who palliates it, is not himself guiltless. 

To all therefore we say, life is a talent. If you hide " it in 
a napkin," or loose it by ignorance or inattention, or throw it 
away by over indulgence in any animal appetite or passion, 
what account will you give to the Master when he makes re- 
quisition ? 


The Sabbath is the poor man's day as much as the Bible is 
the poor man's book, one stands by and sustains the other? 
while both befriend the weary worker of the world. Not a 
man lives, of any observation^ who is not conscious of a new 
alacrity for business on a Monday morning, when the Sabbath 
has been spent in rest, in quiet, and in temperance. 

208 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

It is a very plausible argument in behalf of the poor, and 
the working people of cities, that once a week at least, they 
ought to have facilities by steamboats, and rail cars, and other 
forms of conveyance, by which they could get into the coun- 
try and have a sight of the green trees, and breathe for a few 
moments the pure fresh air of heaven, and that it would 
be a humanity to open public parks to them near the large 
cities where they could peaceably walk in gardens, and wan- 
der among flowers, and gaze at paintings and statuary, and 
that cheap places of amusement and recreation should be open- 
ed for them, where they could enjoy themselves, and listen to 
elevating and refining music. These are the arguments used 
by a portion of the daily and weekly press of New York. It 
was in the advocacy of these things that a popular novelist 
made his great mistake, and ever since have calamities been 
coming on him, each or which has lowered his status, social 
and moral. The English government had the sagacity to see 
the falsity of such pleas, and resolutely refused to open the 
great public garden on the Sabbath, and license travelling to 
Sydenham pleasure grounds on that day. 

Here in New York, where every body is a sovereign, and 
claims the right to do as he pleases, denouncing every thing 
as a puritanical, prejudice which is contrary to his views, the 
experiment has been tried in various ways ; "sacred" concerts 
were announced from time to time on the Sabbath day. But 
it was soon found that they were patronized only by rowdies 
and beer drinkers, and they fell through. 

The other publicly advocated plan was, "let every rail-road 
and means of water communication to the country open fre- 
quent and cheap means of travel on Sundays. In this way a 
more healthy, moral and physical influence will be established, 
and our city purged of much of the riotous and ruinous de- 
bauch that now marks it on the Sabbath day. Let the good, 
the industrious, and the temperate be permitted to go forth, 
and hold converse with nature's charms." In less than a 
month the Sunday running boats were swarming from the 
city in every direction, when the same papers of the early 
Monday morning announced that " these ferry boats and Sun- 
day excursions are denounced as great nuisances by every one 
who has had any experience in the police force— -is the resort 

The Sabbath. 209 

of desperate characters, who literally swarm the place every 
Sunday, drinking, fighting and yelling while there, and while 
in the boats, both going and returning, so that the sheriff has 
enrolled an especial police to guard the citizens from the de- 
predations of these ruffians." 

One is the theory fabricated in an editors sanctum, the other 
is the comment made by that same editor when he became 
personally acquainted with the working of that theory. Thus 
it will always be that he who sets himself up to be wiser than 
the Bible, more liberal, more humane, more reasonable, will 
find himself mistaken. Be assured it is wisdom, it is health, 
it is thrift everywhere, to " remember the Sabbath day to keep 
it holy." 

Meanwhile, let all the good be thankful for the announcement 
of the Monday morning papers of July 11th, 1859, that 
whereas the usual number of Sunday arrests before each of the 
fourpolice courts for drunkenness has been from twenty to thirty, 
only about one dozen were taken up throughout the whole city, 
and nearly every dram shop was closed ; and all this by the 
quiet, forbearing, and firm enforcement of existing laws on 
the part of the " Sabbath committee" composed of men, who 
for intelligence, business standing, social position and wealth, 
are among the very first. As long as special legislation, and 
party management, and epithet, and sarcasm, and bravado 
were the weapons of reformers, not a step forward was made ; 
not only licensed liquor shops were opened on the Sabbath, 
but thousands boldly sold it on that day in defiance of law or 
license. But when a move was made for the suppression of 
the liquor traffic, and the better observance of the Sabbath day 
by gentlemen using gentlemanly means, respecting themselves 
and others likewise, courteously showing their rights, proving 
them, and in a firm and dignified manner insisting that those 
should be respected, see the change as to efficiency ! and 
let it be a lesson for learning well, by all reformers of all times 
to come in proportion as they desire and hope for success. 


Some persons have an ugly habit of jerking out the little hairs 
growing inside the nostrils ; the surface from which they grow 

210 Hall's Journal of Health. 

is exceedingly sensitive, and the slightest touch of one of them 
causes an itching or a tittilation, which is quite sure to arrest the 
attention, and thus an effectual guard is placed against insects 
and worms crawling in during sleep. 

In addition, each individual hair resist the passage of air, 
and altogether they make a valuable respiratior by detaining 
the very cold air from rushing into the lungs, the fruitfnrcause 
of deadly pneumonias (inflammation of the lungs.) And more 
than all, being so near the gristle, the skin has very little vi- 
tality, very little power of healing, and if this healing is baf- 
fled at too short intervals by the tearing away of these hairs, 
that power is soon lost, and a cancerous sore is the result. 

Some persons are deluded into the belief that drawing wa- 
ter up through the nose to wash it out is beneficial ; it can only 
result in clearing off that bland fluid which nature throws out 
for the lubrication of the parts, an.d to prevent their becoming 
dry by the constant passage of the air over them ; all are fa- 
miliar with that uncomfortable dryness in a common cold. 
The purest water has great harshness compared with the soft 
fluids which nature manufactures for her own purposes. 

Bleeding from the nose, when spontaneous, should in almost all 
cases be let alone. It is an effort of nature to relieve herself 
of internal congestions, of a surplus of blood, often giving in- 
stantaneous and grateful relief from headache and other ail- 
ments. A teaspoonful of blood from the nose has prevented 
many a fatal attack of apoplexy ; hence a nose bleeding is 
sometimes the safety valve of life. 

We once saw an infant apparently dying from an over-dose 
of paregoric, .given by an ignorant mother to keep it quiet 
while travelling in a stage-coach, but by the gushing of blood 
from the nose, it at once revived and was saved. 

It is time enough to interfere with a bleeding from the. nose 
when a tablespoonful has dropped, or when it is seen to come 
out in a continous stream ; then the patient should sit upright, 
and have cold water poured on the head, or a cushion of fine 
ice kept over the whole scalp; if more is needed, snuff up 
powdered alum, or alum-water, or the fine dust from a tea- 
canister, or the scrapings of the inside of tanned leather. A 
spontaneous bleeding at the nose is nature declaring that there 
is too much blood in the body ; then, not an atom of food 
should be eaten for twenty-four hours. 

j^ reservation of Food. 211 


It is the common air which sustains the life of all that 
breathes or grows, hut when breath and growth cease, that 
same air is the agent of destruction, and reduces all to ashes 
and dust. But in proportion as we can successfully exclude 
the common air from anything which has parted with life, 
whether animal or vegetable, it maybe indefinitely preserved. 
Meat begins to decompose after a few hours exposure to a 
warm sun, but human ingenuity has devised means for keeping 
it fresh for weeks, and months, and years even in warm climates. 
Milk begins to decompose within an hour after it is drawn 
from the cow, but the genius of Gail Borden has laid New 
York under contribution by supplying it with a concentrated 
article which maintains its freshness for weeks, and even 
months. This gentleman is also the unacknowledged instru- 
ment in the preservation of Dr. Kane and his men, on their 
mission of humanity for Sir John Franklin, for they were res- 
cued from imminent starvation by food prepared by a process of 
his own devising. It is not known whether he is still pushing 
his experiments in that direction, but it is very certain if gov- 
ernment had extended to him a modicum of the moral coun- 
tenance and material aid bestowed on experiments in the con- 
struction of murderous fire arms, humanity might have been 
benefited to an incalculably greater extent. 

The secret of the success of the self-sealing cans in preserv- 
ing fruits, berries and vegetables, lies in the perfection and 
handiness with which common air is excluded. Yet, after all. 
they are but a questionable improvement of the plan of out- 
grandmothers, who used to fill common bottles with the desir- 
ed fruit, then pouring in hot syrup to fill up the interstices, the 
cork was put in loosely, and the whole placed in boiling water 
for a minute or two ; the cork was then driven home, the bot- 
tles placed neck downwards in a trench, in the earth, in the 
cellar, covered over and let alone for use in after months or 

Sir- John Ross states that a tin case of preserved beef was 
landed from the " Fury" in August, 1825, and taken by him 
in July, 1833. This case he presented to a friend several years 
later, and in April 1859, it was opened at a bachelor's party. 

213 UalVs Journal of Health. 

u Along with the entrees came the contents of the tin case of 
boiled beef, which proved to be as sweet and fresh, and con- 
taining as much nourishment as it formerly did, when carried 
to the Arctic regions in the unfortunate Fury, in 1825." 
Taking this statement as true, and there is no reason to doubt 
it, food carefully put up, can be preserved thirty -four years. 

The old time plan of bottles buried, is safer and better than 
any other for the preservation of fruits, and berries for domes- 
tic use. Tin cans, and glazed crockery are liable to be acted 
on by the acid of fruits and berries, so as to produce poisonous 
effects, but glass is indestructible by such chemical agents, it 
is cheap, and can be had anywhere ; besides, it is more readi- 
ly and more perfectly cleaned, and the mode of preparation is 
simple and easy. 

Those who prefer to use the patent self-sealing cans or jars, 
should give the glass ones the preference ; next, the glazed 
stone ware ; and tin, last. It would greatly promote the 
health and comfort of families, if bushels of fruits and berries, 
and tomatoes were put up for winter use, instead of quarts 
and gallons ; not in the costly and laborious method of old 
time "preserving," but on the more simple plan of the present 
day, by which they can be preserved in their nearly natural 
state, little or no sweetening being required. 


These are diarrhoeas, dysenteries, and fevers. Diarrhoea is 
when the evacuations are thin, frequent and weakening. 
Dysentery is when there is blood in the discharges, accom- 
panied with a distressing straining without accomplishing any^ 
thing, called " tormina and tenesmus" by physicians. Fever 
needs no description. 

Diarrhoea, dysentery, fever and ague, bilious fever, con- 
gestive fever, typhoid fever, yellow fever, are all one and the 
same disease, in the opinion of many eminent physicians, dif- 
fering only in degree, « commencing with diarrhoea; this 
appears earliest in the season, and attacks those who are the 
weakliest, or are most susceptible of disease. 

Those who have a stronger constitution hold out longer, but 

Autumnal Diseases. 213 

the causes of disease being still and steadily in operation, their 
effects are. concentrated, and at last manifest themselves in 
the more aggravated form of dysentery in September. 

In October, bilious fevers become the ruling disease. 

Persons still more robust, who hold out until November, 
fall under the terrible congestive chill or typhoid fever, to 
perish within a few days. , 

Yellow fever is the result of a more rapid generation of the 
causes of these ailments, and in a more concentrated or viru- 
lent form, but-being more speedy in its manifestations, is not, 
in proportion to the number of persons attacked, as certainly 
deadly as fevers of the typhoid or congestive type ; hence yel- 
low levers begin in July and August. 

Multitudes of lives would be saved every fall, if the people 
could be induced to give the subject a little examination, and 
follow it up by the timely observance of a few precautions. 

These ailments arise from the decomposition of vegetable 
matter, requiring however 'three conditions. 

There must be vegetable matter. 

There must be moisture. 

There must be heat. : 

When these three conditions meet, a gas is always the re- 
sult; that gas is called miasm, which means an emanation, 
hut it is an emanation of a particular kind — it is that which 
arises from decaying vegetation alone. The emanations from 
other things, as a carrion, or a sulphur spring, or privy, are 
denominated malaria-^&imply " bad air." 

Miasm, the destructive emanation from decaying vegeta- 
tion, as wood, leaves, weeds and the like, has one marked dis- 
tinctive feature, although a negative one, it has no smell ; it 
is unseen and unfelt ; chemistry with all its power cannot de- 
tect its presence. 

But worse than all this, while the carrion drives us with a 
power from its neighborhood, miasm not only gives no intima- 
tion of its deadly presence, but comes in an atmosphere so cool 
and so delightfully refreshing, that the temptation to indulge 
in taking in delicious draughts is as irresistible as the luscious- 
ness of yielding to sleep on the point of being frozen to death. 

But here is an apparent contradiction. It is apparent only. 
Investigation not only confirms the statements, but points out 
the path of safety, uniform, and infallible. 

214: HalVs Journal of Health, 

Miasm is generated by heat of over eighty degrees Fahren- 
heit, but this so rarifies the atmosphere, that it shoots up into 
the sky as instantly as an inflated balloon, and as long as the 
weather continues hot, it is kept among the clouds. 

But the cool nights of the fall condense this atmosphere, by 
which condensation, it descends at sun down to the surface of 
the earth, where it is breathed until the weather becomes 
warm enough next day to carry it up again. Hence the popu- 
lar prejudice against night air. 

The Roman authorities do not station officials to caution 
travellers against stopping in the Campagna during the day 
time, but in the night, when its swamps are reeking with dis- 
ease and death. 

For the same reason forty years ago the Charleston mer- 
chants in summer were not afraid to ride to the city at mid- 
day and transact their business, but a night's rest there was al- 
most certain death. 

But not to make this article too long for universal quotation 
which ought to be accorded to it, it suffices to point out its 
practicalities in all places where autumnal diseases prevail, es- 
pecially if they are epidemic. 

1. Sleep with the outer doors and windows closed, especial- 
ly if the chamber is on the first floor or story, or even second. 
This keeps the atmosphere of the room so warm, that the mi- 
asm is kept at the ceiling. 

2. Take supper at sun-down, and breakfast at day-light, or 
at least before leaving the house in the morning, even to go 
outside of the door, or to sit at an open window ; this has the 
effect to prevent the stomach from absorbing the deadly mi- 
asm, as it is pre-occupied by taking something more material 
and substantial. No doubt the Dutch custom of eating break- 
fast by day-light, and of the Creole, that is the native popula- 
tion of Louisiana, taking their coffee in bed, were founded on 
observations in this connection without knowing the reason. 

3. If a fire is kindled in every dwelling at sun-down, and 
sun-rise, and the family sit in the same room until bed time, 
with all outer doors and windows closed, and kept closed du- 
ring the night, all autumnal diseases, as epidemics, would be* 
come impossible of occurrence, because it would be contrary 
to physical law. 

Clerical Mortuary. 215 

4. A large lump of ice suspended in a sleeper's room, so as 
to keep the air at the level of his breathing, at seventy-five 
degrees, would be equally effective in this regard, because mi- 
asm cannot be held in solution in an atmosphere of that tem- 
perature. It would as it were, be precipitated to the floor ol 
the room, as we know carbonic acid gas is thrown to the floor 
by a certain degree of cold. 

It is greatly to be regretted that these things are not more 
thoroughly known among physicians, as well as the people, 
for practical and rational attention to them, would avert an 
incalculable amount of human suffering. 


The lowest certainly ascertained death rate in the world, is 
fifteen annually out of every thousand ; the highest is more 
than double, and is found in the most notorious districts in 
England, being thirty-six out of every thousand. 

Of the twenty-five hundred ministers belonging to the Old 
School Presbyterian body in May, 1858, thirty-one died with- 
in the year following, making their death rate twelve and a 
half, or one-sixth lower than the most favored people known 
on the earth, as to health. 

There is not in this wide Union of States a better educated, 
a more active, energetic, and indomitable class of workers 
than the Presbyterian clergy, while their average salaries are 
less than almost any others known, less than that of Methodist 
preachers. The ligitimate inference is, that piety, a high grade 
of mental culture, a steady activity in the discharge of minis- 
terial duties, combine to produce the greatest ascertained ex- 
emption from death on the globe : and it cannot be doubted 
by the reasonable and unprejudiced, that if they were more 
liberally paid, and thus had more leisure for the prosecution 
of their legitimate duties, their death rate would be diminish- 
ed to a lower figure still, by reason of that exemption from 
the hurries, the exposures, the over efforts, and the wearing 
solicitudes which a meagre sustension necessarily imposes on 
all sensitive, educated, and conscientious minds. 

216 HalVs Journal of Health. 


A gentleman from Minnesota assures us that for four five 
years, he and all his family have drank most freely of- ice wa- 
ter all the year rounds without any noticeable inconvenience, 
enjoying the meanwhile, excellent health. 

We advise all persons to avoid drinking ice water at all 
times, because — First, many have fallen dead from drinking 
pump or spring water freely while in a heat, and we chose in 
the pages of the Journal of Health, to be on the safe side al- 
ways, if possible. Second: If is known by ocular proof on 
the part of scientific men, that the process of digestion in the 
stomach is arrested on the very instant of cold water being 
taken into it, and that" that process is not resumed, until 
enough heat has been taken from the general system, to raise 
the water from thirty-two or more degrees, up to one hundred. 
In the case of feeble persons, this would require an hour or 
more ; where there was not power enough for re-action, the 
person has arisen from the table in a chill, ending fatally. 

Within a few weeks, General Bruat, while leading a part of 
the French army into Italy, all heated with the effort of climb- 
ing the mountain, drank down a glass of mow water, and fell 
as if he had been stricken by a shot, dying at the instant. 

If any of this ice water family are living in sound health 
fifty years hence, with their present. drinking habits continued 
in the meanwhile, it may be a valuable practical fact. Some 
people have survived bullets, rail car collisions,, and the blow- 
ing up of steamboats. No one rule is suitable for all. We 
aim to give advice applicable to the great majority of the people, 
advice founded on observations extended, and repeated, and 
testified to by competent and reliable men.. We hope never 
to give advice on single cases, or possibilities, or conjectures, 
or " may be's." Nor will we knowingly put any of our read- 
ers on an experimental course. We will aim hereafter as here- 
tofore, to deal only in the known, the corroborated and the safe. 

— ■ ^ i 


About a hundred years ago, a merchant's son concluded to 
marry. He had knocked around the world a good deal, had 

Just About Bight. 217 

lived in boarding houses, and by looking and thinking, had 
learned something of every day domestic life. One of the 
lessons was, that quite a large number of the jarrings of the 
married state of some, arose from circumstances of the most 
trivial character, in consequence of each party wanting to have 
its own way. So with mercantile exactness, he entered into 
an agreement with his affianced, that when they were mar- 
ried, in all matters in which a difference of opinion arose-, his 
voice should rule. "Henceforth their lives were not two, but 
one. Their minds were nicely fitted to each other. They 
worked harmoniously together." This gentleman was a doc- 
tor theoretically, for he took more delight in the study of med- 
icine than anything else. By what means he was led to devise 
this " compound" cannot now be known, but, like most valu- 
able medicines, it certainly would be " hard to take," a most 
unwelcome dose to modern belles, even with the u bonus" of a 
large fortune, and social position. But a bargain is a< bargain 
with all honest minds, and in this case, it was faithfully adhered 
to by both parties, and the historian relates — u The union 
was perfectly happy." The union of Henrietta Leeds, with 
John Howard, of immortal memory. 

___ . _ 


Multitudes of lives are lost by ignorance of the nature 
of simple diseases at their first appearance. Few know the 
essential difference between diarrhoea, which is ordinarily a tri- 
vial disease, and dysentery, which is often a speedily fatal 

Diarrhoeal discharges always afford a feeling of relief, with- 
out pain necessarily, or blood. Dysentery, on the contrary, 
is always attended with painful gripings, with distressing and 
ineffectual straining, and more or less blood. 

In dysentery, too much <blood is thrown in upon the bowels, 
and nature attempts to relieve herself by passing it off. If 
she is interfered with, and the mouths of the little tubes which 
are throwing off the blood are suddenly closed up by styptics, 
such as alum, or sugar of lead, or logwood and the like, or by 
opiates in any form, which, in effect, operate in the same way, 

HalVs Journal of Health. 

fji the blood takes another direction and goes to the brain, 
oppresses it, weighing down all the powers of life, and there 
is delirium, stupor, death. These are vital facts, known to all 
educated physicians, and yet the very first effort made in the 
cure of dysentery is to stop the blood, and its diminution is 
considered encouraging by the ignorant. There is intolerable 
heat and thirst in dysentery ; this heat extends from the tip 
of the tongue all through the body ; this attracts more blood, 
just as a mustard plaster attracts blood. The true cure is to 
cool the internal surface of the bowels, and nature calls ra- 
venously for this cooling; yet every swallow of ice water in- 
creases the pain, but ice broken up in pieces small enough to 
be swallowed whole, and taken to the fullest desire and capa- 
city of the patient, cools off the inner surface of the intestinal 
canal, just as certainly as small lumps of ice constantly placed 
on a red hot iron surface, will at length cool it. As an ali- 
ment, raw beef in the shape of mince-meat, given in quanti- 
ties of two table-spoon fulls four times a day, at equal inter- 
vals, facilitates the cure, while it sustains the patient. These 
things are advised as domestic expedients, only im til a phy- 
sician can be had. 

Dysentery is very generally caused by a sudden cooling of 
the skin, especially after exercise; or in weakly persons a sud- 
den change in the weather is all sufficient, particularly when 
with a greater coolness there is a raw dampness in the atmos- 
phere. Thus it is that this serious ailment is so common in 
the fall of the year ; mid-day being hot, and the cool nights 
closing abruptly the pores of the skin, which the heats of 
the day had relaxed. The best preventives are wearing woolen 
flannel shirts, and having fires kindled in the family room at 
sundown, especially in valley situations, and those otherwise 
damp, beginning these on the first cool night of the fall. 


Within our memory this vegetable was considered a mere 
ornament for the mantelpiece and a pretty plaything for the 
children. We grew to manhood and never saw it on our 
father's table — nor onions — yet the onion is one of the most 

Bad Tuns. 

nutritious vegetables which springs from the earth, while the 
tomato has become an almost universal edible; it is equally 
palatable whether raw, cooked, or preserved, and has the re- 
putation of being the most harmless and healthful of all the 
articles sold by the green-grocer, from August until frost. 

The Working Farmer says of the tomato plant, that it 
" bears eighty per cent, of its fruit within eighteen inches of 
the ground, while more than half of the plant is above that 
part. When the branches are cut they do not bleed, and they 
may therefore be . shortened in immediately above the large 
or early setting fruit. — The removal of the small fruit on the 
ends of the branches is no loss, for the lower fruit will swell 
to an unusual size by the trimming, and both a greater weight 
and measure of fruit will be the consequence, beside obtain- 
ing a larger portion five to fifteen days earlier. The trimming 
should be so done as to leave a few leaves beyond the fruit, 
to insure perfect ripening. When tomatoes are first brought 
to market, they bring frequently four dollars per basket, and 
in ten days fall in price to fifty cents. The importance of 
early maturing is too evident to need comment. The burying 
of the removed portions immediately around the plant is a 
good practice, both by insuring full disturbance of the soil, 
and by the presenting a fertilizer progressed precisely to the 
point of fruit-making. The portions buried decay rapidly .. 
and are readily assimilated. 


It is a bad plan to sleep in the day-time, it prevents refresh 
ing sleep at night. 

It is a bad plan to eat, " to make it even." 

It is a bad plan to spit, or blow your nose on the side walk, 
it nauseates the passer-by, and may cause a broken limb. 

It is a bad plan to run away from trouble, "face the music" 
bravely, and it will be largely shorn of its tall proportions. 

It is a bad plan to eat when you are not hungry, for thereby 
you waste food, and bring suffering to yourself. 

It is a bad plan to be always taking medicine, such persons 
are never well. 

It is a bad plan for unprofessional people to read medical 
books, it first befogs and then befools. 

It is a bad plan to begin the day ix a fret, for it will be a 
day of happiness lost. 

It is a bad plan to consult divers doctors at one time. 

It is a bad plan to ride, when you could just as well walk. 

HalVs Journal of Health. 


Webster' 's Dictionary. — The editor of Hbrne Tooke*s Diversions 
of Purley, (London ■: Tegg . & Go., 1857) in his additional notes to 
that work says that Dr. Webster's Dictionary is much superior to 
"every English Dictionary that has yet appeared ; in which whilst 
abundance of valuable etymological inforination is supplied, fidelity 
and . accuracy in recording the meanings according to actual usage is 
not sacrificed in order to accomodate them to a pre-eonceived system 
or to etymological conjecture. . 

Scholars will be glad to learn that Messrs. George and Charles 
Merriam, of Springfield, Mass., have directed, their efforts steadily 
towards making 'Webster's Unabridged Dictionary all that a scho- 
lar could desire it, and have just issued a new edition of Webster's 
Unabridged Dictionary, containing one thousand five hundred pictorial 
illustrations, beautifully executed. Nine thousand to ten thousand 
new words in the vocabulary. Table of synonyms, by Prof. Good- 
rich, in which more than two thousand words are' carefully discrimi- 
nated, forming a fuller work on English synonyms of itself,, than any 
other issued, besides Crabb, and believed in advance of that, table 
giving pronunciation of names Of eight thousand distinguished persons 
of modern times, peculiar use of words and terms in the Bible, with 
other new features, together with all the matter of previous editions. 
In one volume of one thousand seven hundred and fifty papes. Price, 
$6 50. • 

Specimen pages of illustrations and other new features will be sent 
on application to the publishers, ■ , .-.; '■:'. 

An English edition of Webster's dictionary appeared with the pic- 
torial illustrations ten years since. 

Prof. Goodrich first introduced the feature of synonyms in this 
country in connection with a popular dictionary, in Webster's octavo 
in 1847. 

No other English dictionary ever contained or announced as to is- 
sue, a table giving pronunciation of names of persons, until after the 
above announcement. 

Our readers will remember that all the words of disputed orthog- 
raphy in Webster's dictionary number only forty-two out of ninety 
thousand. Six millions of text books in our public schools, and a large 
proportion of the issues of the American press are according to Web- 
ster's spelling, and. are daily and hourly familiarizing both the eye and 
the mind of the people to Webster's orthography, and there is but lit 
tie doubt of its superseding all others. 

" Woman's home book of Health" by John S. Wilson, of Columbus 
Geogia, is a forthcoming work intended for mothers and families, with 
a chapter on the management of infants. If Dr. Wilson succeeds in 
teaching any considerable number of young mothers how to take a 
wise and humane care of the innocents committed to 'their charge, he 
will be one of the greatest benefactors of the age, for he will prevent 
a larger amount of human suffering and premature death, than can 
readily be computed. 

The Presbytery Reporter, and Presbyterian Expositor, both of Chi- 
cago, Godet/s Lady Book and Dixon's Scalpel; have failed to reach us. 
The Ladles Home Magazine, of Philadelphia, The Happy Home of 
Boston, The Home Monthly and Mrs. Day's.i/0o» mcm > of San Fran- 
cisco, an excellent nunmber for July are received. 





We aim to shoio how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] - OCTOBER, 1859. [No. 10. 

- - - . ■ n i ■ 

- - - FUEL. 

"Wood is the healthiest, because it contains a large amount of 
oxygen ; coal has none, hence, in burning it, the oxygen ne- 
cessary for its combustion must be supplied from the air o^ 
the room, leaving it " close," oppressive. 

A coal fire will go out unless it has a constant and large 
supply of air,* while wood, with comparatively little, having a 
large supply within itself, turns to ■" live "coals. 

Close-grained heavy woods, like hickory and oak, give out 
the most heat ; while pine and poplar, being open-grained, 
heat up- the quickest. " 

The value of fuel as a heating material, is determined by 
the amount of water which a pound will raise to a given tem- 
perature ; thus, one pound of wood will convert forty pounds 
of ice to boiling water, while a pound of coal will thus heat 
near eighty pounds of ice cold water ; hence, pound for pound, 
coal is as good again as wood for mere heating purposes, and 
wood is as good again as peat, which is the product of sedges, 
seeds, rushes, mosses, &c. 

But, if a ton of coal, that is, twenty-eight bushels, or 
twenty-two hundred and forty pounds, costs five dollars, it is 
about equal to the best wood at two dollars and a quarter a 
cord. Coal, at twelve dollars and a half a ton, is as cheap as 
wood at five dollars and a half a cord. It would be more 
equitable, if wood was dry, to sell it by the pound. Such is 
the custom in France. 


HalVs Journal of Health, 

A certain amount of wood, giving out a hundred degrees of 
heat, the relative value in this country is as follows : , 

Shell-bark Hickory, 



Apple Tree, - - - 

- 70 

Pig-nut Hickory, 




Ash, White, - - - 

- 77 

White Oak, - - 




Beach, White, - - 

- 65 

White Ash, - - 




Birch, Black, - - 

- 62 

Dog Wood, - - 




Birch, White, - - 

- 48 

Scrub Oak, - - 


Butter-Nut, - - - 


- 56 

White Hazel, - 




Cedar, Eed, - 

Apple Tree, • - 




Cherry, Wild, - - 

- 55 

Eed Oak, - - 




Chesnut, - - - - 

- 52 

White Beech, - 




Dog Wood, - - - 

- 75 

Black Walnut, - 




Elm, White, - - - 

- 58 

Black Birch, - - 




Hazel, White - - 

- 72 

Yellow Oak, - - 



Hickory, Pig-Nut, - 

- 95 

Hard Maple, - - 


Hickory, Shell Bark 

- 100 

White Elm, - \ 




Maple, Hard, - - 

- 59 

Eed Cedar, - - 




Oak, Eed, - - - 

- 69 

Wild Cherry, - 




Oak, Scrub, - - - 

- 73 

Yellow Pine, 




. Oak, White, - . - 

- 84 

Chesnut, - - ^ 


Oak, Yellow, - - 
Pine, White, ■: - 

- 60 

Yellow Poplar, - 




- 42 

Butter Nut, - - 




Pine, Yellow, - - 

- 54 

White Birch, - 




Poplar, Yellow, 

- 52 

White Pine, - - 

■ ■ 


Walnut, Black, - - 

- 65 

A cord of wood measures eight feet long, four feet broad, 
and four feet high. A short ton (2,000 lbs.) of anthracite coal 
will till a box or bin, level full, containing thirty-four and a 
half feet cubical. A legal ton calls for forty feet. The length, 
breadth, and depth of a box or bin, multiplied together, and 
the product divided by two thousand, or twenty-two hundred 
and forty, gives the contents in tons. 

One pound of coal will do as much work as a strong man in 
a given time. 

An ocean steamer consumes five thousand pounds of coal 
in one hour, hence, it would require five thousand men to 
move a steamship as fast and far as it usually moves in an 

A steamship will consume more coal in one day than a 

Corn Cobs. 223 

large family will in a year, or than will supply an ordin ary 
fire for ten years. But, a kind and wise Providence has, with a 
a magnificent liberality acted towards us, in that there is more 
coal in the United States, by many millions of tons, than there 
is in Great Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, and 
British North America together — as far as yet discovered. 
Missouri alone, is estimated to be able to furnish a hundred 
millions of tons of coal every year for more than a thousand 
years to come. London consumes a million and a half of 
tons a year; hence, the State of Missouri alone could supply 
more than sixty such cities as London every year with the 
coal necessary to warm all their dwellings, and drive all their 

And what is coal, that lights our streets and warms our 
dwellings, and is the power behind the throne of— steam ? It 
is preserved sunshine ; for, without sunshine, there can be no 
vegetation, and coal is the product of vegetation ; that is, 
vegetable matter, subject to great pressure, is thereby, in the 
long process of ages, converted into coal— just as we see it. 
Thus, the sunshine, in the shape of its caloric, its heat, of the 
myriads of ages which may have passed when man was not, 
was not lost, but was gathered, as it were, and condensed and 
preserved beforehand, that when he came, he might abun- 
dantly use it to happify and elevate the race, and develope 
its power ; so that nothing is wasted, not even the sunshine* 
and " God is Love." 


Some fourteen years ago, while passing along the street, we 
stepped into a gentleman's furnishing store to inquire for a 
large umbrella. The stock was small and there were none of 
even medium size. We excused ourselves from a purchase, 
saying they were not quite as large as we desired. 

"They are not large enough for a whole family, " responded 
the storekeeper. Such a reply did not dispose us to trade ; so 
we passed on and obtained one to our liking, which we have 
to this day, doing good service, with occasional recoverings. 

This man was a " Corn Cob" too rough to deal with ; and, 
during a residence of seven or eight years afterwards, passing 

224 HalVs Journal of Health, 

his fine assortment daily, we never entered his store hgain, 
not choosing to put ourselves in the -way of an incivility. 

A popular old Quaker, in the long course of years, main- 
tained a large Custom in Philadelphia, and grew very rich 
without parade or show, or any indication of being in a 
hurry; others were constantly changing their customers, but 
the same class of persons, through changing times, stuck to 
him. It seemed that if a citizen ever made a purchase of him 
once, he always found his way back again. On being inquired 
of one day as to what he attributed his extraordinary success, 
he replied " Civility, Civility." 

His articles were always good, always full measure, and a 
disposition to oblige, pervaded his whole character. 

We have all heard of a New York incident. An aged lady 
of wealth called at a store in Broadway to search for a par- 
ticular article of goods, but, after turning over a large 
quantity, she was not suited, although the clerk was evidently 
anxious to make a sale. But his pains were unavailing, she 
left the store with the purchase of some trifling article of 
a few cents value. Nothing incommoded, he put it up 
promptly and accompanied her to the door, pleasantly re- 
marking, that he hoped when she called again he would be 
better supplied with goods to her liking, and he thought no 
more of it. 

Some months later this lady died, and surprised him with a 
handsome legacy. His unaffected courtesy, it seems, made a 
deep impression on her mind, and she adopted this method of 
rewarding it. 

A want of civility is painfully felt in most places of business 
in New York ; it is especially observable in the clerks of our 
northern steamboats, railway offices and banks, public and 
private. In striking contrast is all this with what we have 
observed in Paris. At the stores, money exchanges, and rail- 
way stations you are waited, on by women, and in handing 
you your ticket or change there is a cordial " thank you," as 
if you had really made a present, or conferred a special 
favor. We, in our American boorishness, may talk as much 
as we please about the hollowness of French politeness ; even 
if it is so, if leaves upon the mind of a stranger or traveller a 

Cramps. 225 

very agreeable impression, a kind of make-up for the many 
unavoidable roughnesses of travel. A woman's smile is 
always agreeable, even if you have some spiteful conjecture 
that it may be as empty as the air cushion you sit upon. 
"Nothing in it" there may be, but it is comfortable for all 

None but a natural " Com Cob " sees only hollowness in 
every act of unpurchased civility. Get out of the way you 
ugly porcupine ! and dwell you among bears and the men 
and women made like them, by the disappointments of life- 
such disappointments as always will fall to the lot of those 
who cherish anticipations which they never merited, and 
whose spiteful interpretations of the little civilities of the 
better-hearted of our kind, only mirror the motives which 
prompt an occasional counterfeit on their own part. Civility 
is a virtue which grows by its practice, and is constantly: re- 
producing itself, while its rewards are always sweet, always 
elevating, and sometimes large ; it has an important agency 
in soothing the rugged pathway of life ; it plants a flower 
where else would grow a thorn; it lightens with smiles the 
face on which sadness has made a resting place, and in doing 
this adds to human happiness and human health. 


It was in early May, our first night out from New Orleans, 
\ thunderstorm came up suddenly. We were just sitting 
down to the supper-table, all hearts seemed glad at soon 
entering on that series of gratifications which attends the 
usual summer tour north. Out of doors it was as dark as 
midnight ; the rain fell in torrents ; the angry bustlings of 
the wind, as it swept over the boiling eddies, the rattling of 
the machinery, the sharp, quick puffing of the steam-pipe 
showing that the engine was on its highest strain ; the mut- 
tering of the deep thunders, with flashes of lightning so keen 
and vivid, that the splendid astrals of the cabin seemed to 
give no light at all, these, together, were not half so disquiet* 
ing as certain yells of human agony, which came up from the 
deck below. Only ourself knew the cause, for we had spent 
the previous hour or two among the already-dying from the 

226 HalVs Journal of Health, 

sudden and fearful onslaught of ■" Cholera." It was the 
terrible " cramp" which attends certain phases of that dis- 
ease, that caused those shrieks which rose above the din of 
machinery, wind, and thunder. 

What is this " cramp " of cholera, or colic, or some other 
form of disease, coming on as suddenly as the lightning, and 
going as suddenly away ; but, during its presence, is like the 
tearing out of the heart strings % It arises from the veins 
being so full of blood that they swell out, press against the 
large nerves, and thus impede the circulation of that all-im- 
portant vital agency to a great extent, or in smaller nerves it 
neuralgia, which is literally " nerve-ache. " 

"What causes that unusual fulness of the veins? The blood 
is so impure, so thick, so full of disease, that it cannot now 
along by nature's ordinary agencies; in proportion as it is 
thick, it is cold, and the man is cold, as witness the death- 
damps of the dying. Thus it is, that during epidemic cholera 
the blood of persons is so thick and cold for days and weeks 
before an attack, that the pulse, which, in health, as to grown 
persons, beats from sixty-six to seven-two times in a minute, 
now strikes so laboriously, so feebly, "and so slow, that it 
counts but fifty, and sometimes but forty-two. 

The above narration has been given to impress a practical 
principle of action on the memory. When a person is attacked 
with cramp, get some hot water quietly and expeditiously (for 
noise and exclamations of grief and alarm still further disturb 
the nervous equilibrium), put the sufferer in the water as com- 
pletely as possible ; and thus heat is imparted to the blood, 
w r hich sends it coursing along the veins, and the pain is gone. 
While the water is in preparation, rub the cramped part very 
briskly with the hand or a woolen flannel, with your mouth 
shut. But why keep the mouth shut? You can rub harder, 
faster, and more efficiently, besides it saves the sufferer from 
meaningless and agonizing inquiries. A man in pain does not 
want to be talked to — he wants relief, not words. If all could 
know, as physicians do, the inestimable value of quiet com- 
posure, and a confident air on the part of one who attempts to 
aid a sufferer, it would be practised with ceaseless assiduity 
by the considerate and the humane. 

Suicide, or What? 227 



A statement appears in one of the papers that a clergyman, 
whose church u had grown with amazing rapid it} 7 ," was at- 
tacked with inflammation of- the lungs. In spite of the re- 
moustrances of his physician, he stated to his people that he 
would "continue to preach to them, although lie knew his life 
would be the forfeit," and, doing so, died in a few days after, 
his physician doing all that medical skill could do to save 
his life, while the man himself persisted in doing what he 
had been assured professionally would destroy it. We cannot 
designate such conduct more appropriately than by saying 
that it was the fanaticism of a fool, and yet such an one is 
spoken of as "one of* our noblest and truest ministers," and 
that " a more devoted laborer had not fallen for many 
years." Although in feeble health, " very much indisposed," 
he kept working " day and night, notwithstanding the incle- 
ment weather, regardless ot the remonstrances of his friends. 
And notwithstanding every attention by the ablest physician, 
he expired of pneumonia." 

If men, who thus unnecessarily, and with such foolhardiness, 
throw their lives away, let not the intention sanctify the act. 
And, above all, let not the public press make it out a martyr- 
dom, a self-sacrifice. The most that should be done would be 
to let it pass in suggestive silence. The cause of religion is 
not solidly served in any such way. The Almighty is not 
propitiated by human blood, any more than by Pharisaical 
boastings, or Hindoo devoteeism. Life, human probation, is 
an infinite privilege, a talent of priceless value— it is the 
opportunity of a blissful immortality ; and the man who cuts 
it short, does it at his soul's peril, whether it be done in the 
slow progress of years, by intemperate, unwise eating or 
drinking; or whether by its reckless risk in a temporary 

There is such a thing as counting a man's life double. It 
is done with great propriety at this time in reference to clergy- 
men, when thousands of organized churches in our land are in 
process of 'dismemberment and extinction for want of men to 
serve them. Hundreds of such churches are there in New 

228 Hall's Journal Of Health. 

England alone. To peril a minister's life, under such circum- 
stances, is a double suicide, when, there is no adequate ne- 
cessity for such an exposure. 


i 1 1 i : — i — -' 


" 'Tis well," were the last recorded words of the great 
Washington, uttered in reference to his burial. 

" Do not let my body be put into the vault in less than 
three days alter l am dead," and, looking earnestly into his 
secretary's face he continued, "Do you understand me?" 
" Yes," said Mr. Lear. " Tis well," replied Washington, 
and spoke no more. 

The great Dr. Physic left an injunction that a blood vessel 
should be severed before he was buried, in order to make it 
certain that he was dead. 

The marvellous stories put in circulation by the credulous, 
in reference to the turning of bodies, and the tearing of the 
grave clothes in the fearful struggle for breath, are without 
any rational foundation. If a hot iron raises no blister on the 
skin, or if a severed artery does not bleed, there can be no 
reasonable ground for doubting that death has taken place. 
These tests should be applied not sooner than eight or ten 
hours after the apparent decease. 

_ . , __ 


' Prescott, the historian, in consequence of a disorder of the 
nerve of the eye, wrote every word of his " historicals" with- 
out pen or ink, as he could not see when the pen was out of 
ink, or from any other cause failed to make a mark. He used 
an agate stylus on carbonated paper, the lines and edges of 
the page being indicated by brass wires in a wooden frame. 

Crawford, the sculptor, the habit of whose life had been to 
read in a reclining position, lost one eye, and soon died 
from the formation of a malignant cancerous tumor behind the 
ball, which pushed it out on the cheek. 

There are many affections of the eyes which are radically 
incurable. Persons of scrofulous constitutions, without any 
special local manifestation of it, often determine the disease to 

Care of the Eyes. 229 

the eye by some erroneous habit or practice, and it remains 
there for life. It is useful, therefore, to know some of the 
causes which, by debilitating the eye, invite disease to it, or 
render it incapable of resisting adverse influences. 
Avoid reading by candle or any other artificial light. 
Reading by twilight ought never to be indulged in. A safe 
rule is — never read after sun-down, or before sun-rise. 

Bo not allow yourself to read a moment in any reclining 
position, whether in bed or on a sofa. 

The practice of reading w r hile on horseback, or in any 
vehicle in motion by wheels, is most pernicious. 

Eeading on steam or sail vessels should not be largely in- 
dulged in, because the slightest motion of the page on your 
body alters the focal point, and requires a painful, straining 
effort to readjust it. 

Never attempt to look at the sun while shining unless 

through a colored glass of some kind : even a very bright 

moon should not be long gazed at. 

The glare of the sun on water is very injurious to the sight. 

A sudden change between bright light and darkness is 

always pernicious. 

In looking at minute objects, relieve the eyes frequently by 
turning them to something in the distance. 

Let the light, whether natural or artificial, fall on the page 
from behind, a little to one side. 

Every parent should peremptorily forbid all sewing by can- 
dle or gas light, especially of dark materials. 

If the eyes are matted together after sleeping, the most in- 
stantaneous and agreeable solvent in nature is the application 
of the saliva with the finger before opening the eye. Never 
pick it off with the finger nail, but wash it off with the ball of 
the fingers in quite warm water. 

Never bathe or open the eyes in cold water. It is always 
safest, best, and most agreeable, to use warm water for that 
purpose, over seventy degrees. 


A drunkard is never bo great a fool as to kill himself; the 
dyspeptic is. 
More persons are destroyed by eating too much, than by 

230 HaWs Journal of Health. 

drinking too much. Gluttony kills more than drunkenness in 

civilized society. 

' The dyspeptic kills himself; the drunkard kills others. 

The dyspeptic takes his own life under the influence of men- 
tal depression ; the drunkard kills others under the influence 
of mental excitement. But, although both are alike uncon- 
scious at the time of what they are doing — one slaying him- 
self, the other slaying his fellow-man — the suicide has the sym- 
pathies of society, and finds among it many apologists; while 
towards the drunken murderer of another, the feeling is one 
of vindictive impatience for the gallows to do its duty. 

Both the drunkard and the dyspeptic are unconscious of 
crime at the instant of its perpetration. Both states are 
brought on by over indulgence of the appetite ; the one for 
food, the other for drink ; and both end in shedding blood. 

The dyspeptic lays his plans for self-murder with delibera- 
tion; the drunkard murders another in the surprise of ungo- 
vernable passion ; and, if deliberation darkens the deed, then 
is the drunkard the less criminal of the two. 

If the drunkard is murderously inclined, it is only for a 
brief hour, while the fit is upon him, and he need be watched 
only for that time. But the dyspeptic, who is set on his own 
heart's blood, must be watched sedulously for days and 
months, or, the first moment that the eye is off his movements, 
he improves to his ruin. 

Few palliate the drunkard's deed, while the dyspeptic meets 
with universal sympathy. Should this be so ? What is the 
ground for this partiality ? Surely all are called upon to ma- 
ture this subject and to inquire with a feeling of considerable 
personal responsibility, if, in the matter of eating, there is a 
daily watch against excesses, which so often end in that worst 
of all crimes, (because done with deliberation, and is not re- 
pented of) self-murder ! 


Commonly called Quakers, are easily singled out from the 
throngers of Broadway by the dress, which, although the 
fashion of two hundred years ago, is no longer so, except to 

Friends. 231 

them. We never meet them without a respectful, affectionate 
drawing thither, accompanied with a sorrowful regret that 
there are not a hundred, where there is but one. 

A true " friend" is the embodiment of plainness, placidity, 
and prosperity. The benevolent calmness which plays upon 
their features inspires in the beholder confidence and attach- 

But what is the secret of their universal power of presence 
and their general thrift? Who ever knew a Quaker to be in 
a fidget or a fix — the awful fix of having " nary red ?" They 
neither beg nor steal, nor — we mean the " true blues" — 
cheat. The renegades, the half-and-half, the deserters, the 
impostors, and those who have been " hove overboard" neck 
and heels, we say nothing about. We are speaking of the 
stern and steady sort, who have never deserted their colors, 
and who have never been ashamed of their flag of drab. 

The members of the Society of Friends have the kindly re- 
spect of all men — not the respect of fear, but that of love. 
Why thus ? It is because of their distinguishing trait, that 
which is ever and all pervading, they act from a conscious- 
ness of justness. They wrong no man ; they allow no man to 
wrong them. Or, if they do suffer wrong, it is for the sake of 
peace, but with a protest or a " testimony" against it, lest 
they might seem to connive at evil and wrong doing. 

When a man acts always from a sense of justness, there is a 
freedom from fear, a confidence, a feeling of repose, which in 
time fixes on the whole character a calmness, a serenity, which 
is worth to its possessor more than gold. Hence there is a 
quiet in a Quaker, and a power too in that quiet, which would 
rout a regiment of fussy people in any contest. The heart, the 
conscience, the features, the very gait of a Friend, all are 
quiet — the glorious qniet, which nothing can ever give but an 
habitual consciousness of an all pervading rectitude of pur- 
pose. Thus it is that Friends do not fidget, and fret, and frit- 
ter their lives away, like the " world's people," as they call 
outsiders. English statistics show that their average age is 
some fifteen years more than that of others. The great secret, 
then, of a long and successful life is to " Do justly." 

232 HaWs Journal of Health. 


Looking at a little news-boy trying to ery the papers when 
his face is half stiffened with cold. 

Contemplating the movements of a street sweeper when 
working by the day. 

Witnessing the solemn phiz and happy faith of a homoeo- 
pathic rinsing and wiping a bright silver teaspoon to take its 
fill of cold water from a glass, alternating with another spoon 
and glass. 

Noticing an effort at laughter after having tasted a green 

Contemplating the predicament of a doctor when, on ex- 
pressing his delight at the speedy recovery of his patient, he 
is informed that his medicine was not taken. 

Beholding the fall from gay to grave, in the person of a 
highly imaginative lady on being informed that the remedy 
which she had just praised so highly for its wonderful efficacy 
in curing her last ailment was a- — —bread pill. 


Nine out of ten of all the complaints against the Post Of- 
fice Department arise from the stupidity or carelessness of 
the persons who write or are to receive the letters. "Within a 
short time, three of the newspapers of New York soundly 
abused the department for loss of monied letters, for daj^s and 
weeks together, and in each case it was found to be the fault 
of a thieving message boy. 

The merchants and business men of New York seem to 
have a peculiar fancy for sending boys for their letters and 
papers, but very few of them are to be trusted : we have fre- 
quently seen them drop a paper on the wet floor, and leave it 
there, because it was a little soiled. We once saw a line of 
letters strewn from a boy's satchel diagonally across Nassau 
street from the Post Office, and had he not been called back, 
he would not have noticed it. These are among the reasons 
why so many complaints are sent to editors and publishers for 
missing numbers of newspapers and magazines, and almost 

Post Office. 233 

always made in an ugly temper, with a peremptory request to 
send another copy, without offering one time in fifty, to pay 
for that copy. 

During June, 1859, three hundred and twenty-eight letters 
were sent to the General Post Office, containing evidences of 
value of over one hundred and seven thousand dollars. Some 
of these letters had no date or address inside ; others had been 
sent to wrong places; others still, were directed so badly, that 
it was impossible to decipher the name of either the person 
or place to which the letter should have gone. 

Some letters on being opened contained money, but as the 
writer failed to name the place from which it was written, 
there was no means of finding out his residence, and the 
money was confiscated. The dead letters, that is, those sent 
to Washington City for the above reasons^ or on account of 
their not being called for in June, contained two hundred and 
twenty thousand dollars, a large portion of which the owners 
will never get ; to avoid these inconvenieneies, — 

First. Begin your letters by writing in the plainest manner 
possible, the name of the town, county and state from which 
the letter is sent. 

Second. Write your name in full at the close of the letter, 
without any ornamentation whatever, unless you want to be 
thought a trifier or a fool, and let every individual letter be 
perfectly distinct of itself. 

Third. Let the name of the person to whom the letter is 
sent be written with equal distinctness, as also the name of 
the Post office, county and state. 

Fourth. Put a postage stamp outside, and another inside, if 
an answer is desired exclusively for your own benefit. 


Dtteing the increased travel of summer the bites from in- 
sects and reptiles of various kinds are- of frequent occurrence. 
Persons of healthful blood are bitten with impunity sometimes, 
while those in feeble health suffer distressing, and sometimes 
fatal consequences. 

Almost all poisonous bites arise from the acidity of the virus, 

234 flail's Journal of Health. 

it then follows that an alkali is the best antidote, because an 
alkali and an acid are as much opposed to each other as light 
and darkness, as sweet and sour. And as expedition is some- 
times the life of a man, it is of considerable practical impor- 
tance to know what is the most universally available remedy. 
A handful of the fresh ashes of wood is the most generally ac- 
cessible, pour on enough water, hot is best, to cover it, stir it 
quickly, and either apply the fluid part, that is the ley, with a 
rag or sponge, or have less water, and apply a poultice made 
of simple water and fresh wood ashes. Renew the poultice 
every half hour until the hurting is entirely removed. As to 
minor insects, the relief, is almost instantaneous. The next 
most convenient remedy is common spirits of hartshorn, a 
small vial of which should be in every family, and in every 
traveler's trunk or carpet bag, in summer time at least. Sal- 
eratus dampened and applied to the wound or stung place, is 
not as powerful as hartshorn. It failed recently to cure the 
sting ot a bee, the gentleman dying in convulsions within an 
hour after he was stung ; this arose from some peculiarity of 
constitution, an " Idiosyncrasy" as physicians term \t. 


A correspondent sends us the following, as copied verbatim 
from an old book, bearing date of sixteen hundred and ninety- 
three, (A. D. 1693.) 

u Often consider with thyself, what a dangerous sin the sin 
of intemperance is. It is an inlet to all sin, and for that reason 
perhaps is not particularly forbidden in any of the command- 
ments, because it is contrary to them all. Drunkenness may 
be called a breach of every one of the commandments, because 
it disposes men to break them all. What sin is it that a 
drunken man stands not ready to commit ? Fornication, mur- 
der, adultery, incest, what not ? And how doth this sin trans- 
form a man into a beast ; and make him the shame, and re- 
proach of human nature ? Of the two, it is much worse to be 
like a beast, than to be a beast. The beast is what God has 
made it, but the drunkard is what sin and the devil has made 
him. Add to this that the intemperate man is his own tor- 

JSabhath Recreations. 235 

mentor, yea, his own destroyer ; as appears by the many dis- 
eases and untimely deaths which surfeiting and drunkenness 
daily bring upon men. For as temperance and sobriety is 
the nurse and preserver of life and health, so excess is the oc- 
casion of self-murder ; it is like the lingering poison, which 
though it works slowly, yet it destroys surely. Consider too, 
that intemperance is a sin which a man cannot presently re- 
pent of as soon as he has committed it. A drunken man is 
no more fit to repent, than a dead man ; and what assurance 
hath any man, when drunkenness closes his eyes over night, 
that he shall ever open them again in this world? Consider 
how many have died in drunken fits, without being sensible 
of their condition, until they have been miserably surprised 
by the unconceivable torments of hell-fire. 



Bible believers understand, without any argument, that the 
Sabbath was intended to be observed as a day of rest, being 
so called, " because, that in it He (the Almighty) had rested 
from all his work." 

Recreation is not rest, but rest is recreation ; a " making 
over again," literally ; it renews, gives fresh life and vigour, 
and readiness for work again. 

Any man knows, who has tried it, that going to the country 
early in the morning, and roaming about through the woods, 
in fishing or hunting, or any other form of amusement, during 
the day, and then returning to the city by horse, or foot, or 
boat, or carriage, or rail, leaves the body tired, weary, worn 
out, almost exhausted, quite as much, if not more so, than if 
the ordinary avocations had been followed. 

Let a man take his station at any depot or ferry, on landing 
at the close of any holiday, and inspect the countenances of 
those returning, and there will be presented, in most cases, an 
expression of sadness and weariness, which is amost pitiful, to 
say nothing of the riotous and drunken, the outlaws, and the 
brawlers. To such, the Sabbath has been no day of rest, of 
renewal ; it finds them quite as weary as the previous Satur- 
day- evening found them, and they wake up on Monday morn- 

236 Hall's Journal of Health, 

ing as unrested, as unrefreshed, as unrenewed, as on any 
other day of the week, and wearily enough do they go to 
work, instead of having that eager alacrity for another week's 
toil, which a whole day of in-door quiet, bodily and mental, 
would have secured for them. 

The notion, therefore, that an excursion to the country on 
Sundays, with the excitement of its novelties, has any whole- 
some effect on mind, or body, or heart, anything invigorating, 
renewing, life-giving, is a physical and physiological absur- 
dity, the proof of it being any man's own observation and ex- 
perience. There is no rest in locomotion. There is no rest 
in mental excitement, and both locomotion and mental excite- 
ment are inseparable from those Sunday recreations for the 
laboring poor, for which some of the penny press, and other 
less creditable papers, are contending. 

The actual practical effect of these Sunday excursions to the 
country are : 

1st. To induce the poor laborer to squander his money 
for the benefit of grog-sellers and Sabbath-breakers, instead 
ot spending it for the substantial comfort of his wife and 
children ; for if he takes them along, the savings of the whole 
week are consumed. 

2. To rob him of the only day which he can call his own, 
and of the enjoyment he might derive in quiet communion 
with his family. 

3. To deprive him of the opportunity for the recuperation 
which is absolutely essential for the healthful, vigorous, and 
faithful discharge of the duties and labors of the new week. 


Life's experiences are our teachers — the places where we 
learn our lessons are numberless. 

" In a dungeon dark, damp, and filthy beyond expression," 
without an atom of food or drink for more than forty hours, 
the wretched prisoners laid, strangers in a foreign land. A leg 
of mutton was then thrown to them to be striven and scram- 
bled for, and then torn by tooth and nail, as best might be. 
For six nights they were compelled to sleep on the cold 

Teachers and School- Houses. 237 

floor, with nothing over them, to protect them from the death 
damps and noisome fevers of the horrid place. 

One of these prisoners was John Howard, of immortal fame, 
then but thirty years old. The scenes which he had witnessed 
made such a deep impression on his mind, that he began to 
multiply his own sufferings by those of his fellow-prisoners, 
and these, by all the dungeons of the country, and these again 
by all the dungeons of all countries, of all lands, and these 
sent up such a wail of woe, that he at length resolved to de- 
vote his life and fortune to the alleviation of human suffering. 

Thus it is that trouble has its uses ; and there is no sorrow 
out of which may not come a joy, and solid rocks be made to 
yield the crystal water. 


Nevek write a letter or a line in a passion. 

'Never spit or blow your nose on the sidewalk. 

Never find fault until you are as sure as you are of your ex- 
istence that a fault has been committed. 

Never say what you would do under any given circum- 

Never disparage another by name in a letter. 

Never get in a rage. 

Never utter a syllable in a passion. 

Never refuse to pay a debt when you have the money in 
your pocket. 

Never take physic until you have tried patience. 


The complaints of people are in a measure innumerable; 
every now and then a peculiarity of ailment is presented 
which is not recorded in any book extant; just as new ques- 
tions of law are constantly arising. But while the effects of 
disease are so numerous, the causes of them may be reduced 
down so low as to be all told in the number five : 

First — Poisons. 

Second — Improper eating. 

238 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Third — Variations of atmosphere. 

Fourth — Occupations. 

Fifth — Hereditary tendencies ; which last indeed is a modi- 
fication of the first. 

Of the four, by far the most frequent causes of disease are 
found in the food we eat, and in the air we breathe, the recti- 
fication of both of which is within our own power ; requiring 
only a moderate amount of intelligence, but a large share of 
moral power, that is, a resolute self-denial. It thus follows, 
that death, short of old age, is chargeable to man- himself ; 
that in an important sense, the great mass of those who die 
short of threescore years and ten, are the authors of their own 
destruction. And each should inquire " to what extent am I 
chargeable with my own ailments 2" 


Fun is worth more than physic, and whoever invents or 
discovers a new source of supply, deserves the name of a pub- 
lic benefactor; and whoever can write an article the most 
laughter-promoting and at the same time harmless, is worthy 
of our gratitude and respect, both of which we hold subject 
to the order of the writer for the New Yortc Evening Post of 
the following : 

" On the afternooon of the fourth of July there was a wheel- 
barrow race at the Phalanx, New Jersey, the men taking part 
therein being blindfolded. The ground in front of the hotel 
slopes to a small lake, and has a number of trees. The wheel- 
barrows were placed upon the border of the water at the foot 
of the slope, and turned directly away from the point to which 
the contestants were to go. The eyes of those who entered the 
lists were then bandaged, and the master of ceremonies gave 
the words : ' Ready ! take hold of your wheelbarrows ! about 
face ? forward !' 

" A barrel was placed in the drive before the hotel, and the 
man w T hose vehicle should be found nearest this point when the 
drive in front of the house was reached was to gain the vic- 
tory. Before being blindfolded, of course, each contestant 
took a fond, farewell look at the barrel, endeavoring to fix 

Fun. 239 

the direction firmly in bis mind. But when the word ' about 
face ' was obeyed, most of them lost it ; some struck off in 
one direction and some in another, to the great merriment of 
the spectators, who witnessed the important contest from the 
balcony of the hotel. On one hand a blind mortal made an 
angle of forty -five degrees to the east, while on the other an 
equally blind mortal made an equally ludicrous blunder in 
the opposite direction ; and in the centre the sightless array 
staggered on like a cohort of discouraged soldiers under a heavy 
fire. ~Now one of them encounters a tree in his blind march, 
and is brought to a dead stand still. The shock not only pro- 
duces an unpleasant sensation in his arms, but quite confuses 
his few remaining notions of the points of compass. He he- 
sitates, turns in all directions to satisfy himself, and finally 
strikes off on a course nearly opposite the point to be gained. 
£Tow, again, a man steps upon the root of a tree, and loses 
his footing and sense of direction together ; and now, in their 
confused ramblings, two straggling competitors meet each other 
and get their wheelbarrows locked together. This convinces 
each that he was wrong ; so both face about. 

" One by one they reach the drive, some a few rods from the 
barrel, but most at a ludicrous distance. One man finds him- 
self still at the base of the slope, as far from the goal as when 
he was bandaged. Another has traveled three times the dis- 
tance, and brought up at the extreme end of the drive. 
Another has passed over the gravel without knowing it, and 
finds himself in the field beyond. 

"But there was one who had a decided advantage, being par- 
tially blind, and accustomed to trust his instincts in this man- 
ner. The bandage was a small inconvenience to him, and as 
soon as the word was given, he marched directly for the bar- 
rel, and deposited his wheelbarrow within a single pace of it, 
while the others were engaged in their serpentine travels." 


The city cars are an institution, that is to say. a social ne- 
cessity. We seldom enter one of them without finding it 
crowded with — human nature. 

240 HalVs Journal of Health. 

One man enters, and, being too warm, at once hoists a win- 
dow, without the first thought of consulting the wishes of the 
person next him ; every one seems to think that the window 
nearest himself is wholly his own personal property for the 
time being. Another prefers to stand erect in the forward 
door, thus monopolising for himself the breeze which properly 
belongs to the whole company. 

But the car is full, full it may be to an almost suffocating 
point, or, if an omnibus, all the seats are taken, when, if the 
vehicle is hailed for another passenger, male or female, there 
scarcely ever fails to be a growl from some quarter, in a 
hoarse surly tone, " full, driver." In almost all cases it will 
be found that these uncouth objurgations come from youths 
about twenty. It is a very rare thing to hear any objection 
coming from an old man, or from a married man. And why 
should any one object who has a good and full seat for him- 
self ? The person wanting to enter may barely have time to 
reach the last train for the day and to " lay over " may b e 
pecuniary ruin ; may be to miss a friend or relative, a child, 
a wife, a sister going on a long, mayhap a returnless journey ; 
it may be a messenger for a physician, or from a physician, 
bearing most important remedies, or counsel of vital interest ; 
or a rain may be threatened which endangers a " best suit," 
purchased by the labour and the savings of weary months ; for 
the bare risk of emergencies like these, shame to the ugly 
churl, who, himself supplied, would refuse accommodation to 
a fellow-citizen. 

On a beautiful September morning, the Fourth Avenue 
downward car was full of men, several were standing, when 
the bell tingled a halt, and a woman entered, dressed plainly, 
in the deepest black, without gloves, holding in her hand a 
small package in coarse straw paper ; her countenance was the 
personification of a deep long grief. As we were one of the 
farthest from her, our eye ran along the two lines to see if 
there was any one among the crowd who would be likely to 
offer a seat ; we felt certain of but one in the thirty, most of 
whom seemed to be clerks, book-keepers, or men who were 
well to do. The person selected was not a handsome man in 
any one feature, but the whole contour of countenance and 
eyes gave the impression that he was a gentleman ; there was 

Out Observations. 241 

a frank and manly face, a quickness of eye, and a personal 
neatness, with a general expression of good-will, which made 
us sure of our mark ; all this time — half a minute — the pale, 
sorrowing face made its way nearer and nearer, but there was 
not the slightest show of offering a seat; our favorite kept his 
eye steadily on the saddened features, and the moment their 
eyes met, his seat was vacated, with a kindly intimation that it 
was at the service of the new comer. In a very short time he 
obtained a vacated seat, so he lost nothing and saved his 
politeness. After he left we inquired his name, and J. M. 
Nixon., of the house of Doremus and Nixon will excuse this 
use of his name, for we shall never meet him again without 
feeling that there is a man, for he respected not youth or 
beauty, or wealth, or station, for there were none of these in 
the unpretending passenger, but he respected himself and all 
of womankind. 


Educated physicians of all schools unite in the opinion that 
a very large proportion of all ordinary ailments arise from in- 
judicious eating — from eating too much. It seems to be a law 
of the vegetable kingdom, that if injury is done to a plant, or 
bush, or tree, it will recover itself, if let alone : if a mere ani- 
mal is injured, it will recover itself if let alone, because both 
the vegetable and the animal are created with instincts which 
are the means of their preservation. Man is made under the 
same general law ; he has this same instinct and being " more 
excellent than they" — has also vouchsafed to him the higher 
guard of reason, to enable him the more certainly to live until 
the grand aim of his creation has been attained, to wit, a fit 
preparation for an immortal existence. But our nature has 
been perverted, and, in the matter of preserving health and 
life, reason is dethroned, instinct is silenced, and mere animal 
gratification rules with desolating sway. 

"We all admit that we eat too much. The reader will most 
probably confess with great frankness, " I know I eat too 
much." And just as well does the physician know that this 
over-eating is a great cause of human sickness and suffering. 
When a man is ailing, he should, like the animal and vege- 

M'2 HalVs Journal of Health. 

table, be let alone ; which means, first, that the cause of his 
ailment should cease to operate; and, second, that he should let 
himself alone — that is, avoid eating, and do nothing. Let him 
lie down and rest as the brute will do, and nature will come 
to his aid with wonderful promptness and, efficiency. 

The best panacea on earth — that which has the best claim 
to the title of Catholicon, literally, " Cure All" — is abstinence 
from food. But, to be efficient, this remedy must be promptly 
applied — applied on the instant the knowledge of mischief 
presents itself. The great general rule is : 

The very moment a man becomes conscious of any uncom- 
fortable sensation about the body, let him take not an atom of 
food or anything else until that sensation has entirely disap- 
peared. This simple prescription, promptly and resolutely 
followed, would save multitudes of lives every year, and would 
prevent an amount of human suffering which many figures 
would fail to express. 

To make this rule more widely applicable, a few modifica- 
tions may be added. 

Although food is abstained from so advantageously, water 
may be drank most freely in the great majority of cases. 

In most instances, repose, bodily quietude, should be spe- 
cially observed during abstinence from food, for to exercise 
under actual hunger is unnatural ; besides, animals, when 
they are ailing, are still: then nature employs all her powers 
in repair, instead of dividing them in locomotion. 

If, by the next morning, there is but a partial abatement, some 
warm drink, with toasted bread or other light food, should be 
taken, but nothing more until noon, when a physician should 
be sent for, unless there i3 a decided abatement of ailings. 

If, under abstinence, there is no abatement of symptoms 
within ten hours, medical advice should be taken. 

It is not generally safe for any one to practice entire absti- 
nence over forty-eight hours on his own responsibility, nor to 
practice a very low or a very scant diet for more than four or 
£.ve days, unless by the advice of a physician ; for sometimes 
persons have, by too great abstinence, brought on themselves 
a debility scarcely, if ever, to be recovered from. Abstinence 
is a most valuable remedy, but, if carried beyond reasonable 
limits, it is an agent of great mischief. 

The Hapless Insane. 243 


Insanity may be originated in any individual ; but when 
once originated, it may be perpetuated in the offspring for an 
indefinite time to come. Persons are constantly becoming in- 
sane from a great variety of causes, and yet their friends are 
not able to detect the slightest taint of insanity in any of their 

Two facts stand out with startling import : 
First — Of a number of idiotic children in Massachusetts, 
three-fourths were ascertained to have been born of parents, 
one or both of whom indulged freely in drinking ardent spirits. 

Second — A gentleman of twenty-five years' experience in 
the management of Insane Asylums, stated on oath, in 
one of the courts of New York within a month or two, 
that three-fourths of the cases of adult insanity were 
clearly traceable to causes of a domestic nature. At the 
same time, the fortieth Annual Report of the Friends 
Insane Asylum, near Philadelphia, states that of all the 
persons admitted during 1856, the number of the unmar- 
ried insane was more than double of the married, whether 
as to men or women ; or, to make it more clear, two- 
thirds of all the inmates had never been married. The con- 
trast is certainly worthy of note, that among " Friends," 
a large majority of the adult insane are single persons, 
while among the " world's people," a still greater majority 
are insane from domestic causes ; a result similar to this last 
was reached by a surgeon who inquired among soldiers as to 
the cause of their enlistment, " domestic difficulties " was the 
reply in three cases out of four. 

In either case this most interesting fact presents itself, that 
three-fourths of all cases of unsound mind in youth and age, 
may be prevented by temperance as to spirituous liquors, and 
by well assorted marriages, and it all resolves itself into three 
great practical precepts : — 

Get married about twenty-five. 

Be loving, considerate, forbearing, wives and husbands. 

Practice abstinence from all that can intoxicate until you 
have passed fifty years, and as much longer as a wise judg- 
ment dictates. 

244 HalVs Journal of Health. 

(J^lf* We would respectfully notify our Subscribers that we have 
REMOVED the Publication Office of this journal from the Everett 
House, to -884 BROADWAY. Our friends will be kind enough to 
address for the future to that location. 

Publisher and General Agent for Country Orders, 
884 Broadway, N. Y. 


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We aim to show how Disease may be avoided, and that it is best, when sickness 
comes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VL] NOVEMBER, 1859. [No. 11. 


This is a term which takes its name from a Latin word 
which signifies sow, while the Greeks used a word of the same 
meaning, for the same disease, possibly because both Greeks 
and Romans found that those families suffered most with scro- 
fula who lived after the brutish manner of swine, although the 
elevated and refined are not exempt from the taint. Scrofula 
is an error of nutrition, and hence may attack all colors, con- 
stitutions, and temperaments, but those who have light hair 
and fair skin are most subject to it. 

All through the body, there are little bunches of vessels 
called " glands," which, in their natural state, are not seen, 
but if diseased, they swell, and when near the surface of the 
skin, form protuberances of irregular shapes, always rounded ; 
hence, the ancients, who often named things from an apparent 
quality, called them glands, from their resemblance to an 
acorn or a bunch of them. 

Our aliment, that which nourishes the body, must pass 
through what is called the absorbent glands before it is fit for 
nutrition ; in these glands it undergoes considerable changes, 
but if they are in an unnatural condition, are hardened or 
swoolen, the changes made are not perfect — are not ; healthful ; 
hence it is that scrofula is essentially an error of nutrition ; the 
food does not give all its strength, the person may eat a great 
deal, and may even look stout and robust, but the appearance 
is deceptive — there is no endurance. 

24:6 HalVs Journal of Health, 

Scrofula then is manifested in an abnormal condition of the 
glands, giving a name to the disease according to the locality 
of the part affected : if in the sides of the neck, it is called 
king's evil, because in earlier ages, the : touch of a king was 
thought a cure; if the glands of the joints are affected, it is 
white swelling; if in the lungs, it is consumption ; if in the 
bowels, it is tabes mesenterica, or consumption of the bowels; 
the person wears away to skin and bone, and is literally con- 
sumed to death, without any cough whatever. 

Why the glands of one part should become more particularly 
diseased than elsewhere, is simply because that part has been 
weakened by some violence offered to it. 

But how do the glands become diseased at all, or what is. 
the cause of their unnatural condition ? In other words, what 
causes scrofula ? 

Most generally, persons are born scrofulous, in consequence 
of one or both parents being diseased in some way or other; 
but scrofula may be originated in any constitution by pro- 
tracted wrong living, such as a want of personal cleanliness, 
or a continued dwelling in low or damp, or filthy localities, or 
in habitual excesses as to the animal appetites and passions. 

Scrofula, like insanity or family resemblances, may pass 
over a generation. A man may be scrofulous, his children 
may not have a trace of it, yet his grandchildren may be de- 
cidedly so. 

A person may be very slightly scrofulous — only a mere trace 
of it — so little of it as to be scarcely perceptible, or it may be 
of such an aggravated character as to distort the whole body. 

As a general rule, scrofula shows itself in some kind of 
breaking out on the skin, or in some affection of the eyes. As 
scrofula is essentially an error of nutrition, by which the food 
does not impart its full strength to the system, it is character- 
ized by a want of endurance, by a lack of power of resistance, 
of warding off disease, or averting " colds ;" hence, scrofulous 
persons take cold very easily, and often describe themselves as 
"always taking cold," or " the least thing in the world gives 
me a cold," and that " cold" " settles" in the weak part ; if in 
the tonsils, they swell internally ; if the lungs are the weak 
part, a bad cold is the result ; if in the head — and a great 

/ • Scrofula. 247 

many have a weakness there — it is described as a cold in the 
head. Under certain conditions, a scrofulous person has a 
greater chance of long life than one who is entirely free from 
it, especially if well-informed and well to do, because, being 
conscious of a want of robustness of constitution, common sense 
dictates carefuluess, and a systematic avoidance of those causes 
of ailment which observation indicates as the uniform precurs- 
ors of particular symptoms, while the fact of being " well to 
do," gives the means of nursing, and of guarding against those 
exposures, over exertions and deprivations, which are the fruit- 
ful sources of sickness to the unfortunate poor. 

A person born scrofulous, or becoming so after birth, need 
not necessarily remain so to any specially hurtful extent. If, 
for example, a man suffers from wliite swelling, or a long and 
tedious "running" in the neck from king's evil, the " ill hu- 
mors" of the s} T stem, as they are called, seem to find vent 
there, leaving the constitution, comparatively, healthy, and a 
long life of reasonable health is the result. 

Scrofula may be almost entirely " worked" out of the sys- 
tem in another way, as by a great and. protracted change in 
the habits of life— such a change as involves large out-door 
activities for the greater part of every twenty-four hours. The 
same thing may be accomplished, to a great extent, in-doors, 
as where a sedentary life is followed by spending a large por- 
tion of each day in active employment on foot, especially if 
the mind is deeply and pleasurably interested in that employ- 
ment; more decided results will follow, if the aid is given, 
meanwhile, of judicious personal habits,. such as scrupulous 
cleanliness of body and clothing, of regular, full, and suffi- 
cient sleep ; of plain, simple, and nutritious food, eaten at regu- 
lar intervals of Rve or six hours, and nothing between, with 
that daily regularity which is essential to health under all 

A scrofulous person should eat fresh meats largely, and 
bread and fruits and berries of every description, using vege- 
tables sparingly. ,..'■• 

In short, whatever promotes high bodily health, promotes 
the eradication of a scrofulous taint; hence, it is the greatest 
wisdom on the part of those who are scrofulous, to study how 

248 Hall's Journal of Health. 

and what gives to them the greatest general good health, and 
to live accordingly. 

Scrofula manifests itself externally in some, as in lumps, or 
a variety of breakings out on the skin ; in others, it causes 
some internal malady. In either case, the essential disease is 
the same ; it is in the system — in the blood — and the attempt 
should be to eradicate, not to cover up. 

If there is an external manifestation, external appliances can 
never radically cure, can never eradicate — their tendency is 
to suppress — to drive inwards, or elsewhere, generally, if 
not always, to find refuge in some more vital part, and the 
whole history reads, " cured, then died." Hence, external 
manifestations of scrofula are not, indeed, signs of health, but 
they are signs of safety. Jt is when measles " strike in" that 
there is danger. 

Salt rheum is scrofula, and afflicts persons for many years, 
then sometimes disappears for " good and all," to the great 
gratification of the patient. The next report is "consumption," 
if in grown persons ; " water on the brain," if in young chil- 

As to taking internal remedies, one of three things is the 
uniform result : 

First, The medicine gradually losses its power. 

Second, The system is benefited only while it is taken ; or, 

Third, The remedy gradually poisons the system, or impairs 
the tone of the stomach, thus aggravating the " error of nu- 
trition" and hastening a fatal result. 

It is greatly to be regretted that these things are not gene- 
rally known ; an incalculable amount of human suffering would 
thereby be prevented, and the unfortunate poor saved many 
a hard-earned dollar. 

The most that can be expected as to the cure of scrofula is, 
that it may be kept in abeyance — may be kept under by wise 
habits of life, such as regularity, cleanliness, temperance in all 
things, and daily industry in the open air, living, the mean- 
while, on plain, simple, nutritious food, of which fresh meats, 
ripe fruits, coarse bread, and cold water are the main. We 
believe that no medicine ever eradicated scrofula, or kept it 
under any longer than while it is taken. 

Long Life, 249 


Ma.ny young people feel as if very old age is a misfortune 
which is to be avoided, yet few become so old but that they 
would like to live a little longer. As in one sense of the word 
it is not with us to live or die, but to live in sickness and 
misery or in health and happiness to extreme old age, it is the 
dictate of true wisdom to begin early to live in the manner 
best calculated to secure a healthy old age, and to know what 
that way is, we cannot perhaps do better than to use the ex- 
perience of the old, the healthful, and the wise. Within a few 
days, the venerable and lively Grant Thorburn writes, in sight 
of ninety : 

" I am often asked how I live. Hoping it may induce some 
dyspeptic mortals to consider their ways and be healed, I give 
you the prescription. 

" I rise at seven, A. M., wash, dress, and smoke a Dutch 
pipe-full of Miller's & Mickle's best tobacco ; at eight, I break- 
fast on half a pint of coffee, bread, dried meat or fish ; I dine 
at twelve ; I never eat enough ; I close dinner with half a pint 
of coffee and a crust of bread, smoke my pipe, and if the 
weather is warm, I lie on the sofa one hour ; drink two cups 
of tea at five P. M. 

" I never eat butter on my bread ; I never put milk in either 
tea or coffee ; these privations are no restraint ; my stomach 
says " no." I use sugar in both tea and coffee ; I never eat 
between meals ; I drink between meals at least one quart of 
cold coffee per day, without either sugar or milk. Some one 
said tkat drinking coffee and smoking tobacco is a slow poison ; 
in my case it has been slow indeed, for I have drank three 
pints of coffee, and have smoked five pipes of tobacco every 
day during the last fifty years, except when sea-sick in cross- 
ing the Atlantic. In September, 1798, when the yellow fever 
swept the streets of New York, I noticed that a chill always 
preceded the fever. By way of prevention, I put on woolen 
flannel, which I wore next my skin, from my ankles to my 
neck ; my wife and children put on the same. In the seven- 
teen summers during which the fever prevailed, I never left 
the city, and every year, more or less, I nursed among the 
sick, yet neither myself, my wife, nor any of my seven chil- 
dren ever caught the fever. 

250 HdWs Journal of Health. 

" From that day, I have contrived to wear the same flannel 
garments,, and during all that period I have been only six days 
confined to the house (not bed) by indisposition. I never feel 
a head, heart, or rheumatic pain. The savory food in which I 
delighted sixty years ago, tastes as sweet to my mouth now 
as it did then. I never was drunk in my life ; I sleep without 
rocking, walk without a staff, and ate without brandy or bit- 

"Every day except Sunday, I cut wood for the stove with 
a buck and saw. The nursing care of my dear wife is now the 
rod and staff of my life." 

If any of our readers should plead the example of our cor- 
respondent as their excuse for the use of coffee and tobacco, 
they should remember that he has lived longdn spite of them, 
and without them would most probably have lived longer 
than lie will do. At all events, let them couple with it his 
long life of regular, plain living, and honest industry. If he 
never 'got drunk, so must not they ; if he never eat enough, so 
must not they ; if he never exceeded in frequency. and quan- 
tity, so must not they; if he failed not to maintain " a consci- 
ence void of offence toward God and toward men," so must 
not they ; if they take a part of his habits, they must take them 
all. We have certainly never known a drunkard who did no.t 
love strong coffee and use tobacco largely, and these are the 
first steps toward a drunken, vicious, and wasted life, and if in 
any instance a coffee drinker and a tobacco user fails to land 
in the gutter, it is more of the grace of God than of the gift of 
man. If any person will promise never to taste a drop of 
spirituous liquors, we will give him an assurance and a per- 
mission— the assurance that he will never die a sot, and the 
permission to drink half a pint of moderately strong coffee at 
each meal — but never more, never oftener, never stronger. 


The tendency of India-rubber shoes is to make the feet 
cold, and in such proportion endanger health ; hence, they 
are useful only in walking when the ground is muddy or 
sloshy with melting snow — in these cases they are invaluable, 
and there is no equal substitute. Two rules should be ob. 

Wearing Rubber Shoes. 251 

served whenever it is possible : when rubbers are on the feet 
persons should keep moving, and remove them on entering the 
house, if it is intended to remain over, a few minutes. If the 
rubbers have been on the feet several hours, both shoes and 
stockings are necessarily damp by the condensation and con- 
finement of the perspiration, therefore all should be removed, 
and the naked foot held to the fire until warm and dry in 
every part ; if then a pair of dry stockings are put on, and a 
pair of warmed and loose slippers or shoes, there will be a 
feeling of comfort for the remainder of the day, which will 
more than compensate for the trouble taken, to say nothing of 
the ailments averted. Bat it must not be forgotten that as 
India-rubber shoes are impervious to water from without, and 
ought not to be worn except in muddy weather, and only 
then while the wearer is in motion, so leather shoes, ren- 
dered impervious to water, by blacking or ^Jy any other means, 
should be used like India-rubbers, temporarily, and when 
walking in mud or slosh. For common purposes the old- 
fashioned leather boots and shoes are best, if kept well 
blacked, with several renewals of dry socks during the da} r 
if the feet perspire profusely. As cold and damp feet are the 
avenues of death to multitudes every year, a systematic atten- 
tion to the above suggestions would save many a valuable 


This disease prevails extensively in cities during the winter 
season, and will usually cure itself, if only protected against 
adverse influences. The . older persons are, the less likely 
they are to recover perfectly from this ailment, for it very 
often leaves some life-long malady behind it. The most hope- 
less forms of consumptive disease are often the result of ill 
conducted or badly managed measles. In nine cases out of 
ten, not a particle of any medicine is needed. 

Our first advice is, always, and under all circumstances, 
send at once for an experienced physician. Meanwhile keep 
the patient in a cool, dry, and well-aired room, with moderate 
covering, in a position where there will be no exposure to 
drafts of air. The thermometer should range at about sixty 

252 UalVs Journal of Health. 

five degrees, where the bed stands, which should he moderately 
hard, of shucks, straw, or curled hair. Gratify the instinct for 
cold water and lemonade. It is safest to keep the bed for 
several days after the rash has begun to die away. The diet 
should be light, and of an opening, cooling character. 

The main object of this article is to warn persons that the 
greatest danger is after the disappearance of the measles. We 
would advise that for three weeks axler the patient is well 
enough to leave his bed, he should not go out of the bouse, 
nor stand or sit for a single minute near an open window or 
door, nor w T ash any part of the person in cold water nor warm, 
but to wipe the face and hands with a warm damp cloth. For 
a good part of this time the appetite should not be wholly 
gratified ; the patient should eat slowly of light nutritious 
food. In one case, a little child, almost entirely well of the 
measles, got to placing with its hands in cold water, it gra- 
dually dwindled away and died. All exercise should be mo- 
derate, in order to prevent cooling off too quickly afterwards, 
and to save the danger of exposure to drafts of air, which, by 
chilling the surface, causes chronic diarrhoea if it falls on the 
bowels, deafness for life, if it falls on the ear ; or incurable 
consumption if it falls on the lungs. 


Says a correspondent, " I have been confined to my bed 
six long years. Till within the last year I was not able to 
rise and walk on crutches, which is a great relief from lying 
on a couch from one year's end to another. I feel like a 
new being, for everything appears strange and new to me, as 
if I had opened my eyes on a new world of beauties after a long 
slumber. I received my first start of improved health from 
reading your monthly journal ; for three years I have been, 
and am now, practising on the wholesome truths which they 
inculcate ; i. e. temperance in all things ; plenty of exercise 
in the open air, leaving off suppers entirely by persons of 
sedantary habits, and lessening diet one-third in spring, and 
during warm weather, by all classes of individuals." 

The Editor is in the frequent receipt of confessions of this 
kind, by letter and in person, from entire strangers, from dif- 

Colds Cared. 253 

ferent parts of the country, and he accepts it as proof that he 
is living to purpose, in that he is placing the means of health 
in the hands of many whom he may never Bee, and for this, 
aside from any pecuniary advantage, he greatly desires that 
the circulation of the Journal of Health might be largely in- 
creased, especially in families and among young persons. • 


It would be to the saving of human health and happiness, 
and life itself, if the periodical press would never publish a 
recipe for any human ailment, which involved the taking of 
anything into the stomach. 

Some scrap-editor characterizes it as an excellent remedy 
for a cough caused by a common cold, to soak an unbroken 
egg for forty-eight hours in half a pint of vinegar, then add as 
much honey, break up all together, and take a teaspoonful 
for a dose several times a day. 

If the writer of that recipe had possessed the smallest 
amount of common observation, he w r ould have known that if 
a man begins to cough, as the result of a common cold, it is 
the result of nature herself attempting the cure, and she will 
effect it in her own time, and more effectually than any man 
can do, if she is only let alone, and her instincts cherished. 
What are those instincts ? She abhors food, and craves 
warmth. Hence, the moment a man fa satisfied that he has 
taken a cold, let him do three things : 1st, eat not an atom ; 
2d, go to bed and cover up warm in a warm room ; 3d, drink 
as much cold water as he wants, or as much hot herb tea as 
he can, and in three cases out of four, he will be almost en- 
tirely well within thirty-six hours. 

If he does nothing for his cold for forty-eight hours after the 
cough commences, there is nothing that he can swallow that 
will, by any possibility, do him any good, for the cold, with 
such a start, will run its course of about a fortnight, in spite of 
all that can be done, and what is swallowed in the meantime, 
in the way of physic, is a hindrance and not a good. 

" Feed a cold and starve a fever" is a mischievous fallacy. 
A cold always brings a fever ; the cold never begins to get 
well until the fever begins to subside ; but every mouthful 

254 HalVs Journal of Health, 

swallowed is that much more fuel to feed the fever, and, but 
for the fact that as soon as the cold is fairly seated, nature, in 
a kind, of desperation^ steps in and takes .away the appetite, 
the commonest cold would be followed by very serious results, 
and in frail people, would be almost always fatal. 

.These things being so, the very fact of waiting forty-eight 
hours, gives time for the cold to fix itself in the system, for a 
cold does not usually cause cough until a day or two has 
passed, and then to wait two days longer, gives it its fullest 
chance to do its work before anything at all is done. 



!Nine times out of ten the best answer which a physician 
can give to the patient, who, with direful look and dolorous 
tone, inquires what shall I do ? is, go to work. 

The most important injunction that can be given to this fast 
age, whether in regard to solid financial prosperity, or to en- 
during personal enjoyment, or to gladness of heart, or health 
of body, is, be content with a slow and moderate increase of 
your substance. 

The crying educational error of the age is, allowing so 
many boys and girls to reach adult life without the knowledge 
of some handicraft, by which they might earn a living in any 
country, in case they were reduced to penury. There are 
scores of thousands of persons in this country who are living 
from hand to mouth, whose loss of a single day's labour would 
be followed by a dinnerless day, who might live in careless 
comfort on a single acre of land, but for the want of a little 
patient industry and self denial. Look at it: 

A single acre of land will readily afford room for forty 
apple trees, and forty bushels to a tree is not an uncommon 
product, making sixteen hundred bushels of fruit, which, in 
mid-winter in any of our large cities or large towns, will readily 
bring, if in good order, half a foliar a bushel, and sometimes 
a dollar, by the barrel. A plain, industrious, and econimical 
family in the country can live comfortably on half that 
amount of money. 

Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, to whose industry, 
sagacity, and enterprise this nation owes a large debt for 

Agriculture. 255 

what he has done to promote the culture and perfection of the 
strawberry and the grape, writes, that in Germany an acre of 
grapes will yield eight hundred gallons of wine^ whose lowest 
value is one dollar, in its state, and that the same yield 

can be had here, and when once in bearing, one-half is clear 

A New England farmer, of forty years' experience, writes 
that he raises six hundred bushels of onions on an acre of 
land ; that at the last weeding in August he sows turnip seed, 
and gathers a crop of four hundred bushels ; each of these sell 
in New York, and other large cities and towns, and sell 
readily by wholesale, for eighty cents a bushel, in almost any 

An acre of cold, marshy, sandy land will yield forty bar- 
rels of cranberries, which often sell for thirty dollars a barrel. 

An acre of the common white bean, which is easily cul- 
tivated, requires but little skill, and which is riot affected by 
frost or rot, and which is always a saleable article, will yield 
an equally profitable crop, if well managed. 

J. W. Manning says he cultivated a piece of ground, "on 
which was an orchard, of apple trees, some of them four inches 
in diameter ; one hundred and fifty 'grape vines, part of them 
in bearing ; a hundred and thirty current bushes in bearing ; 
fifty hills of rhubarb, and one-third of the whole in the Cutter 
strawberry, which, in a season of thirty-five days, yielded five 
hundred quarts. And all on One-fifth of an acre of ground !" 

"With these facts before us, we say to all, if you want to 
live long in health and quiet and independence, go to work 
in the love of it, be satisfied with moderate gains, cultivate 
moderate ambitions, practice self-denials, and you will reap a 
rich reward here and hereafter. 


There are certain forms of disease which, while they waste 
the body, depress the mind, and stupify the moral senti- 
ment ; hence, the wise physician often feels compelled to ad- 
dress his remedies to the mind, to bring the religious element 
into requisition, in strong appeals to a sense of duty. Some- 
times, there is not left energy enough for an effort at restora- 

256 HalVs Journal of Health. 

tion. This is often the case with clergymen, literary men, 
and professors in colleges. One of these is like a man just 
entering the current above the falls of Niagara ; he is sensible 
of his danger, feels that in a short time all effort will be un- 
availing, yet he has not the moral energy requisite to make 
use of the means necessary for his deliverance. This condi- 
tion is in nearly all cases the result of dyspepsia^ that is, it is 
the result of a want of thorough digestion of the food, a defect 
which is brought on by injudicious eating. Persons who use 
opium, tobacco, liquors, or strong coffee and tea, eventually 
fall into this same state. No Christian man will have any 
difficulty in saying that the use of liquors should be given up 
as a duty, under such circumstances. But let the physician 
of acknowledged science and ability press upon that same 
man the duty of abandoning the use of tobacco, or of adopting 
a plainer mode of feeding, he will find his appeals powerless. 
Can a man be guiltless who condemns his neighbour for 
drinking errors, but does not condemn himself for errors in 
eating? In other cases, where comparatively little is needed 
beyond a pill or two a month for a short time, except judicious 
exercise, the prescription is met with, " Well, I cannot spare 
the time, my professional duties are such that I have not the 
leisure." But suppose you die, what then ? You cannot 
lose now an hour a day, then all time is lost ! 

Physicians well know that three-fourths of the ordinary at- 
tacks of sickness are the result of imprudence'; that if men 
lived wisely, the average age would be full three score years 
and ten, instead of half that term, as it now is. 

"We know that if human life is valuable to all, the increase 
of its duration would increase its value. That if any man is 
useful to the church or the world, from thirty to forty, he 
would be still more useful from fifty to sixty ; and that it is 
his duty to protract his usefulness, there can be no doubt. 

Again, none will, deny that a man in robust health is more 
available in any calling than he would be if he were an in- 
valid. If then it is the duty of every one to do the largest 
amount of good possible for him to do, he is doing a wrong to 
society, and to his master in heaven, if he fail to use the 
means to avoid disease, and to keep him in robust health ; 
that is, if he fail to inform himself as to the best method of 
accomplishing such results. 

Take Life Easy. 257 

The most terrible of all spiritual conditions, as well as the 
most utterly hopeless, is for a man to be conscious of his going 
to perdition, and yet to feel a total indifference to his situa- 
tion, so much so, as to be incapable of making any effort to 
escape the ruin. Such is the bodily condition of many per- 
sons ; they are not sufficiently alive to their situation «to 
be stimulated to proper efforts for their deliverance, by any 
appeals to duty, whose end is death ! 


" IToio old they look /" said the celebrated Indian chief, 
Kahgegciboo, on his return to New York, after a comparatively 
short absence. Young men, whom he had been accustomed 
to meet daily, seemed to have grown old in four or five years. 
Faces which formerly appeared never to have known what 
anxiety was, had, in so short a time, grown care-worn, and 
an expression of mingled sadness and solicitude pervaded al- 
most every countenance. 

The observation was founded in fact: Our young men do 
grow old before their time, in their torturing haste to obtain a 
millionarity. Not one in a multitude has the stern courage 
to adopt practically the sage motto, festina lente. Few seem 
to appreciate the wisdom of making haste slowly. Few indeed 
have that cheerful satisfaction in moderate daily gains which 
so much contributes to the every day enjoyment of life. Yet 
if we take the pains to look over the past, we shall scarcely 
fail to find that men of moderate ambition, satisfied with a 
slow and steady increase to their fortunes, who set their face, 
as a flint, against every enterprise promising splencled divi- 
dends, have come to a quiet old age, having enjoyed their af- 
fluence for a young life time. On the other hand, of those 
who boldly embarked in the " splendid speculation" risking 
all on the hazard of a die — how have multitudes of them 
gone out in the night of a drunkard's grave, or having made 
a wreck of position and character, have ended life early, in 
dishonorable obscurity, or in pinching penuary ! 

And of the young who joined in the race of ambition, who 
dashed madly after professional distinction, mounting rapidly 

258 HalVs Journal of Health. 

to the skies with a meteor-like effulgence— -how many of them 
too have fallen suddenly from their high estate, and left a 
worse than midnight gloom 'hanging around their memories ! 

In view of the whole subject, we cannot do better than 
close the article, as we began it, with the words of another 
celebrity, Professor Silliman ■: 

" Young men! do not use up all your capital in the 
"beginning of life." 


The New York Spirit of the Times aptly and beautifully 
says : " The refinement of a family is no where so quickly seen 
as at the table, and nowhere do men's sensual and selfish in- 
stincts become more prominent. There is the centre of a family 
after the day's wandering; there its first meeting after a night 
of forgetf ulness ; there we give hospitality to the stranger; 
there the tongue is loosened, the wandering thoughts called 
back, and the heart is warmed into expression, under generous 

We love to see and hear the cheerful greeting, as the mem- 
bers of the family, one by one, come to the breakfast table ; 
there is politeness, refinement, elevation in it ; and underlying 
all, a sweet affection, making the day begin with kindly cour- 
tesies, and the outgushing of warm hearts. Then, at the 
close of the day, its labors, its toils, its fears, its disappoint- 
ments, and its dangers passed, to receive compensation for all, 
in rest and repose. The smile may be more languid, the voice 
and tone and gesture may be more subdued, but as pure an 
affection wells up from every heart, and as true a love speaks 
out from every eye, to soothe and soften the perturbations of 
the day ; and at a later hour still, to bow around the family 
altar in humble, penitent, and loving devotion, in health and 
competence and safety ! these are joys which kingdoms cannot 
purchase, but which are given to all who properly seek them. 
These are scenes which should be enacted every day, in every 
household in the land. But are they ? And if not, why not? 
Let withering shame and crushing contempt be upon the 
father, mother, child, who stands in the way of happy fying 
scenes like these. How are the buds of joyousness blasted in 

The Dining Boom. 259 

many children's hearts, that would else have bloomed into 
flowers of gladness all day long, by a father's entrance to the 
breakfast room, after a night's debauch, whose first word is a 
stupid growl or coarser curse; or by the mother, whose shat- 
tered health, or broken ambition, or half-crazed intellect, or 
low nature, leads her, for successive weeks, and months, and 
years, with but an average exception in a score or more, to 
approach her gathered family always last, creeping in more 
dead than alive, with some fierce complaint, some low invec- 
tive, some groundless charge, .some frivilous objection, some 
mean insinuation, some reckless assertion, or some unendur- 
able lie ; or the pampered son or daughter, the pet of igno- 
rance, of misplaced affection, or of senseless wealth, who comes 
to the table with swaggering contempt, or listless indifference, 
who by boisterous and imperious orders, or by inarticulate 
whispers, outrages the servants, insults the guests, and morti- 
tifies the family— on all such mean, and selfish, and petulant 
natures, which scatter clouds where else there might be sun- 
shine ; which plant thorns where otherwise the sweetest flow- 
ers would have flourished — on people like these, we say, there 
will come, sooner or later, a fearful retribution of years with- 
out honor, of age without affection, and a lifetime wasted, if, 
indeed, it does not end in a premature death, or the more ter- 
rible mad-house. 


Poughkeepsie, August 6th, 1 856. 
Dear Sir : 

Since I last saw you, I have been in almost uninterrupted health ; 
my strength was so great, that I could labor with any man at any 
kind of work all day, and feel best at night, and during the hot days 
I did most and felt best. This, I suppose, caused a carelessness in 
diet, though I hardly yet am conscious of it, for I seldom over-eat, 
though I did Sunday before la^t — that hot Sunday — eat such a dinner 
as I would have done on Monday, and then yielded to the influence of 
the day, there being no service in church in the afternoon, and laid 
down on the floor and slept till tea-time. Monday morning, I awoke 
at 4 o'clock, with a profuse painless diarrhoea, and by 3, o'clock, P.M., 
I was passing a white, watery fluid, and passed more water than I had 

drank in a fortnight. , 1 — — 


We are in a state of betweenity entirely, as to whether we 

260 HalVs Journal of Health. 

are under most obligation to ask pardon of a pig or our corres 
pondent for the heading we have given to his letter. We are 
rather inclined to vote for the pig. Pigs don't eat " Sunday 
dinners" They treat every day alike, and eat every day, at 
least, when they can get it, until they don't want to eat any 
more. Man is the only animal in nature who eats more than 
he wants, as far as our knowledge of natural history informs 

We have much less muscular and mental exercise on Sun 
days than on week days, hence, much less wear and tear and 
waste, therefore a proportionably less need for supply for re- 
pairs. Multitudes make the dinner for Sunday the most sump- 
tuous of the week, with artificial tempters of the appetite to 
boot. It is no wonder, then, that on Sunday afternoon, we are 
a nation of gorged anacondas, too sleepy to see, too stupid to 
think, and too lazy to move. 

The best Sunday dinner — best for the body, best for the soul 
— is half a glass of water, a piece of bread and butter, and a 
slice of cold meat. Thus doing, while our servants will bless us, 
our ministers will preach to listening congregations and not to 
sleeping hulks. 

Meanwhile, if any one desires at any time to get up an ex- 
temporaneous amateur cholera-morbus performance, let him 
take a nap on the floor soon after a hearty dinner. The low- 
est part of a room being the coldest, a person sleeping gets 
chilled on the outside, checking all exhalations and driving 
the drains inwards, to find vent in the manner just named. To 
clergymen who officiate in the morning and afternoon, the ad- 
vice is given to eat nothing at all beyond an apple or two or 
orange, or piece of bread and butter, with a cup of warm drink 
between the services, they will thus be able to preach easier to 
themselves and more profitably to their hearers, because it 
requires less physical effort, and the mind is more active. 

We personally know two western clergymen, equally emi- 
nent, and deservedly occupying positions of high responsibility 
—one eats nothing between the services, the other dines on 
strong tea — the former we have never known to be ill, the lat- 
ter has a dangerous attack of sickness every year or two, and 
is very often complaining between times. 

Custom. 261 


"Custom to whom custom is clue," was the conservative 
precept of Apostolic times, when the law, enacted by the con- 
stituted authorities of the country, was the " higher law" and 
obedience to the powers that de, was enjoined as one of the first 
duties of a good citizen, while those who violated these laws, J 
"resisted the ordinance of God." Fanaticism run mad prac- 
tically advocates the notion now-a-days, that every man has a 
right to interpret the Scriptures for himself, which is really 
nothing more or less than making his own judgment a rule of 
right, and, if thwarted, in acting out that judgment in his re- 
lation to others, affords him ground for saying that liberty of 
conscience is denied him, while those who do not accord with 
him in his interpretations, are denounced as hater of God's 
word, and enemies to his religion ; and we are precipitated at 
once into that most terrible of all rules, the anarchy of re- 
religious fanaticism. As well may every man claim the right 
to interpret the Constitution of our common country, and act 
up to his interpretation. The * most direct route" to a peace- 
ful and prosperous government, is for those who do not like . 
it, to clear out, and go to some country whose laws are more 
congenial. Mexico wants money, and has land to sell, so 
with the Central American States— a territory for sale, large 
enough to give a good sized state to each considerable body of 
fanatics, who, against' the peace of our common country, are 
laboring in so many ways to sap its prosperity, and interfere 
with its true advancement. Prudent men, thoughtful men, 
see with pain, how many wild-brained, hot-headed, un- 
balanced young men, and old too, make a hustings of the 
pulpit, and goaded on by a " zeal not according to knowledge" 
soon find themselves out of sight of the Cross which they had 
sworn (and for which they receive pay) to preach ; and instead 
of girding themselves, sailing on a sea of love, winning souls 
to Christ, are enveloped in storms of passion, and with lower- 
ing eyes, and corrugated forehead, and clenched fist, and 
stamping foot, and thundering voice, hurl forth whole ava- 
lanches of bootless wrath ; or spitting out seething curses 
through gritted teeth, their hearts the meanwhile (and from 
which all these things come) being the very pandemonium of 

262 Hall's Journal of Health. 

of imprecation and anathema. And against whom ? their 
brother man ! and for what ? differing from them in opinion ! 
Shame, oh shame, to bosoms so inhuman — a burning shame to 
heads so intolerant ! 

These brimstone preachers, who have got into office by mis- 
take, are dyspepsic men, or have been crossed in love or am- 
bition, and should be promptly placed under a "regimen" 
of bread and water, and cracking rock for the turnpike. It is 
perfectly wonderful how steady, hard work, and plain food 
knock insanity and ill health out of a man ; and at one and the 
same time put common sense and good health in their place. 
The gentleman who amused himself sometime ago with 
" making paper " and smoking cigars, found they did not 
agree with him, but reduced his flesh, spoiled his color, and 
took away his strength, causing constant head-ache, dormant 
appetite, sleepless nights, and scheming days, and turned 
right about, dashed away his cigar, emptied his wine-glass, 
threw down his pen, and, by driving nails, making pine 
boxes, drinking cold water, and coffee made out of burnt 
bread crust, with corned beef and stirabout, came to en- 
joy perfect heath, and gained fifteen pounds of flesh during 
the first sixty days of his Sing Sing sojourn, and no doubt ha3 
his wits about him as well as any other man. There is great 
potency in plain food and hard work, they have wonderful 
virtue in clearing the cobwebs from the brain of opinionated 
people. Plain food and hard work! magnificent pills are 
they ! they bring a man down from seriel heights, and sober 
his views, and make him fit to live like common folks and 
among common folks, in a time surprisingly short. They did 
more for the forger in two months than homoeopathy accom- 
plished in two years ; this we account for, however, in the 
antagonistic qualities of the prices and pills, the latter were 
secundem artem, really infinitessimal, sweet as sugar, and as 
easy to take as the mountain-sized fees of the far-seeing doctor. 
The amount of the whole matter is this, the only way to have 
sober, true, and just views of men and things, is to live on 
plain food, and engage in some moderate remunerative work 
for several hours of every day, by these, with light suppers, 
regular habits,, great personal cleanliness, and, freely asso- 
ciating with intelligent men of all parties and sects, we believe 

EeUiminy to Town, 263 

a leaven of strong common sense, of liberality of sentiment, of 
conservatism and sound morals, would, in no great length of 
time, pervade this entire land, make it a whole brotherhood 
of States, and so bind them together, that true progress and 
solid prosperity would be witnessed in all our borders, the 
ensignia of a great nation, and of a people happy and free. 


The weary wanderers after the pleasures and the joys they 
could not find at home, are now coming back to try it again 
in the party, the ball, the theatre, the opera, the lecture, the 
dance and the flirtation. What a hopeless search for happi- 
ness ! might just as well expect to find a rose growing out of 
an iceberg. 

Some went after the health and vigour and joyousnes, 
which inexorable " business" had ground out of them, and 
we hope, and doubt not, that many of our fellow citizens have 
returned in higher health, and in more buoyant spirit. The 
object of this article is to suggest how these benefits may be 
maintained, and how longer enjoyed than they will be if our 
suggestions are unheeded. The appetite acquires a momentum 
by change of air and scene, and associations and activities 
which will carry it on to the first weeks of business, but if 
that appetite is indulged under circumstances of less pure out- 
door air, of less exhileration of agreeable and elivening 
society, with less personal activities, the supply will be 
greater than the demand, and u fullness " will come, giving 
head-ache, depression, neuralgia, or " bad-blood," thick, im- 
perfect and impure, will bring nervousness of body, fretful- 
ness of mind, peevishness of disposition, and general irratibility 
of the whole being,"and the sun will cease to shine, clouds will 
over-cast the clear blue sky of fall, and amid the withering of 
flowers, hope will Jdie out, and weary, wretched listlessness 
will, like baleful stars, cast its malign influence over the 
whole existence. 

In truth, it is not an unknown observation, that persons after 
a joyous and renovating summer, have come home to die, 
simply because they have eaten with the appetites of an active 
life, when that activity was no longer observed. Might just as 

264 HalVs Journal of Health. 

well expect a locomotive not to explode when, although 
stopped, the fire is still allowed to burn on. 

We counsel all then, for the first few weeks after returning 
to town, to eat one-third less at each meal, until cold weather 
sets in, when the other third will be required for purposes of 
fuel, and may be indulged in, not only with impunity, but 
with pleasure and advantage. 


Dr. Kane and his men, in their arctic voyage, 'had abund- 
ance of exercise, and the purest and most luscious air, nor 
were they exposed to malarias or miasm; in such a pure cold 
air there was no cause of noxious exhalations, and yet they 
had to contend against disease, in consequence of the mis- 
chievous effects of the absence of sun-shine for many weeks 

The general reader may be familiar with the observation of 
an eminent merchant that his book-keepers soon became ill, 
and some of them died ; the office being in a room where no 
sun-shine ever came ; on changing to an upper room, the win- 
dows of which faced the sun, there was an immediate and 
permanent removal of the difficulty. 

Dogs kept in «dark, damp cellars become tuberculous in a 
few weeks, and die of consumption. 

A New York merchant of wealth purchased a farm out 
west for a promising son ; within a year he became unwell. 
Inquiries were made as to his sleeping-room, the answer was, 
that he had for his chamber a large upper room, well lighted. 
His sister paid him a visit, and soon observed that his clothing 
in his wardrobe was damp, while that in the drawers was 
actually moulded, when the fact presented itself that the 
room was on the north side of the house, overlooking an im- 
mense fiat prairie, and that no ray of sun-shine ever entered 
from one year's end to another. He returned to New York 
and died of tubercular disease, which, with great certainty, 
was hastened, if not originated, by the unfortunate position of 
his chamber. The lesson is, that the family room, the sleep- 
ing apartment, the study, in short, any apartment which is 
occupied for the greater part of each twenty -four hours, should 

The Feet in Winter-Time. 265 

hare its windows facing the south, as nearly as possible, so 
that the glad sun-shine may lighten it up, and keep it warm, 
and dry and pure. 


"No person can be well long, whose feet are habitually cold ; 
while securing for them dryness and warmth, is the certain 
means of removing a variety of annoying ailments. 

The feet of some are kept more comfortable in winter if cot- 
ton is worn, while woolen suits others better. The wise course 
therefore is for each one to observe for himself, and act ac- 

Scrupulous cleanliness is essential to the healthful warmth 
of the feet; hence all, especially those who walk a great deal 
out of doors during the day in cold weather, should make it u 
point to dip both feet in cold water on rising every morning, 
and let them remain halt ankle deep, for halt a minute at a 
time, then rub and wipe dry, dress and move about briskly to 
warm them up. To such as cannot well adopt this course from 
any cause, the next best plan is to wash them in warm water 
every night just before going to bed, taking the precaution 
to dry them by the fire most thoroughly before retiring ; this, 
besides keeping the feet clean, preserves a natural softness to 
the skin and has a tendency to prevent and cure corns, Many 
a troublesome throat affection, and many an annoying head- 
ache will be cured if the feet are kept always clean, warm, 
soft and dry. 

The moment the feet are observed to be cold, the person 
should hold them to the fire, with the stockings off, until they 
feel comfortably warm. One of the several decided objec- 
tions to a furnace heated house, is the want of a place to warm 
the feet, the registers being wholly unsuited for that purpose. 
Our wealthy citizens do themselves and their families a great 
wrong if they fail to have one room in the- house, free for all, 
where afire is kept burning from the first day of October until 
the first day of June, on a low grate, on a level with the hearth, 
after the pattern of Andrews & Dixon, of Chestnut street, 
Philadelphia ; for the closer the fire is to the hearth in 
a grate, or to the floor in a stove, the more comfortable is 

266 HaWs Journal of Health. 

it, and the less heat is wasted. This is one of the delights of 
the good old fashioned wood fires, the very thought of which 
carries so many of us away to the glad scenes of childhood 
and early homes. It ought to be known in ISTew York, where 
hard or anthracite coal is burned, that with one of the grates 
named, filled with hard coal and a few pieces of Liverpool or 
cannell put on top, nearly all the advantages of a wood fire 
are secured, at least as far as cheerfulness, comfort and warmth 
are concerned. 

Some feet are kept cold by their dampness from incessant 
perspiration, in such cases cork soles are injurious, because 
they soon become saturated, and maintain moisture for a long 
time. — Soak a cork in water for a day or two and see. A bet- 
ter plan is to cut a piece of broad-cloth the size of the foot, 
baste on it half an inch thickness of curled hair, wear it inside 
the stocking, the hair touching the sole; remove at night and 
place before the fire to dry until morning. The hair titiiates 
the skin, thereby warming it some, and conducts the damp- 
ness to the cloth. 

Scrupulous cleanliness of feet and stockings, with hair soles, 
are the best means known to us of keeping the feet warm 
when they are not cold from decided ill health. A tight shoe 
will keep the feet " as cold as ice," when a loose fitting one 
will allow them to be comfortably warm. A loose woolen 
sock over a loose shoe will maintain more warmth than the 
thickest soled tight fitting boot. Never start on a journey in 
winter, nor any other time, with a new shoe. 

The true uses of the beautiful are to happify man, hence we 
shall never fail to find throughout the wide empire of the be- 
nificent Father of us all, that beauty has its uses ; or if those 
uses are not known to us now, a closer observation will discover 
them. Then spare, oh spare, the beautiful birds of the early 
spring time, and of the maturer summer; for while they de- 
light us with their sweet, glad twitterings, they perform a toil 
all day, which sturdy man, with all his wisdom and all his 
power would be wholly inadequate to accomplish. Time out of 
mind have we been told that the birds were the worst enemies 

The Birds of the Wood. 267 

of the hard working tiller of the soil, and with that impression, 
millions of these loving warblers have been remorsely, yes, 
gladly destroyed. But not long ago, a farmer, as observant as 
he was humane, shot a yellow-bird in his field, in order to con- 
vince a neighbor that birds were actually useful rather than 
destructive. On examining its little stomach, they found it 
contained two hundred wevils and only four grains of wheat. 
Birds like„our domestic fowls, thrive on flesh, and are the vo- 
racious destroyers of insects. 

But as sweetness of character is the steady attendant of be- 
nevolence in men, so there is a kindness in the little bosom of 
the feathered songster, which well accords with its bonny plu- 
mage, its beautiful voice, and its sterner utilities. 

The correspondent of a Washington paper relates, that no- 
ticing an extraordinary commotion near a bird's nest, he found 
that a mother-bird had been caught by the wing among the 
twigs of a tree ; her cries brought others, and when her efforts 
for release were unavailing, the other birds flew away, but 
after awhile returned, each bearing an insect of some kind, or 
other article of food, in its bill; some gave to the mother, 
others gave to her half-grown nestlings near by. "When the 
gentleman released the mother, there seemed to be a univer- 
sal jubilation for a short time, when the others flew away, and 
the mother-bird nestled among her young ones. 

Who that reads this beautiful incident will ever hurt a bird 
again, or allow children, or any person under them, to do it ? 

And if the little birds thus help one another in trouble, let 
not man, with his high relationship to angels, ever fail in aid- 
ing an unfortunate brother in his sorrow, in his poverty, or in 
the hour of crushing trial, or wasting illness. 


"Mr. Smith, why have you kept me waiting to let you in, 
until three o'clock in the morning ?" 

" It's a mistake, my dear, you don't know how to count, foi 
I heard the clock strike one just now, two or three times." 

26S HalVs Journal of Health. 


Subscribers will please remember that all subscriptions expire with 
the December number, and that in no single instance is out* Journal sent 
without being ordered and paid for, so that those who do not desire to 
take it another, year, need not be at the trouble and expense of writing to 
that effect. The editor studies how to keep in good health, and succeeds 
pretty well, having taken but one remembered dose of medicine in twenty 
years, and that was one of his own pills, and it not only cured him, but he 
has remained cured, has never lost a meal for want of an appetite, nor 
a night's sleep from sickness. One of our ways of keeping well is to 
keep in a good humor, to study how to secure a succession of pleasurable 
feelings, and how to avoid all jarrings, even of a slight character. Hence 
the request above — for consider what ajar it would be to open a letter, and 
instead of finding a dollar, find a discontinuance! But what a succession 
of pleasurable feelings to find old subscribers renewing, not only their re- 
mittances of money, but their expressions of good will and satisfaction, 
and as a proof of the same, sending the names of new subscribers, obtain- 
ed through their personal influence. While on the subject, we may name 
also, that another means of avoiding " disagreeables" is, when the first 
word or line of a letter indicates ill temper, not to throw it in the grate, 
but to close it at once, and lay it carefully away, to make " coals of fire," 
at some subsequent opportunity, which, by the way, is pretty sure to oc- 
cur ; and really it is a kind of a pleasure sometimes to " heap" them up 
sky. high!. 

Another Avay of ours is, whenever a letter is seen to be over a page, we 
turn to the writer's name, or the few last lilies, and determine by them 
whether to take any notice of it or not. We, cannot afford to read inter- 
minable letters, unless they are from our actual patients ; them we read 
with interest and care, because we are paid for it, and are anxious to know 
all about them. 

Subscribers are requested to look at one of the advertising pages,: and 
read the contents of the first five numbers of the Fikeside Monthly. Its 
object is to provide a monthly reading for families which will always be safe, 
practical, and pertinent to the times ; a publication which aims never to 
offend the religious sentiment of any evangelical christian ; a publication 
which, thou h not professedly religious, shall never be against religion, the 
Bible, or the Sabbath day. It is purposed to exclude fictitious reading, and 
confine its pages, at least for the present, to fact, to the great realities of 
life. We know of no similar publication in the Union. Such an one is 
needed, but we are doubtful about its being sustained. The useful and the 
true is not now largely sought for; fiction and frivolity is the fashion of 
the times, even in many excellent families. We have risked something, 
and are willing to lose something for the bare chance of iounding a pub- 
lication which may be' antagonistic to the pernicious influences of much of 
our periodical literature. . If any of our subscribers will lend their aid in 
our enterprise by subscribing to the "' Fireside Monthly," which is one dol- 
lar and fifty cents ayear, we will offer the inducement that two dollars sent 
previous to January 1st, 1860, will pay for the. Journal of Health aiic] the 
Fireside Monthly for one year from that date, and we are persuaded that a 
physical and moral result will be observed, which many times the money 
expended in ordinary ways would fail to secure, for the Journal and Fire- 
side labor to save the life, and soul, and secure the health of both body anfV 

gyPlease address all subscriptions for the year 1860, (sending fractions 
of a dollar in postage stamps) to < l HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH 





We aim to slioio how Disease may he avoided, a?id that it is best, when sickness 
co?nes, to take no Medicine without consulting an educated Physician. 

VOL. VI.] DECEMBER, 1859. [No. 12. 


A seventy-five cent volume called " Uses and Abuses of Air," 
has never yielded its talented author a dollar's profit, and yet 
it is one of the most practically useful books on that subject 
which we have seen. Rut it is not the taste of the times to 
patronize the books, papers, magazines, which are best calcu- 
lated to promote public good, and advance the true and per- 
manent interests of the masses. This is the reign of cheap 
literature. The great patronized now is, pictorial magazines, 
weeklies filled with wishey-washey love tales, or stories of 
the terrible, with "horrible" headings. Scarce anything 
attracts attention now, short of a " midnight murder," or a 
" shocking catastrophe." " Eugene Sue," "Hot Corn," and 
"Uncle Tom," with their exaggerated imaginings, sell by 
the scores oi thousands, pandering to the passions in morals, 
or in politics, stirring up brother to fiercer fight against 
his brother, or stimulating prurient searches after thirds which 
ought to remain unexposed ; while better books, Do^ks 
whose aim and end is to instruct the masses as to the pre- 
servation of health, the maintenance of good constitutions; 
which seek to invite the young to profitable industries, to ele- 
vating amusements, and refining associations, cumber the 
shelves of the philanthropic bookseller for years together. 
The Religious "Weekly made up of articles fit to be read in 
any assembly, purifying the heart, instructing the conscience, 
expanding the intellect, and moulding the morals for a higher 
sphere, leads a gasping life, existing from day to day ; while 
the flash journal, tilled with the most inane trash in part, and 

270 HalVs Journal of Health, 

in other part, feeding the mirth of the multitude with stale 
jests or newer " inventions" at the expense of the rich, the re- 
ligious and the good, these count their quarter of a million 
weekly sales. This will be the case just as long as the news- 
paper supplants the Bible, just as long as parents commit 
the religious instruction of their children to others, almost 
wholly to the hired governess, the Sunday school teacher and 
the occasional lecture of common instructors, too seldom turn- 
ing to the original fountain, the Revealed Word, consulting 
second hand authorities ; all fallible, none unprejudiced. 

The Bible, the Text Book, — the Parent, the Teacher, this 
must be the agency which men will at last come to ; this is 
the most practicable scheme for human amelioration. A dol- 
lar will buy the Bible; the teachings cost nothing, the com- 
pensation being that sweet love, that pure enjoyment, that de- 
licious intercommunion, which goes out and back from parent 
to child in such an occupation. With such instructions, in 
brief instalments, given kindly, lovingly, patiently, the daugh- 
ter never takes to the street, nor the son to the gutter ; the sister 
grows up pure, the brother grows up manly ; the " dishon- 
orable transaction," the " clandestine marriage," the " unhap- 
py match," never break up the peace, never wither the hopes, 
nor u blast the expectations" of such a domestic circle. It is 
not the children of this sort of folk who fill jails, people peni- 
tentiaries, crowd the hospitals and rend the air of asylums 
with the shrieks of insane occupants. ~No, no, no ! the frequen- 
ters of the church, the lecture room, and the prayer meeting; 
children who have memorized the catechism, and attended the 
Bible class, who learned to sing the "psalms, and hymns, and 
spiritual songs" of the olden time ; it is not from the company 
of these that annual drafts are made to replenish the ranks of 
the daily dying in the institutions just named. Recruits are 
furnished full fast from orphaned or neglected children, whose 
education is obtained in the street ; who run to see all the 
"fights," pilfer from huckster's stands, crowd around the show 
door for the chance of "slipping in," who attend militia 
musters and target shootings, who save their chance dimes for 
the circus, the negro singer, and the theatre, who " pitch 
quoits" with copper cents, and play marbles for "keeps," who 
delight in the strains of " Old Dan Tucker, Lucy Long, and 
Jim along Josey y" who take to the cigar at ten years of age, 

Hair Washes. 271 

and learn " to chew" even earlier ; who can " take a glass" in 
the manner of a finished gentleman, and order an oyster supper 
for a friend from the country with the air of a millionaire, and 
all before the " teens" are passed ; a little later, and lower 
down, comes the opera, (as now managed generally,) with 
plots founded on infidelity, debauchery and crime, with the 
club house, the Sunday afternoon " drive." By this time 
they learn to " discuss" questions, but never any higher up 
than the last play or novel, the new star or prima donna; 
in the absence of these they glorify free living, abnegate 
marriage, with low impertinences disparaging women, curs- 
ing the difficulties of divorce, and launching out in praises 
of free love. About this time the money is gone, if not sooner ; 
"position" lost, and character questionable, while the sheriff's 
warrant for forgery, or a ticket to the hospital for infamous 
disease closes their public life ; the short remnant of it still re- 
maining, to be passed in the felon's cell, or as the occupant of 
" a bed," one among surrounding thousands, where the groans 
of the daily dying, and the shrieks of those in mortal agony, 
are merely interludes in the drama going on in the heart ; the 
escapeless, the ceasless hugging of sharp-pointed memories. 
Parents, the moral is to you. See to it, that your children's 
reading is that which is useful, substantial and true, and that 
all their recreations be healthful as to the body, and as to the 
heart, refining and elevating. 


There are only two which are always safe, and always effi- 
cient, cold water and soap-suds ; the cold water once a day, 
the soap-suds once a week. 

About two years ago, it was established in a court of justice 
in New York City, that one of the best, as well as one of the 
most popular hair washes, was simply soap-suds colored and 
scented; any one ingredient could be left out, except the 

The most universally applicable treatment of the hair of 
boys, girls, and men, is as follows : — 

Make half a pint of soap-suds with pure white soap and 
warm water, on rising any morning ; bu t before applying it, 
brush the whole scalp well while the hair is perfectly dry, with 
the very best Russia bristle brush, scrub back and forth with 
a will, let not any portion of the surface escape. When brush 

272 IlaWs Journal of Health. 

ing the top and front, lean forward, that the particles may fall. 
After this operation is finished, strike the ends of the bristles 
on the hearth, or on a board, next pass the coarse part of the 
comb through the bristles ; next, brush or flap the hair back 
and forth with the hand, until no dust is seen to fall ; then 
with the balls of the fingers dipped in the soap-suds, rub the 
fluid into the scalp and about the roots of the hair ; do this 
patiently and thoroughly ; finally, rinse with clear water, 
and absorb as much of the water from the hair as possible 
with a dry cloth, then (after allowing the hair to dry a little 
more by evaporation, but not to dry entirely,) dress it as usualj 
always, under all circumstances, passing the comb through 
the hair slowly and gently, so as not to break any one off, or 
tear out any one by the roots. 

By this operation, the alkali of the soap unites with the na^ 
tural oil of the hair, and leaves it perfectly clean and beauti- 
fully silken, and with cold water washings of the whole head, 
and neck, and ears every morning, it will soon be found that 
the hair will " dress" as handsomely as if " oiled to perfection;" 
With! the great advantage" of conscious cleanliness, giving too, 
the general appearance of a greater profusion of hair than 
when it is plastered flat on the scalp, with variously scented 
hog's fat, as is the common custom. 

There is a general saying, that cold water " rots the hair." 
The statement is of itself absurd. The hair is rotted by the 
filth which is allowed to cake upon the scalp by virtue of the 
grease, natural and artificial, gathering dust of every descrip- 
tion, and making a composition, the very thought of which is 

Every mother who would pride herself in having her daugh- 
ter possess a beautiful head of hair, luxurious, long and silken 
at sweet nineteen, should forbid any application to the hair, 
except pure water as above, keeping it short, andallowing it to 
lie naturally on the forehead. 

A little girl after playing awhile with some other children, 
suddenly broke up the happiness of the company by going 
home in a passion, because " they wouldn't play my way." 
This may be set down to mere waywardness in a child, but 
there is much of it in grown persons, in the great plays of prac 

Pouting. 273 

tical life. There are persons of education, and culture, and of 
real benevolence, who refuse their co-operation in a good di- 
rection, simply because things are not done precisely in the 
way to suit themselves, and they go off to whine, and pout, 
and complain, pouring out there jeremiades in voluble profu- 
sion, or to waste their energies in crude experiments, or in im- 
possible endeavors. 

The " twelve," of olden time, while yet children in the 
knowledge of the kingdom, complained to the Master of an- 
other because " he followeth not us," is not of our u set," does 
not belong to our party, is not a member of our church, we 
are not acquainted with him, we know nothing about him. 
"Forbid him not" was the broad, and brotherly, and sugges- 
tive reply, embodying a generous principle of action for all 
time. Whoever does good, let him do it, bid him " God 
speed," " forbid him not." 

Some men lack ballast, self-willed, self-confident^ and with 
much apparent benevolence, are at the bottom ugly hearted. 
If a house is burning down, they will let it burn unless the 
fire is extinguished in precisely tht way which suits them. 
There is a case in point where some New York gentlemen en- 
couraged the establishment of a " coffee house," where any 
one could step in and take a cup of coffee at a small cost, 
with the privilege of reading useful books and newspapers at 
the same time, without additional expense, the object being to 
provide a substitute for drinking saloons, bar rooms and beer 
houses. It would scarcely be supposed that there could be 
any objection to such a plan. Yet it is opposed, and a substi- 
tute is offered thus : " Let us have reading rooms by all means, 
with pure cold water to give away, but nothing whatever to 
sell, and paintings and music free to all well behaved persons 
of both sexes ; the young ladies would attract the young gen- 
tlemen, and perhaps vice versa, without the aid of coffee." 
They oppose a literal coffee house, because they do not con- 
sider it radical enough ; it is not the way they would go about 
exterminating intemperance, for possibly, in their cold water 
fanaticism, they would contend that drinking coffee is almost 
as bad as drinking brandy. 

"Whenever we see a man doing good, let us regard him with 
a liberal spirit ; let us take it for granted that his motives are 
good, and " forbid him not," simply because he is not of the 

271 HaWs Journal of Health. 

same set, or sect, or party with ourselves. Let us help him 
on in so far as he is doing good, and still condemn the evil, for 
no man's conduct is wholly free from errors in principle, and 
practice too. So that if the system is rigidly enforced, that a 
man must be forbidden doing good, because his company, his 
motives, his principles do not precisely accord with our own, 
then must all good doing cease, and darkness, and moral death 
will settle over a ruined world. 

There is no more striking exhibition of human presumption 
and illiberality, than to malign any man, or body of men, to 
pervert their whole conduct, and make the good they do evil 
spoken of, simply because in some feature of their operations, 
there may be in the pouter's opinion, alack of wisdom or con- 

" We forbade him because he followeth not us." Here is 
human nature in one of its narrowest phases ; a feature which 
in the world's history has hindered much of good doing, thwart- 
ed much, antagonised much, the doers wherein will have much 
to answer for in the great day of reckoning. Let all then 
work with good workers %s far as they can, and not speak evil 
of their good. Where we cannot enforce total abstinence, let 
us do what we may to encourage a wise moderation. 


" I sincerely believe that the unbiassed opinion of most 
medical men of sound judgment and long experience is made 
up, that the amount of death and disasters in the world would 
be less if all disease were left to itself, than it now is under 
the multiform, reckless, and contradictory modes of practice, 
good and bad, with wlfich practitioners carry on their differ- 
ences at the expense of their patients." 

Such is the declaration of a Boston physician, who has pub- 
lished a book. We will venture the assertion that "most 
medical men of sound judgment and long experience,''' will 
give it as their " unbiassed opinion," that the writer of the 
above has maligned his brethren, and has degraded himself 
by uttering a sentiment so unjust and so foreign to the truth. 

Our own experience is that the longer we live, the more 
fully are we convinced of the value of medicine as a remedi- 
al agent in disease ; and such we will venture to say is the ex- 
perience of every practical physician in the land, of education, 

Abuse of Ifedicine. 275 

and of skill. And such we think is the opinion to-day, of Dr. 
Jacob Bigelow, of Boston town, of the noble old Bay State. 
In justice to the doctor, we are compelled to believe, that in 
writing the above sentiment, he got in a fog, and kept on 
writing, in the hope of seeing daylight, but failed to make his 
point, and closed in a kind of desperation, without knowing 
exactly what he did say, as the unregenerated lawyer who, 
on being unexpectedly asked to return thanks after dinner, 
couldn't exactly get at the "Amen," but ended by a " Res- 
pectfully, Yours." 

The abuse of medicine by the ignorant and unprincipled, 
more than counterbalances its good effects in the hands of edu- 
cated and skillful practitioners, is what the Doctor intended 
to say, but from some cause or other, he could'nt bring his 
mind to a focus. But even that statement is foreign to the 
truth in our opinion, for by the light which medical men have 
thrown out in their investigations as to health and disease, the 
average duration of human life has travelled up from twenty- 
one years in the sixteenth century, to forty-one in the nine- 
teenth ; or expressing it in another form, a child born at Ge- 
neva in the sixteenth century, would probably live five years, 
but born at the present moment, he would, with equal proba- 
bility, live forty-four years. All honor then to the Profession, 
to the Art, to the Science, which in three centuries has by its 
laborious investigations, and by the liberal diffusion of its 
light, largely aided to increase the duration of human life 
nearly nine times. 


If when the face is brought near anothers', the lips aro kept 
firmly closed there is no bad breath, that which comes from 
the nose being not perceptibly disagreeable. 

Much of the disagreeable odor of a late meal may be avoid- 
ed if the teeth and mouth are well rinsed with warm water, 
and the tooth brush is passed across the back part of the 

In some persons, a foetor of breath and of the feet alternate. 
In others, both are present at the same time. 

A foetid effluvia arises usually, if not alwnvs from three 
causes ; first it is hereditary, being connected with a scrofulous 

276 HalVs Journal of Health. 

taint; second, it arises from a want of personal cleanliness ; 
third, it attends a disordered stomach. The second and third 
suggest their own remedies. The first is a grievous and mor^ 
tifying misfortune to all sensitive minds, but it may be reme- 
died to a very considerable extent, by persistent habits of strict 
personal cleanliness, by large out door activities, personal re- 
gularities, and the temperate use of plain substantial food, 
carefully avoiding all gross and rancid articles of diet, suet, 
cheese, pies, puddings, smoked and fried meats, fish and the 
like, using often and efficiently the vapor or warm bath, with 
soap and plentiful friction. 



More persons died of consumption in New York City du- 
ring 1557, than in 1856. But judging from newspaper adver- 
tisements, we would suppose there was not the slightest neces- 
sity for a single individual thus to perish, who could raise a 
few three cent postage stamps, as two of them will purchase a 
" recipe" for the mastery of this terrible disease. The late and 
highly vaunted " medicated inhalation" that is, the drawing 
of the fumes of medicines into the lungs, and thus applying 
them to the very seat of the disease, although " it appears 
very reasonable" (to those who know nothing at all on the sub- 
ject,) is utterly inefficient, having in two years almost passed 
from public remembrance. 

What are we to think of the value of our medical schools, 
when the names of hundreds of young physicians were parad- 
ed in print as inquiring into the merits of the new practice ? 
It showed the mortifying fact, that multitudes of young men 
graduate, who are ignorant of the very first principles of the 
noble and humane art, the name of which they live but to 

And farther, it ought to read a lesson to editors not to lend 
their aid in building up a system of medicine, of the nature 
of which they are wholly ignorant. For it cannot be forgotten 
that almost every secular paper in New York, threw the weight 
of its influence, by commendatory editorials, towards inducing 
their readers to place themselves under the treatment ; some 

Consumption. 277 

of these editors receiving as much as three hundred and fifty 
dollars for a single advertisement, the " editorial notice" in- 
cluded. "We do not say that these editors propagated a delib- 
erate falsehood ; very likely they believed with the multitude 
that there was some truth in the " new practice," and that it 
appeared to them just as " reasonable" as it did to the most 
uneducated John Smith, but a true morality holds them res- 
ponsible to their readers for commending to them, ignorantly, 
a worthless remedy, just as responsible, only more seriously so, 
as for recommending an investment in an unsound company. 

All ought to have known that if it had been an efficient re- 
medy, educated physicians of all nations would have hailed it 
as a boon to humanity, and held up the discoverer as another 
Harvey or Je?mer, instead of which, a silent contempt has 
been the universal award. 

We repeat here our oft expressed opinion, that no remedy 
known to man has any radical, permanent efficiency over con- 
sumption, except so far as it promotes a healthy digestion of 
food ; whatever does that, makes the .first step towards the 
arrest and cure of the disease. But another step must betaken, 
or this first one will inevitably fall short of a desired result, 
and that second step is, large and moderate out-door activities. 
We cannot express the earnestness we feel in having these tw6 
ideas taken hold of, not only by the people, but by the medi- 
cal profession of all lands. 


Next to burning wood in a fire place on old fashioned " dog 
irons," mineral coal in an open grate makes the most cheerful 
and lively fire ; but as three-fourths of the heat goes up the 
chimney, various patterns of stoves and furnaces have been 
introduced as a matter of economy, because twenty dollars in 
money had to be expended,. to. get five dollars worth of warmth. 
An English board of health advises to make the grates broad- 
er, and not so deep, while by having a flue not over nine inch- 
es across, these advantages will be gained, a large part of the 
smoke will be consumed, a great deal of heat will be saved, 
and the tendency to smoke will be greatly diminished. 

278 • HalVs Journal of Health. 

The warmer a chimney is, the better it will draw, hence the 
chimney should be incorporated in the wall of the building, it 
should be on the south side of it, and if between two buildings, 
it will draw better than if at an exposed end. 

The flue of a chimney should be smooth on its sides, and 
should grow broader as it ascends, rather than narrower. 

A recent improvement in coal grates in burning the smoke 
and gas, and saving heat, is to" have the angle made by the 
back of the chimney, and the rear part of the flue perfect and 
tight, thus detaining the smoke and gas just over the fire long 
enough to be consumed, while any remnant left, travels three 
or four inches outward towards the room, and then ascends 
through a chink three or four inches deep just behind the arch. 


On - a mellow afternoon of the early fall, we read a tract for 
the first time which put us on a train of thought having in 
it the elements of the beautiful and the sad. Beautiful, be- 
cause it shows that there are grand workers on the earth's sur- 
face ; and not the less grand because they " choose not to let the 
left hand know what the right hand doeth," working in secret 
and rejoicing in that work, not for the human applause it will 
bring, but for the good it may do humanity, and for the suffer- 
ings it may avert from the brother man, some unknown bro- 
ther battling with life's toils and trials, its hardships and its 
bitter tears. Here is a man who is a stranger to the ineffable 
sweets of wife-love, but his heart must be in a good place, for 
it must love something, and it spreads itself out to cover all 

This tract is published and scattered abroad in thousands at 
the expense of the composer, thus making himself one of the 
army, whose work is not to murder, but to save and happify, 
and bless. We re-publish the tract in the sad remembrance of 
that larger multitude of workers who are -busy in pulling 
down, in destroying, in sowing the seeds of drunkenness, and 
prostitution, and crime : — 

The World? s Workers. 


Throw physic to tlis Dogs, I'll none of It. — ShaJcspeare. 


6) I P 
Or how to get rid of a Cold and its attendant ails and aches, viz., (C|] 
rheumatic pains, head ache, depression of spirits, etc. { 


g^j Take an hour's walk, regardless of the weather, immediate- 
ly before retiring to rest at night. Put on an overcoat, or 
two if necessary, and overshoes also, if the dampness of the 
weather requires it. With mouth closed, head erect, and 
with the shoulders thrown back, to enable you to breathe § 
the more freely, walk half an hour from home, and the other g) 
half back. Avoid all " Lager Bier Saloons," or drinking / 
places, Oyster Houses or Restaurants, on the way. Get S 
into bed at once upon reaching home ; cover up warmly, g 
and my word for it, you will be quite clear of your cold 
if a recent one, the next morning, besides having had a good 
night's rest. But should the cold still continue, repeat the 
walk the following evening, observing the same precautions, 
and the next evening if necessary, If you have a sore 
to throat or a tooth-ache, wrap a tippet around your throa^ 
V and the lower part of your face in addition to your other 
^covering, and keep the tippet on during the night, taking 
it off in the morning, but, if need be, keep it on during the 
following day, but do not take it off until you go to bed at 
_ night, or until the following morning. 

\L Having given the foregoing a test, for a series of years, 
I P and having thereby warded off all the serious results which 
|S inevitably follow neglected colds, I have saved myself the 
■Z necessity of taking medicine of any description, and from 
[P detention from business. 

p|| N. B. — Night air is said to be unhealthy. So it is, but 
^you will experience no ill effects from it. so long as you ip 
(L keep in motion, and do not stop by the way ! 
J V ESP" 3 The experience of one who may be met, any evening, 91 
on Broadway — stormy evenings not excepted — be- ^~ 
tween the hours of eight and nine o'clock, taking 
his accustomed hour's walk, before retiring to rest. 

280 HalVs Journal of Health. 


Half knowledge is the source of a large number of the er- 
rors and discomforts in practical life. We must have both the 
knowledge and the reason of a thing in order to derive the 
highest advantage from our intelligence. The consciousness 
of a mere fact is comparatively valueless, besides it is hard to 
remember. Knowing the reason of a thing aids very much in 
impressing it on the mind. Our domestic directions and in- 
structions should be oftener imparted in this manner than they 

We wish the habitual readers of our Journal to grow up in- 
telligent on health subjects. If we state a fact, or lay down 
a rule without a reason for it, some other person may give ad- 
vice in direct variance, and the reader be thus left in a state 
of betweenity, or he may give a reason, adequate in his own 
view, and thus mislead. 

We have advised persons that it is not well to drink cold 
water, or any other fluid, largely at meals ; if we must drink 
something, it should be warm rather than cold, especially if 
one is an invalid. A sip or two of cold water, now and then 
during a meal, is admissible to persons in good health. We 
have lately seen a statement from Orr's Chemistry of food 
and Diet, that drinking during meals is not an obnoxious habit. 
If the reader will look with us into a man's stomach during a 
meal, he can perhaps judge as well as we can as to the facts 
in the case. This ocular view of the stomach has been afford- 
ed to medical men at different times, and the facts are not to 
be disputed. A gun loaded with buck shot was accidentally 
discharged into the stomach, the parts healed, leaving a cavity 
which gave facilities for observation. 

The temperature of the stomach is about ninety-six degrees. 
A glass of cold water is about forty degrees more or less. 
When it is introduced into the stomach through the throat, it 
must diminish its temperature. But digestion cannot go on 
unless there is a heat of upwards of ninety degrees in the sto- 
mach ; hence when a man who is eating or has just eaten his 
dinner, drinks a glass of cold water, the process of digestion is 
seen to be arrested as suddenly as water ceases to boil when 
cold water is added, and the power of digestion remains ar- 
rested, until the water has been long enough in the stomach 

Eating and Drinking. 281 

to acquire an additional heat of some fifty degrees. This heat 
is abstracted from the body. Thus it is that persons of weak 
health on going to the table of a summer's day, abundantly 
warm, leave it in a chilly condition, from having partaken 
largely of cold water. Such is the result sometimes from an 
ordinary meal, in persons of poor health, without drinking 
anything cold. If the meal be a hearty one, and the person 
has but little vitality, and goes out in the cold soon after, he 
will most probably lose his life. This was the manner of the 
death of the Duke of "Wellington. He ate largely of venison, 
of a cold, damp, drizzly November day ; the stomach could 
not get heat enough out of the body to carry on digestion. 
The system was loaded down, chilled, and oppressed, inducing 
stupor and eventuating in death next day perhaps. "We know 
a gentleman of regular habits, who watched over himself with 
extraordinary care, approaching his eightieth year, J*. "W. S., 
the associate and personal friend of Henry Clay, a half a 
century before. He ate a hearty breakfast and walked to his 
office, two miles distant, the thermometer near zero, with a 
cutting wind from the river, and nothing to break its force ; 
this double draft upon his vitality, or rather treble one, the 
walk in a wind, the coldness of the atmosphere, and the full 
stomach, at his great age — the assets — the supply of warmth, 
was overdrawn ; in other words, he was thoroughly chilled, 
fell into a kind of stupor and died in two or three days. There- 
fore, exposure to severe cold immediately after eating, is al- 
ways dangerous. The slightest chilliness after a meal, should 
drive any one to the fire, there to remain until it has passed 
entirely away. "With these indisputable facts before him, the 
reader must see that drinking freely of cold water at meals, 
immediately arrests digestion, arrests a natural process of the 
bodily functions ; and to arrest nature in such a work cannot 
be beneficial, and to persons not in full health has been fatal, 
and may be so again. 

To invalids we say, if you drink anything at ail at your 
meals, let it be hot, and not much of that even. An ordinary 
teacup full is enough, for it is seen that when any fluid is 
drank at or soon after meals, even water, the watery particles 
must be removed from the stomach before the process of di- 
gestion is resumed. 

282 Hairs Journal of Health. 


Never go to bed with cold or damp feet. . 

In going into a colder air, keep the mouth resolutely closed, 
that by compelling the air to pass eircuitously through the 
nose and head, it may become warmed before it reaches the 
lungs, and thus prevent those shocks and sudden chills which 
frequently end in pleurisy, pneumonia, and other serious forms 
of disease. 

Never sleep with the head in the draft of an open door or 

Let more cover be on the lower limbs than on the body. 
Have an extra covering within easy reach in case of a sudden 
and great change of weather during the night. 

Never stand still a moment out of doors, especially at street 
corners after having walked even, a short distance. 

Never ride near the open window of a vehicle for a single 
half minute, especially if it has been preceded by a walk ; 
valuable lives have thus been lost, or good health permanent- 
ly destroyed. 

Never put on a new boot or shoe in beginning a journey. 

Never wear India rubbers in cold dry weather. 

If compelled to face a bitter cold wind, throw a silk hand- 
kerchief over the face, its agency is wonderful in modifying 
the cold. 

Those who are easily chilled on going out of doors, should 
have some cotton batting attached to the vest or other gar- 
ment, so as to protect the space between the shoulder blades 
behind, the lungs being attached to the body at that point ; 
a little there is worth five times the amount over the chest in 

Never sit for more than a minute at a time with the back 
against the fire or stove. 

Avoid sitting against cushions in the backs of pews in 
churches, if the uncovered board feels cold, sit erect without 
touching it. 

Never begin a journey until breakfast has been eaten. 

After speaking, singing or preaching in a warm room in 
winter, do not leave it for at least ten minutes, and even then 
close the mouth, put on the gloves, wrap up the neck, and put 

laking Cold. 283 

on cloak or overcoat before passing out of the door; the neg- 
lect of these has laid many a good and useful man in a pre- 
mature grave. 

Never speak under a hoarseness, especially if it requires an 
effort, or gives a hurting or a painful feeling, for it often results 
in a permanent loss of voice, qr life long invalidism. 


A large number of fatal winter diseases result from taking 
cold, and often from such slight causes, apparently, as to ap- 
pear incredible to many. But, although the causes are various, 
the result is the same, and arises from the violation of a single 
principle, to-wit, cooling off too soon after exercise. Perhaps 
this may be more practically instructive if individual instan- 
ces are named, which, in the opinion of those subsequently 
seeking advice in the various stages of consumption, were the 
causes of the great misfortune, premising that when a cold is 
once taken, marvellously slight causes serve to increase it for 
the first few days, causes which, under ordinary circumstan- 
ces, even a moderately healthful system would have easily 
warded off. 

Rachel the tragedienne, increased the cold which ended her 
life, by insufficient clothing in the cars, in travelling from New 
York to Boston ; such was her own statement. 

The immediate cause of the last illness of Abbott Laurence, 
the financier, and the philanthropist, was an injudicious change 
of clothing. 

An eminent clergyman got into a cold bed in mid-winter 
within fifteen minutes after preaching an earnest discoure, he 
was instantly chilled, and died within forty-eight hours. 

A promising young teacher walked two miles for exercise, 
and on returning to his room, it being considered too late to 
light a fire, sat for half an hour reading a book, and before he 
knew it, a chill passed over him. The next day he had spit- 
ting of blood, which was the beginning of the end. 

A most promising and active clerk in a " Russia house" 
of great wealth in New York, was caught in a rain in going 
to the store, where he found a dozen or more letters which 

284: IlaWs Journal of Health. 

had to be answered by the steamer which was to start at noon. 
Being in most robust health, never having been sick an hour 
for years, he thought he would "get through with his letters 
first," before removing his dampened garments, as it was in 
mid-summer. Next day he had a hemorrhage of nearly a 
quart of blood, and at the end of four months he is scarcely 
able to " crawl out of the house." 

A lady walked from " Stewart's" to Union Square on a 
beautiful spring day. On reaching home, she immediately 
changed her dress, in a room where there was no fire. The 
same night she was surprised by an attacked of asthma, which 
very nearly proved fatal within a week. 

A mother sat sewing for her children to a late hour in the 
night, and noticing that the fire had gone out, she concluded 
to retire to bed at once ; but thinking that she conld " finish" 
in a few minutes, she forgot the passing time, until an hour 
more had passed, and she found herself" thoroughly chilled," 
and a month's illness followed to pay for that one hour. 

Many a cold, cough and consumption is excited into action 
by pulling off the hat or overcoat as to men, and the bonnet 
and shawl as to women, immediately on entering the house in 
winter, after a walk. An interval of at least five or ten minutes 
should be allowed, for however warm or " close" the apart- 
ment may appear on first entering, it will seem much less so 
at the end of five minutes, if the outer garments remain as they 
were before entering. Any one who judiciously uses this ob- 
servation, will find a multifold reward in the course of a life- 


In the editor's book on Health and Disease — the third edi- 
tion of which is called for within nine months after its first 
issue — i s an article on this subject, which ought to be read and 
studied, and practically observed from early childhood by every 
human being. No person can be well long who does not have 
one action of the bowels every twenty -four hours, and to 
maintain a healthful regularity by means of nakiral agencies, 
such as by the ordinary food and drink is of the utmost impor- 
tance to all. Some time in December, the third edition will 

Constipation. 285 

be issued. An v of our subscriber sending to the editor one 
dollar, will receive it by mail, post-paid. But for those who 
may not feel inclined, or able to purchase the volume, we ad- 
vise that whenever the bowels fail to act at the accustomed 
time, do not eat an atom of anything until they do act ; in the 
meanwhile, drink as largely of cold water or herb tea as possi- 
ble, keeping about in the open air* or follow steadily the ordi- 
nary avocations. It rarely happens that the fasting need be 
continued longer than twelve or fifteen hours ; then eat mo- 
derately for a day or two ; this is greatly better than the sim- 
plest medicine. 

Any one having the tiniest mite of common sense, ought to 
know that if we continue to eat when there is no outlet, there 
must soon be a blow up in some direction. A lawyer in this 
city, a man of talent, energy and high 'character, assured us 
that until he saw our book; he imagined, and acted accord- 
ingly, that the best way to do u when constipated, was to eat 
more, and push it out." The result was frequent attacks of 
painful and dangerous disease. 


"We wish our subscribers would "hurry up" their renewals, 
and busy themselves in sending additional names enough to 
make us rich. We had a real old fashioned cry, a boyish boo- 
hoo last Sunday afternoon, at Mr. Pease's Five Point Mission, 
with a Cincinnati " Father." 

Mr. Smith was the speaker ; can't say whether it was John 
or Joe, he only said he was Smith, and everybody knows 
Smith. He was not a citizen. He was describing the pain- 
ful and fruitless efforts which he knew some of the fallen sons 
and daughters of misfortune to be making, to get employment, 
so that they might stand up again, and be men and women 
once more, but they were doomed! — no man would "hire 
them," and they had to sin or starve ! A dreadful alternative ! ! 

If we should be made rich by the industrious efforts of our 
present subscribers to increase our list, we would pay our just 
debts, and crow a whole j r ear. Meanwhile, we would go to 
work and scatter our fortune, (as we have scattered fortunes 

286 HalVs Journal of Health. 

before,) for what's the use of a fortune if you don't do some- 
thing with it ? The second item in the programme would be 
to invest money enough in the English iunds to give each of 
our daughters a small annuity, payable quarterly, and which 
by no act of theirs could be transferable during their life time. 

Our only boy, Robert Stephen, we would leave to hoe his 
own row, by the aid of a fair education and a good trade. 

The third step would be to lease for a term of years, rooms 
of large stores and warehouses in different parts of 1ST e<w York, 
and tit them up cozily for purposes of religious worship, morn- 
ing, noon and night, on Sundays. Everything should be cheer- 
ful, comfortable, and very plain, with arm chair seats for five 
hundred persons. There should be a prayer book with plain 
binding, white page, and large letters, for each seat, with a 
plain, common sense,* pious minister, of any evangelical de- 
nomination, to officiate. In front of him there should be three 
men singers, and nine women singers, who should be all hand- 
some and young, with fine and cultivated voices. No hymn 
should be over three verses, and no sermon over half an hour, 
no prayer over half a page, and that should be read. O ! the 
profanations we have witnessed in attempts to be voluble and 
eloquent in prayer ! — We are not an Episcopalian 

These " upper room" churches should be free to every son 
and daughter of want, misfortune or crime. At the end of each 
service, a " sandwich" should be given to each person on 
leaving the house, or, in place of that, a Bible tract, that is, 
a single piece of paper with a hymn and a praj^er on one side, 
and a scripture incident or narration, "without note or com- 
ment," on the other ; besides these, arrangements should be 
made by which those who were really needy, should be placed 
in situations where they could help themselves, if they were 
willing to work, and willing to do their very best, for very 
scant wages, until time was allowed to estimate their value, 
for it is no charity to give a trifling person high wages ; and 
it is a far greater charity to place it in the power of persons to 
earn money, than to give them money, for three times out of 
lour, money given to the poor, is worse than money thrown 
away ; at least it is our observation, that money gotten with 
only the effort of receiving it, is never duly appreciated, or 
wisely spent. 

A Fire on the Hearth. 287 

If any of our readers have a spare dime or dollar for the 
poor, they can give it to the society for the relief of " poor 
widows with small children ;" none of the officers are paid, 
nor do they ever give money, nor anything else, without a 
personal enquiry at the place where these poor persons live, as 
to their character, and their habits of life ; if everything is 
satisfactory, and they show a disposition to industry and tidi- 
ness, food or clothing is given them in small quantities at a 
time, and at regular short intervals. 


How it carries us back to the days of h'appy childhood, when 
roaring wood fires blazed high up the chimney, with the sha- 
dows of flame flickering on the wall ; pussy cat in one corner, 
the dog in the other, and the children sprawling about promis- 
cuously, some reading, some tittering, some nodding, and all 
happy ! 

Ever since we came to New York, we have had " a longing 
and a sighing" for the leeks and onions of Egypt, the peculiar 
institution not excepted. We have, as to fires, made all sorts 
of experiments and changes, with portable furnaces, and im- 
portable ; grates, and no grates ; ten plate stoves, and stoves 
with no plates at all, and at long last, we have gotten back to 
first principles, a fire on the hearth.* Here, in our office, at 42 
Irving Place, New York, we have the greatest uniquity in 
Gotham, a hard coal fire burning fiercely, flat on the hearth, on 
a level with the floor, with a great flaring jam, capacious enough 
to receive our four, from twelve, down to six, with the upper 
and the lower house, and " Samuel" and grandmother besides 
with room to spare for any welcome " prophet" who may 
chance to call, for the ever ready " chamber." 

There is no visible " blower," very little dust, and abso- 
lutely no gas. The ashes need removing but onCe a year. 
By the extra heat, pure air direct from out doors, is warmed 
and conveyed into a room above, without the possibility of 
meeting with a red hot metallic surface, or with any corrupt- 
ing source whatever, it is simply pure air warmed. To any 
one subscribing at our office for Hall's Journal of Health for 
18G0, we will exhibit this rare sight free of charge ! ! All are 

2SS- IlaWs Journal of Health. 

earnestly invited to " come and see." To those who dislike 
furnace heat, this open, low down, air tight, easily regulated 
grate, with its large broad bed of burning coals, will be a 
great desideratum, and yet it 13 the only one in New York. 


A good man says he knew two families who lived within a 
few minutes walk of each other, both were respectable, and 
rich ; each had seven children, five sons, and two daughters ; 
each lost a son early. The parents of one were eminently 
pious, and gave to their children a strictly religious education, 
requiring them to work hard while pursuing their studies ; the 
parents of the other were fashionable people, the " elite" of 
the village, they were generous, honorable, and high minded, 
their children were petted, and indulged, and knew no family 

A third of a century has passed away, and all the parents 
have gone to their long home. Those of one family living to 
fatuity and garrulous old age, their wealth all gone; the others 
died with peace and plenty all around them, all their surviv- 
ing children living in abundance, and usefulness, and honor ; 
three of the four sons being ministers of the gospel, working, 
faithful men ; two others are officers in the church, to which 
they are morally and pecuniarily pillars. Of the other family, 
only one daughter survives ; two sons blew their brains out, 
another cut his throat, after having killed several men at inter- 
vals of several years, and having been a longtime the terror 
of the town. 

As a means then of physical, as well as moral health, a con- 
sistent religious training is of the first importance, literally 
giving "promise of the life that now is, and of that which is 
to come." To those, therefore, of our readers to whom we may 
speak for the last time, this being the closing number of the 
present volume, and they not choosing to renew, we give this 
parting advice ; — if you wish your children to grow up to be 
healthy and useful, a comfort and an honor to yourselves, and 
the support of society, teach them in their youth, how to pray, 
and how to work, by praying and working with, and for them ; 

Anal Itchings. 289 

because, while the physical industries impart health, the mo- 
ral teachings restrain, as well as indispose them, to those in- 
temperances and indulgences which destroy the body and de- 
base the soul. Be assured that it is from praying parents that 
children come who are to be the lights of their age, and the 
men of the times. As proof, note that of one hundred students 
at the Theological Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina, 
ninety-nine received their first religious impressions from 
praying mothers. 


This is a malady which is never referred to, except in pro- 
fessional works, and yet it is an ailment which gives an incred- 
ible amount of annoyance,' coming on as it does on retiring to 
bed, and continuing nightly for many years, making sleep im- 
practicable, sometimes for many hours together. It is some- 
times a dyspeptic symptom, at others, it arises from a multi- 
tude of small worms at the parts. As an unprofessional man 
is not likely to know the real cause, and yet may mot like to 
ask for advice, strict cleanliness and frequent ablutions are es- 
sential ; then regulate the diet, living mainly on cold bread, 
fruits, and fresh meats. But for instantaneous relief, inject 
a teaspoonful of camphor water, or dip the fore-finger in the 
water, and apply it. One or two applications are often suf- 

Or apply twice a day, an ointment made of sixty grains of 
calomel, and a heaping teaspoonful of hog's lard, then powder 
with camphorated starch, made by mixing intimately a dram 
of camphor with four drams of starch. 


How it warps the judgment, how it eats out the soul, how 
it kindles into fierce flame the worst passions of our nature, 
how it magnifies to mountain proportions, the veriest trifle 
which, in better and nobler moments, would have been passed 
over with an indifference which would not have given it a 
second thought. How mean it is too, to mope, and fume, and 

290 HalVs Journal of Health. 

fret tor half a night about a little grievance which, if it had 
been committed with the utmost deliberation, should have 
been passed over with a magnanimous forgetfulness. But 
when it is remembered that most frequently the offence is ima- 
ginary, or has arisen from thoughtlessness or inadvertence, 
the poor fretter becomes the object of our commisseration. 
Human life is too short, it is too holy a thing to be frittered 
away in cherishing animosities or in recording wrongs. 


During the last week of October, eighteen hundred and 
fifty-nine, of all the persons who died in Boston more than 
one third were the victims of consumption, and yet, the 
Bostonians account themselves the most learned, refined, 
and cultivated, in all this wide land. Few Greenlanders die 
of the terrible malady ; not two per cent, of the deaths in the 
City of Mexico are of consumption, so that this fell disease 
does not appear to be the peculiar child of heat or cold or 
latitude, it is founded in unwise habits of life ; unwisdom 
in eating, in drinking, in recreations, in exposures, in the daily 
habits of business and social life. \ The Bostonians seem to 
have made as unfortunate a use of their self-claimed intelli- 
gence in the preservation of the physical health of their city, 
as they have in their religions. It is from Boston that the 
keenest shafts against the Christian religion have been sped ; 
orthodoxy, the faith of the fathers of the olden time, is the 
target of renegade sons, and save the mark, of daughters too. 
When a minister's daughter and a minister's son so write that 
the uncircumcised come up, and catching them gladly by the 
hand exclaim, with beaming'eyes, "Brother!" may we not 
inquire whether self complacency is not a physical and moral 
nuisance which ought to be abated " vi et armis" 


Fast men, convivial men, men who love to " sport'," gener- 
ally have a short life, although it is apparently a merry one, 
for the bottle is an inseparable companion; in some term or 

Corns Cured, 291 

other, brandy or wine is an indispensable item. Twelve years 
ago, a sporting party in one of its. convivial moods buried a 
bottle of liquor, with the agreement that the survivor of them 
all, should repair to. the spot, dig it up, and drink it to their 
memories. A few days ago, the. last man performed the sad 
task. Only twelve years ago, and of all that merry company 
a single man remains ! A temperate life, a life of religion 
expressing itself : in daily good doing would have told a very 
different story. i>£8 J 


The safest, the most accessible, and the most efficient cure 
of a corn on the toe, is to double a piece of thick soft buck- 
skin, cut a hole in it large enough to receive the corn, and 
bind it around the toe. If, in addition to this, the foot is soak- 
ed in warm water for five or more minutes every morning and 
night, and a few drops of sweet or other oily substance are 
patiently rubbed in on the end after the soaking, the corn will 
almost infallibly become loose enough in a few days to be 
easily picked out with the finger nail ; this saves the necessity 
of paring the corn, which operation has sometimes been fol* 
lowed with painful and dangerous symptoms. If the corn 
becomes inconvenient again, repeat the process at once. 


The eminent lecturer and missionary relates that for forty 
years a fanatical Hindoo cultivated the growth of a finger nail, 
and that he found its measure to be thirteen inches and a half. 

The finger nails grow their whole length in a few months 
— faster in summer than in winter. They should be trimmed 
once a week slowly and composedly, with a pair of sharp 
blunt-end scissors, closer at the ends than at the sides, thus 
preventing the skin from rising, causing as to the toes, that 
most distressing ailment calbd in-growing toe nail. Accu- 
mulations under the ends of the nails should not be removed 
by any metallic substance, but by a piece of soft wood, or 
which is still better, by a thorough washing of the hands. 
We have seen "beauty and the beast" united, in a handsome 
face, and a suggestive rim of black at the ends of the fingers. 

292 IlalVs Journal of Health. 


Que editorial brethren are respectfully requested to give 
notice that the Journal of Health begins its Seventh Volume 
with January, and that now is a good time to subscribe, send- 
ing their subscriptions to Dr. W. W. Hall, New- York, 

The Messrs. Fowler & Wells, 308 Broadway, New York, 
have just published Hints Towards Physical Perfection, or 
the Philosophy of Human Beauty; showing how to retain 
and acquire bodily symmetry, health and long life. By Dr. 
H. Jacques, pp. 244, 75 cts., 1859. This book contains much 
that is useful, true and safe. 

" The Eight Word in the Bight Place," 214, 18mo., by 
the same publishers ; 50 cents. Being a pocket dictionary 
and reference book, about writing for the press, punctuation, 
proof reading, synonyms, technical terms, mottos, foreign 
words and phrases. It is one ot the most unexceptionably 
useful publications ever issued by that house. 

The Christian Beview, (Baptist,) $3.00 a year. Edited by 
Rev. Drs. E. Gr. Robinson and V. R. Hotchkins, and published 
by Sheldon & Co., at 115 Nassau street, New York. It enters 
its twenty-fifth volume, and is one of the veryablest religious 
reviews published in this country. 

Leonard Scott & Co., 79 Fulton street, New York, repub- 
lish, promptly .and in beautiful style, for $10.00 a year, Black- 
wood's Monthly Magazine and the four Quarterlies, that is, 
the London, Bdinburgh, Westminster and North British, or 
separately, $3.00 a year. 

The Pacific Expositor, edited by Rev. W. A. Scott, D. D., 
of San Francisco, monthly, $3.00 a year, has, as we perceive 
from our exchanges, met with a wide and cordial reception. 
It richly merits, and we trust it will receive a prompt and wide 

Our ^Daughters. Mrs. T. P. Smith, the accomplished Prin- 
cipal of Mystic Hall Seminary, near Boston, Mass., has as- 
sumed the direction of the Washington (D. C.) Female Insti- 
tute. Her capability and energy will achieve success in her 
new enterprize, as it has clone before in New England. 

Buttermilk. Some of the medical journals are advocating 
the free use of buttermilk, as having a large efficiency in en- 
abling persons to grow old without that stiffness of joint and 
limb so common to the aged, and that it is greatly promotive 
of the general health of all. We can testify to two things, 
that we are very healthy, and that we love and use butter- 
milk daily from the New Jersey and Rockland County Milk 
Association, in Tenth street, near Broadway ; but^ we can't 
conscientiously or wisely say, whether buttermilk gives health 
or not, for we were well enough before we commenced drink- 
ing it, and are well enough still. We can, however, say this, 
that it does not appear to be hurtful, which is more than can 
be asserted of beer, gin, wine, brandy, whisky, coffee, tea, to- 
bacco and swill milk.